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November 15, 1935 - Image 2

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1935-11-15

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U. S. Urged To
JoinLeague By
Prof. Slosson
Allen Criticizes Method
Of Inventory In Press
Club Address
(Continued from Page 1)
"does not involve us in international
cooperative responsibilities which run
squarely counter to the detached
neutrality for which I speak.
"The Kellogg Pact was a declara-
tion of faith . . . not a contract for
mutual action. A treaty for outlaw-
ing war cannot become a contract for
making war on a wholesale scale," he
continued. He then quoted a wire
from Senator William E. Borah,
(Rep., Ida.), on the question of mu-
tual action responsibilities.
"I agree with you entirely as to the
Kellogg Pact. I can see no possible
construction which would lend sup-
port to the theory of League sanc-
tions. Neither in letter nor in spirit
will it bear that construction," Sen-
ator Borah stated in his reply.
"Do we thus desert the cause of
peace in not cooperating with the
League?" Senator Vandenberg asked.
"We do not! Our own independent
neutrality formula is the most em-
phatic attack ever made upon war
as-an instrumentality of national pol-
icy. It quarantines war as an insti-
tution. It abandons all idea of na-
tural profit out of war - which is
more than any other land on earth
has done.
Devoted To Own Peace
"While we are greatly devoted to
world peace, we are devoted first of
all to our own peace," the speaker
concluded. "We have learned that
inadequate and inconclusive neutral-
ity leads into, rather than out of
"I am not interested in determina-
tions tof war or peace for the Amer-
ican people on the basis of trade con-
siderations or monetary gain . . . I
claim for the new policy a degree of
honorable and pacific hope that, by
minding our own business, we may
help save America from wars that
need be none of our concern."
A viewpoint diametrically opposed
to Senator Vandenberg's insistence
that hope for American peace lay
only in independent action was ad-
vanced at the general session of the
Press Club yesterday afternoon by
Prof. Preston W. Slosson of the his-
tory department, who urged not only
that the United States cooperate with
the League of Nations, but that
America should enter the League and
help formulate its policy.
"The best way for the United
States to ensure peace would be for
the United States to enter the
League," Professor Slosson stated.
"In the first place it would allow us
a controlling voice in League policy,
and in the second place it would never
allow a policy to arise conflicting
with our interests."
Problem Of Neutral Trade
"The neutrality problem is largely
one of neutral trade," the speaker
declared, adding that it had been
made acute by the Italo-Ethiopian
combat. Only twice, he pointed out,
has the United States intervened in
European wars: in 1812 in the war be-
tween Great Britain and Napoleon,
and in 1917 in the World War.
"In both cases our entry was dic-
tated by our efforts to maintain neu-
tral rights-freedom of the seas,"
Professor Slosson maintained. "In
1917 we were defending our rights to
sell munitions of war to any belliger-
ent in a position to buy them. Now
our policy forbids it."

He explained the difference be-
tween our policy and that of the
League by likening the sanctions to
boycotts, and the American neutral-
ity to an embargo only on one class
of product: contraband.
"In law we are neutral, in fact we
are not," he continued. "Whether
the neutral refrains from trade or
not, his action in so doing will hurt
one belligerent and help the other,
since the two cannot be equal."
Envisions Italo-League War
The speaker then set up as a hypo-
thesis military sanctions or a block-
ade against Italy on the part of the
League Powers, eventually leading to
war. He pointed out the conflict
which would then arise if the United
Sates maintained its right to trade
with Italy.
"Are there any dangers in our sit-
uation?" he asked in enlarging upon
this point. "They would arise only
if the League declares a boycott on
Italy, in which case they would arise
from the clashing of League sanc-
tions and the United States neutral-
ity policy. In that case, our neutrali-
Downtown, North of Postoffice

Will Repetition Of Scenes Like This Occur Soon?

-Associated Press Photo.
Tension increased in Shanghai, China, over the slaying of a Japanese marine as new incidents, including
the window smashing of a Japanese-owned store by a Chinese mob, arose to complicate the situation. Hundreds
of Chinese, fearful of reprisals, fled the Chapei district for the international settlement, using the bridge
shown above. This picture was taken during the 1932 Sino-Japanese conflict. Note soldiers behind the
sandbag barricade at the right.
Planstt Relate
Lecture Facts To Present Realities

Auto Deaths
On Increase
In Michigan
Reports Indicate Greatest
Number Of Fatalities In
Last Three Years
Death has been taking anything
but a holiady, the figures released by
the State Safety Council on traffic
fatalities in Michigan for 1935 show.
Traffic deaths in the state will run
in excess of the total for any of the
past three years if the present rate
is maintained, the report shows.
The total number of fatalities in
state traffic accidents was 1,222 in
1932, and 288 of these occurred in
Detroit and 934 outside of the city.
In 1933 these were reduced to a total
of 921 deaths of which 295 were in
Detroit and 626 outside the metropol-
itan area.
There was an increase in the total
deaths for 1934 to 943, with 331 in
Detroit and 612 in the state outside
of Detroit, and a steady in-
crease in the proportion of deaths in
Detroit has been noted for the years
of 1933 and 1934.
Figures on the number of fatali-
ties during the first eight months of
1935 show that there was a total of
918, with deaths in Detroit 189 but
increasing outside the city to 749 for
the period, or to more than the en-
tire year of either 1933 or 1934.
The tabulations of the safety coun-
cil also shows a marked rise in drunk-
en drivers involved in accidents.
As against a comparatively minor
number of persons involved in acci-
dents while under the influence of
liquor in 1932 and 1933, there were
1,733 drivers last year involved in
accidents resulting in injuries to per-
sons or property damage, and this
year, up to Sept. 1, there were 1,469.
To counteract this mounting num-
ber of accidents the Michigan State
Police, and various cities of the state,
including Detroit, Flint, Grand Rap-
ids, and Muskegon ,are sponsoring
councils, safety leagues, and "Drive
Safely" meetings.
As a result of the drive in Detroit,
following three weeks of intensive
work in the interests of safety, an
extra ordinary three-day respite from
traffic deaths was obtained, which,
however, was terminated Sunday
night, when the 299th Detroit traffic
victim of 1935 was killed.
Angell To Discuss
Student Problems
All students are invited to Lane
Hall at 4:30 p.m. today to hear Prof.
Robert C. Angell of the sociology de-
partment discuss the sociological and
psychological problems confronting
University students, it was announced
last night. I
Miriam Hall, Grad., chairman of
the Student Christian Association
committee on social study and action,
will be in charge of the discussion.

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LOST: Wednesday night: amethyst
ring. Valuable to owner. Phone
9080. 107
LOST: Nasau wrist watch near An-
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Speech Teachers-I T0
Hold Convention
Prof. G. E. Densmore of the speech
department, executive secretary of
the National Association of Teachers
of Speech, announced yesterday that
the twentieth annual convention of
the Association will be held in Chi-
cago from Dec. 30 through Jan. 1.
The Association, which publishes
the Quarterly Journal of Speech at
the University. will meet in joint
session with the American Speech
Correction Association and the Na-
tional Theater Conference.
Arleigh B. Williamson of New York
University, and president of the as-
sociation has a iounced that a part
of the session will be devoted to a
celebration of the twentieth anniver-
sary. All of the activities of the
group will be held in the Stevens
Hotel. __ _

Classified Directory

Declares Students' Foreign
Attitude Is Too Cynical,
Yet Too Idealistic
"The factual knowledge acquired
by the students in lecture courses was
unrelated in their minds to present
This was the conclusion arrived at
by Dr. Karl Polanyi of Vienna and
brought to light at the conven-
tion of the Institute of International
Education recently attended by Dr.
William W. Bishop, University li-
brarian, who is a trustee of the In-
stitute. Dr. Polanyi visited and lec-
tured at 24 colleges and universities
in the southern states sponsored by
the Institute which published his
"Reflections On A Visit to Southern
Colleges" in the pamphlet "Extra-
mural Lectures."
This political scientist, author, and
lecturer explained in his analysis his
conception of the mentality of the
students by remarking on their in-
ability to correlate history to present
conditions. "History was past; the
problems of today were in the pres-
ent. There was no connection be-
ty policies would never ensure peace,
for they must clash with those of
other powers.
"Therefore it would be best for the
United States to be on the inside of
the League looking out."
A criticism of the lack of proper in-
ventory and sorting of land in Mich-
igan was expressed by Prof. Shirley
W. Allen of the School of Forestry
and Conservation at the general ses-
ion of the University Press Club of
Michigan in the Union yesterday
"No truth has been more disre-
garded than that lad may be best
used if it can first be subjected to
inventory and sorting," Professor Al-
len said. "Lack of this is responsible
for human failures, deserted farms,
and bankrupt local governments."
Among the land reforms needed in
Michigan, Professor Allen listed the
following: re-establishment of the
Land Economic Survey; soft pedal-
ing of our thinking of recreation as
pulling us out of our economic diffi-
culties; and pushing the popularity of
the rural zoning law.
The now dead Land Economic Sur-
vey was highly praised by Professor
Allen for its work in classifying and
sorting out land for proper usage.
While the board was in existence it
surveyed 18 counties and a large num-
ber of projects, he said. The State
Planning Commission, he added, also
died because it was misunderstood.
and tea room
-- Special
615 East William Street

tween them. Their knowledge of in-
ternational law and world affairs was
entirely academic."
Dr. Polanyi remarked that al-
though his function was to teach, heI
had also learned a great deal about
American concepts, ideas and meth-
ods. He comprehended the attitude
of a country free from the fear of
sudden aggression; "the educational
achievement of a college system that
is raising the average level of attain-
ment in this country beyond anything]
known before; the social importance
of a type of higher education that
almost invariably combines both the
physical and the mental training of
the average student."
Concerning the students interest in
foreign affairs, Polanyi was surprised
to find it so widespread and of a
spontaneous, unconscious and in-
stinctive quality. But he remarked
that the academic knowledge in for-
eign affairs was of the wrong kind.
In explaining this he said the con-
cepts and valuations dominating the
minds of these students were "a most,
curious mixture of an unrealistic
idealism and a super-realistic cynic-
ism." Good will and understanding
as a means of avoiding wars were un-
critically overrated as was the ca-
pacity of selfish sectional trade in-
terests to force wars upon otherwise
peaceful communities.
Outlook Provincial
The entire outlook was provincial,
he said, as in relation to the ques-
tion of racial minorities in Europe.
The students failed to understand
this problem since they compared it
to the problem of racial differences
in America.
"Paradoxically enough, in the
minds of the students the two ex-
tremes of idealistic illusionism and
credulous cynicism seemed to mike
one consistent whole . . . . It was only
consistent that war would disappear
by itself once people were cured of
their folly or were debarred from
fooling their fellows."
In speaking of the students' con-
cept of America's neutral policy he
stated that disastrous for peace
would be the erroneous belief that
if only one's own nation did not wish
for war, it would be immune in the
danger of war. This illusion would
leave the country open to the work-
ing of all the forces which, if al-
lowed to continue, would make war
inevitable and thus cause the nation
to suffer precisely the fate which it
wished most passionately to avoid."
Neutrality Must Be Fought For
The United States has assumed a
permanent neutral position but Pol-
anyi deemed it necessary to point
out to his audiences the little realized
fact that every neutrality must be

fought for and "It is the fate of neu-
tralized countries that they cannot
choose their opponents in war. They
must fight the belligerent country
which did not respect their neutrality
even if their sympathies are with this,
country as against the other bellig-
erent." In this instance he com-
pared the United States to Switzer-
He also cited the economic disaster
accompanying an embargo measure
as the effect upon the South when an
embargo was placed upon cotton in
the last war. He offered a sugges-
tion for a more pragmatic approach
to the solution of our problems.
Dr. Polanyi stressed the importance
of and intelilgent and educated pub-
lic opinion to aid the Executive in
maintaining a democratic and supple
foreign policy. In this he looks to
the colleges and students to be most
prominent in the formation of the
enlightened public opinion. "A sys-
tematic study of current history," he
continued "with the aid of the daily'
press could be an extremely useful
aid in educating colleges to become
an important factor in moulding
public opinion." But he asserts that
"Unless intelligent public opinion is
so lithe, keen and quick that it is able
to react instantaneously and there-
by control the editorial comment of
the newspapers themselves, the press
remains almost the only, and in that
case, certainly a very incomplete ve-
hicle for the formation of public
opinion," for he appropriately re-
marks "history happens in the news-
No Traditional Policy
Dr. Polanyi states that it is diffi-
cult to mould public opinion in this
nation which has at this early stage
no traditional foreign policy, but he
disregarded three principal Ameri-
can foreign policies usually consid-
ered traditional, namely, the "no en-
tanglement" principle set down by
Washington, the Monroe Doctrine,
and the Open Door Policy in China.
Polanyi sees a "most fortunate cir-
cumstance for the country" existing
because party politics have not taken
hold of foreign policy "as it has of
almost every other function of na-
tional life."
The Institute of International Ed-
ucation is primarily concerned with
providing lecturers such as Dr. Pol-
anyi for the small colleges which can-
not afford to furnish the students
this requisite service. Its members
number many of the foremost lumin-
aries in the field of education. Be-
sides Dr. Bishop, others on the board
of trustees are: Frank Aydelotte, Jo-
seph P. Chamberlain, Thomas W.
Lamont, John Basset More, and
Henry Morgenthau.


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