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November 15, 1932 - Image 6

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1932-11-15

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Speakers Open National Academy O Sciences 3-Day Sessio


Ruthven Gives
Welcome Talk
ToNoted Group
Modern Space Concepts,
Particle Theories Are
Subjects of Papers
Short Talks Given
Drs. Shapley, Stebbins,
Compton, and Bush Give
Detailed Discussions
Startling new concepts of science~
varying in scope from the infinite in
space to the unbelievably small of
this world-were presented at the
opening meeting of the National
Academy of Sciences yesterday in
Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. Papers
by Dr. Harlow Shaply, Dr. Joel Steb-
bins, Dr. Karl T. Compton, and Dr.
Vannevar Bush w e r e prominent
among those presented to this most
distinguished body of scientific men
following President Alexander G.
Ruthven's address of welcome at
10:30 a. m.
Short talks were also presented at
yesterday's session by Dean B. Mc-.
Lauglin, Robert R. McMath ( F. C.
McMath, H. S. Hulbert, J. D. Hardy,
E. F. Barker, D. M. Dennison, W. H.
Rodebush, William A. Noyes, John R.
Bates, B. S. Hopkins, L. L. Quill, and
D. B. Keyes.
Welcomed By Ruthven
"The duty of extending to you an
official welcome to the University is
a very pleas&.nt one," Dr. Ruthven
said in his welcome speech. "We ap-
preciate the honor you have done us
in accepting our invitation to hold
your meeting in Ann Arbor this year,
and- we hope that we will neglect
nothing which will contribute to the
pleasure and profit you should re-
ceive from your deliberations."
"It is not unfitting that you should
be here," he continued. "Michigan is
is one of the oldest of the state uni-
versities. The institution had its in-
ception 115 years ago. During most
of its history it has encouraged re-'
search in the belief of its faculties
that the University has two major
objectives-the increase of knowledge
and the diffusion of knowledge."
Cites Foundations
Dr. Ruthven pointed out that the
foundation established to assist crea-
tive workers, have, without doubt,
been a boon to investigation. "The
increase in the number and size of
large projects, the number of indiv-
idual studies, the new and rejuvenat-
ed libraries, museums, and laborator-
ie,s, and the new field exploited in
recent years, in no small degree,
stand to the credit of the living and
dead trusts established for the pur-
pose of furthering the intellectual
progress of mankind. Surely it aug-
urs well for our intellectual advance-
ment that these trusts are increasing,
and so rapidly that the advent of aI
new one causes little comment."
Dr. Ruthven also discussed the ad-
visability of establishing a national
advisory commission to study ali pro-
jects in science for which aid is
asked, for the purpose of referring
the requests to the proper founda-
tion. The commission - would also
have the merit of economizing time
and of creating a more orderly and
dignified procedure than prevails at
present, he added.
W. L. Ayres
A paper presented by W. L. Ayres
discussed the simple figures of topol-
ogy such as the simple continuous
arc, the simple closed curve, the
simple 'closed surface, the number

plane, and similar topics. An exposi-
tion of the various definitions for
these figures by the topologists from
Schoenfies to the present time was
also given. Mr. Ayres was introduced
by Prof. H. D. Curtis.
Joel Stebbins
Dr. Joel Stebbins, University of
Wisconsin astronomer and stellar
photometry authority, d i s c u sse d
"space reddening" a phenomenon
caused by an extended cloud of small
particles of dust, which obstructs
and scatters light without blotting it
out completely. "Our own galaxy has
no special importance or privileged
position in the universe," Dr. Steb-
bins said. The speaker, who is con-
nected with the widely-known Mount

Today's Program
9:30 A. M.
WILDER D. BANCROFT: The agglomeration theory of sleep. 15
C. JUDSON HERRICK: The functions of the olfactory parts of the
cerebral cortex. 12 minutes.
GEORGE H. PARKER: Some aspects of neurohumoralism. Illustrat-
ed. 12 minutes.
WILLIAM M. WHEELER: How the primitive ants of Australia start
their colonies. Illustrated. 12 'minutes.
A. FRANKLIN= SHULL (introduced by F. G. Novy): The time of
embryonic segregation in aphids as determined from intermediate
types. Illustrated. 10 minutes.
JOSSELYN VAN TYNE (introduced by F. G. Novy): The distribution
of birds in Northern Guatemala. Illustrated. 15 minutes.
DOUGLAS H. CAMPBELL: Some problems of the Hawaiian flora.
12 minutes.
EDWIN B. MAINS (introduced by F. G. Novy): Host specialization of
Erysiphe Graminis Tritici. 10 minutes.
EUGENE U. STILL (introduced by A. J. Carlson): A study of the
metabolism of the pancreas in vivo and in vitro. Illustrated. 10
CHARLES W. EDMUNDS (introduced by F. G. Novy): The action of
liver preparations of the blood of pigeons. Illustrated. 12 minutes.
ARNO B. LUCKHARDT (introduced by A. J. Carlson): Cardiac, vaso-
motor and respiratory phenomena induced by manipulations of
the gastro-hepatic ligament, liber, stomach and diaphragm. 10
GEORGE L. CLARK and K. E. CORRIGAN (introduced by W. A.
Noyes): The crystalline structure of insulin. Illustrated. 12
CARL D. LA RUE (introduced by F. G. Novy): Regeneration in mu-
tilated seedlings. (To be read by title).
FRANK N. BLANCHARD (introduced by F. G. Novy): A study of
specialization in ringneck snakes. (To be read by title.)
2:00 P. M.
HENRY F. OSBORN: Biological inductions from the evolution of the
Proboscidea. Illustrated. 15 minutes.
G. KINGSLEY NOBLE and E. R. MASON (introduced by H. F. Os-
born): The relation of water regulation to the habitat selection
of reptiles. Illustrated. 10 minutes.
Leverett): Skull of a fossil bird from the Bad Lands of South
Dakota. Illustrated. 12 minutes.
DOUGLAS JOHNSON: Miniature rock fans and pediments. Illus-
trated. 12 minutes.
RUDOLF RUEDEMANN: Planktonic faunas of the Paleozoic seas of
North America. (To be read by title.)
WILLIAM H. HOBBS (introduced by F. Leverett): Further aerologi-
cal studies near the margin of the Greenland Continental Glacier.
Illustrated. 15 minutes.
GEORGE G. BROWN (introduced by M. Gomberg): Problem of motor
fuel quality. (To be read by title.)

Gas Molecu11les
Swing Minute
New Pendulum
Valuable Device For Use'
In Electronic Studies Is
Described To Academy
A pendulum of molybdenum, so1
delicate that it ticks when bumped by;
molecules of gas, was described by Dr.
Karl T. Compton, president of Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology,
before the National Academy ofj
Sciences here yesterday.;
The pendulum may prove to be of
primary importance in chemical and,
engineering fields, he said for with,
it the sections of electrified gas may;
be accurately calculated.
Of metallic molybdenum, the pen-;
dulum is suspended in a columnar
tube of highly ionized gas. Streams,
of this gas, the molecules of which,
have become electrically charged by
losing an electron are bombarded
against the pendulum. Some of the
ions adhere. while others bounce
"The mechanism of this bouncing
back of ions is pictured as simply
the collision of the gas ion with the{
atom of the metal surface, like the1
elastic collision of a projectile with
its target," Dr. Compton stated.
"Helium molecules, which are very
light, bounce back farthest. There;
are successive graduations through-
out the elements until mercury,
which is very heavy, is reached. Mer-
cury does not rebound at all. Helium,
of course, is very light."
Barker, and D. M. Dennison of the
"Types of Chemical Reactions"
were discussed by William A. Noyes.
"The Reaction of Hydrogen Atoms
With Oxygen," was delivered by John
R. Bates.'
"The Solubility of Rare Earth Salts
In Non-Aqueous Solvents" was the
title of an address by B. S. Hopkins
and L. L. Quill.
D. B. Keyes, of the department ofj
chemistry at the University of Illi-
nois spoke on "The Value of Free En-
ergy Determinations of Organic Re-
Harlow Shapley
Dr. Harlow Shapley, director of the
Harvard Astronomical Observatory,
painted for the Academy a picture of
unbelievable space, so vast that
southern skies alone were seen to,
hold 76,000 galaxies of stars. "One,
of these galaxies," he explained. "Is
a host of stars as big as the Milky
Way to which the earth belongs."
He predicted that 300,000 galaxies
of this size will be mapped out by
Harvard, under plans formulated re-
cently. Each galaxy may contain.
about 1,000,000,000 stars, it is said.
Mechanical Brain
A mechanical brain which works
complicated mathematical problems
in a matter of hours was reported
by Dr. Vannevar Bush. "This 'differ-
ential analyzer' is a wonderful labor-
saving device," he said.

r_.S ' '1 .

(Continued from Page 1)
make only a mediocre display as they
did in 1899.
"All that can be said in advance
is that between the light of the full
moon, and the electric lights of the
cities, any city dweller who arises
between 2 and 3 a. m. Nov. 16, will
most probably be disappointed, and
will certainly lose some sleep."
The best way to observe the dis-
play is with the naked eye. As these
little particles-for most shooting
stars are nothing but small fgrag-
ments of comets-burn high up in
our atmosphere, they generally last
less than a second; a few may per-
sist for two or three seconds, leaving
short trains. These objects are so
swift and vanish so quickly that it is
useless to even try to use a telescope.
Astronomers in general attempt no
observations at all of shooting stars,
leaving such work to amateurs and
to those who have no telescopes to
work with. This year, however, the
American Meteor Society members
who live within 100 miles of each
other have been especially requested
to take simultaneous observations, on
the basis of the high expectations for
this shower.
Naked Eye Used
The specialists who study meteor
swarms do all their work visually,
and without any instruments at-all.
Their only apparatus is a star chart
pinned to a board, a lead pencil, and
an inexhaustible supply of patience.
They must know their stars well, for
they try to plot on the chart the
paths of all &he shooting stars which
may appear in the sky in the quar-
ter where they fix their gaze, and
to keep track of the number seen per
hour in this area, which is never very
large. They later calculate the ra-
diant of the swarm from the plotted
paths on their= charts, that .is, the
point in the sky from which the
great majority of the streaks seem to
radiate. Should the shower come up
to expectations and the weather be
favorable, the data of tonight's dis-
play should be sufficient to furnish
most important information on me-
teors themselves, and especially on
the trains, which are of paramount
importance. Despite the handicap
caused by the strong light of the
nearly full moon, however, there will
be many amateurs all over the world
who will plot the paths of such Leon-
ids as may appear, for the purpose
of determining their radiant point
with greater accuracy.
Value Is Theoretical
"The astronomical value of meteors
and meteor swarms," said Professor
Curtis, "may be said to be purely
theoretical: it is interesting to know
that many of such little trains of
light shooting for a brilliant second
or less across the night sky are
doubtless the "bones" of dead comets,
which have died as comets, and now
exist only as long swarms or strings
of minute particles spread out on the
paths along which the comets once
moved. They have thrown additional
light also on the height to which our
( atmosphere extends above the earth."

Wilson Observatory, told of a photo-
electric cell attached to the 100-inch
reflector there. With the aid of this
apparatus, the brightness and colors
of various faint objects have been de-
termined and the results show that
there must be an absorbing region in
He showed that certain globular
clusters in space have hitherto been
estimated to be asmuch as four times
as far away as they really are. "At
right angles to the Milky Way," Dr.
Stebbins concluded, "that is, where
there are fewer stars and where we
can see better out in the open, the
observations indicate relatively little
absorption, and previously estimated
distances need to be revised by not
more than 10 per cent."
Dean B. McLaughlin
"A Suggested Mechanism of Class
Be Stars," was the subject of a paper
delivered to the academy by Deap B.
"Many Class Be stars show double
emission lines of hydrogen," he said,
"the duplicity being due to an ab-
sorption line which divides the emis-
sion centrally. These two emission
components change in relative in-
tensity, and at times one may be two
or three times as strong as the other.
Shifts of these lines are associated
with the intensity changes. The dis-
placements are towards the shorter
\wave-lengths when the component of
greater'wave-length is stronger and
vice-versa. The irregular ties of the
periods of those variations are such
as to rule out conclusively any ex-

plantation in terms of orbital motion
in a binary system."
A change of temperature of the
star with consequent change of selec-
tive radiation pressure is postulat-
ed as the cause of the variations. The
phenomena of Be stars are therefore
regarded as a special case of stellar
variation of the pulsation type, Dr.
McLaughlin concluded.
Robert R. McMath, F. C.
MeMath, and H. S.
Motion pictures of celestial pheno-
mena obtained by the McMath-Hul-
bert Observatory of the University
formed an interesting feature pre-
sented to the Academy of Sciences
yesterday by the three men named
above. The three showed films of
the phenomena of sunrise and sunset
on lunar craters and the motion of
Jupiter's satellites. An occultation of
Delta Capricorni was also shown, in
which the moon moves across the
'field of the telescope, showing both
immersion and emersion.
"A spectroheliokinematograph, has
been designed and constructed and-is
now being used to record the changes
in the surface features of the sun,
the motions within solar promin-
ences, and their growth and decay,"
Hulbert said.
Highly Technical Papers
"The Infra-Red Spectrum of H2C1"
was presented by J. D. Hardy, E. F.,

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Children's Week in Bookland
As this will be NATIONAL BOOK WEEK with the children, we
shall be happy indeed if you will inspect our large stocks of



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