THE M 4 .. iCI-HGAN DAoLYtit_
QRAHAM ISCUSSES PR EVENTWON Of ATTACK&S ATTAIgNFNEW GLIDER RECOa R LITERARY CLASS HEAD'
BY SRUEBUD NORM ON NATION'S[QFf5RSJ , ,,,MAKES APPOINTMENTS~
-. .. m,... .
,..,a. .. ._
I'nriowus Met J11o"Iqof (heel ig Inisetls
Oiitlin ml By 1Eiitoiulogi"cal
SAY PAASIES USELESS
On ii ii '~ u mnof investi-
Iiiuq n te abits and control of
luret i~ces wichwas started in a
prviusis~ f TeDalProf.
1orPt i, ''i vov inbe akeStates
r~~-tiwIiur a~ f ~r~ ~i')-oy, ;says
~'AfI~' li budv, OV ^,r, os from
its- lon _i rr e tronighout the
~ iOI(I ;)-,:J1,in to feed on the new
gro~hsof the spruce tree, Judging
f r om t he results of experiments it
n~m probable that cultural methods
enb dfeveloped that will prevent fu-
f wreomtbreaks of the budworm. The
grcat sori-s of recent budworm out-
hra~has been made possible by an
unobalanced condition in the forests.
A s a result of the logging m ,thods
use(d In the northern pipie and spruce
orests vaste areas of the cutover land
have_ grown up with balsm fir. This
haqs produced food conditions that are
favorable to the budworm.
Conditioni Cause Outbreaks
This condition, coupled with favor-
a bl'e weather and a p)ossible scarcity
of natural enemies has resulted in
greaAt outbreaks. The logical course
of procedure is to reduce the amount~
of the budworm's favorite food. Inas-
much as balsam fir is now regarded as
a valuable forest tree it is impossible
to reduce the quantity of this species
by logging the fir as rapidily as is
economically possible. In logging
operations~spruce and pine should be
fav'ored so that succeeding forests
will contain a minimum amount of
Professor Graham does not believe
that parasites can be used to check
outbreaks of insects. "When a pest
Is multiplying at an unusually rapid
rate parasites cannot multiply fast
enough to control their host,"' he said.
"There is not a single authentic case
in which natural parasites have stop-
ped an outbreak of a pest. It is only
after the rate of reproduction of the
host has ben checked by some other
actor that the percentage of parasites
The value of parasites lies in their
regulative influence upon the host
species when that species occurs in
normal numbers. Parasites help to
plrevent an outbreak but they cannot
slpone once it is under way. Al-
mtost the only possibility of using par-
asites to check an outbreak is to breedi
them, by -the millions and liberate them
ithe places where they are most
Plrevention is the keynote of forest
insect control but sometimes direct
meJthodsi have been found valuable.
Small forest areas have been dusted
b Y airplanes in an experimental way,
w.t it has never proved practical to'
du st large areas, Graham said. Meth-~
ods of spraying from the ground have
been used in the New England states
for the control of the gypsy moth.
Similar areas have been sprayed inr
Yellowstone National Park. Tfhe use
of this type of control, however, is
usually limited to shade andl orna-
One of the interesting features of
experimnfts %with the spruce budworm
is the discovery that this insect oc-
curs in two distinct forms1. One feeds
on the balsam fit, nd spruce and the
other feeds exclusively on jackpine.
Apparently they are two species in the
making, Profe sr>or G raham said. The
two farms do not intermix, althougTh
tiiev- Ibelong to the same species. They
can therefore be troated from the
economic view point as if they were
one separate species.
Saw Fly V ie'oins
The ,jackpine sawfly is another uni-
portant defoliator in the Lake States
and can also he controlled by silvicul-
tural methods. The insect, only be-
came economically important in 1. =23
Previous to that time it was ne ; to
science. F avorable conditions in the
jackpine forests resulted in a rapid
multiplication of the insect, Professor
IGraham saidl. The sawfly gets its
name from the fact that the female is
equipped with a saw-like ovipositor
with which it saws slits in the needles
of the jackpine in which it deposits
its eggs. The lar'va are hatched in
the spring and feed on the 01(1 foliage.
When a jackpine tree is attacked at
the same time by the budworm on the
new growth and the sawfly on the
old needles, the tree is in a p~recar-
lu4rch Fly Investigated
The third defoliator with which
Professor Graham is experimenting is
the larch sawfly. This insect lays its
eggs in the spring in the new growth
of the larch, or tamarack as it is
commonly' called. The eggs are
placed in slits along one side of the
growing twigs. This injury stops the
gowth on one side of the infected
twig. This injury is conspicious and
indicates the presence of the larch
sawfly even in winter when the trees
are bare from needles. The larva of
this species feed on the needles. When
full grown they drop to the ground
and spin cocoons. No control for the
larch sawfly has yet been discovered,
according to Professor Graham.
At the University of Texas there are
41 students from Mexico, three from
China, Ireland two, and from Turkey,
Switzerland, and Persia one each.
,dV R; o i j
i i ,
We*re lndl eiinntly Omitt~edI
Front Yesterday's Issue
Of The Dally
The follow~ing senior literarIy 1lass
appointments made by Robert C. lie-
land, '28, president of t hei Class, were
inadvertently omitted from yesterday's
issue of ThQ Daily:
Advisory commnittee--William f'usch,
'28, chairman ; Court larrd C. Smith,
'2r Ellis R. Merry, '28.
jCaps and Gowns committee--Mar-
tin Garber, '28, chairman; .Arthur P.
Grigg, '28, Frank W. Busch, '28, Thomn-
azs J. Fitzgibbons, '28, Marian L..
TODAY AND SATURIDAY
Class Thiv (aix'o tmtc' V-- V Si i U. (
CamIpbell, Jr., '8, chairman; Henry
J. Grinnell, 28, .John P. Red rick, '28,1
Wil hbur P1 Petrie, '28, William Drum-
baugli, '28, Elizlabeth L. Eastman, '28.
1 t. s;i r4Finane.commrit t ee-Joh niJ L.Wis,
'~* *'28, chairman; Clarence W. Brownell,
28, Ray C. HuImph rey, '28, Florence S.
^< x > \Vestel, '28, Jlean G. Creen shields, '28.
Senior sin} committee-I-larold 'T.
Fitzpatrickc, '28, chairman; Gordon W.
°- «fi iPacker, '28, Vincent C. Wall, '28, Elsie
14, . Murray, '2S, Murtha M. Ilerrnstein,
~~kY~~~ ~~~'K ~ dl' -1' ecr olalur, Jr, ' oertIu. 1laloerl,1
Geran gla' exertW 1 1J>~d((~ d~(X W)1( Jr, 28, Adiona ono;Gerg A '28io, Mary
th may e iealyhld:b"ttinngt ai litdeo 52 mrs (2,6 Loisel Murray,'28
aeran mnsthesieroor,pert, who(haPaddIedaaewword' Theompston Sroretr '8,RbArt adoM r
th an e leaderskllboti s bilding and litieofG2mtes(,56J.,'8Adio . onr '8Mr;
flynthsrasngesthemoormedrshFrets........uise- -Murray, - '28.-
thern ship e toan asolte aminimum
lTinglower, en.rct& ]a OES L M N -PH N 4.
while retaining the greatest possibl'
Comedy a- ulesue
COLLEGE MEN AND WOMEN
will find the Packard Restaurant
bigger and letter than ever.
703 Packard St.
So these boys yelled-where is. this
war? We've had rain~, hail, rpudl,
mixups, women, baribed wite, cooties,
Everything Except a War!
If the enemy doesn't attack us soon
I'll never speak to l<hiag ain
We May Have It!
Th'Re IIt ntQwi-f ie /oeLughs
"Wil Rogers Harry Lanugdon
Swtzerland Lucky Stars
Woodward, at Eliot
Week Beginning Monday, October 3z
Thur. and Sat., 50c, 75c
Would *You Marry a Chorus Girl?
Does It Pay to Be a Spitfire?
Myron C. Pagan's Greatest Comedy
The Little Spitfire
Ladies anid Gentlemen
Single Meals - 5i0c, 65c
Weekly Board -$55
Cor. State and Was hington
C A:SS THEATRE
" Beginning Sunday Night, Oct. 30
Prices: Nights, $; to $3.50; Wed, and
- Sat. Mats., $z to $2.50, Plus Tax
Landed Like Lindbergh
New Musical Comedy
"TAKE THE AIR"
For your house decorations
use Flood lights.
Illuminate your house-
For rent most reasonably
A Feast of Rare
Drama With a
Dash of Comedy!
3llO ID S
-On the Stage
THEON AM Ol7YV
-On the Strage-
Opposite Law Building
The Place With
Good As Its Name
AnOLOH It rt)1)
jtSS[ t LF1 Y
2 10 South Fourth Ave.
1 -1, ' S
file House of Qualiy
Showgr *n Off
A NV * °-
I' ~~tw ~ F