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October 05, 1924 - Image 9

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VOL. XXXV. No. 12

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SUNDAY OCTOBER 5, 1924.

PRICE. FTVE CENTI

A DIGEST F RECENT EVENTS AT GEN.

EV1A

The Newest Protocol Traced Through Ihe Fifth Assembly Of The League Of Nations

Auspicious Opening Of

Conference Of Nations

Herriot's Verbal Battle With MacDonald On Disarmament

The Japanese Amendment And The United States

By John G. Garlinghouse and a conference was accordingly ar- cessant labors, his invigorating en- cerned and if so to dismiss the case. f as referring primarily to the problem based on the interpretation of mat-
After nearly five years of compara- ranged kt .which a signal victory was thusiasm, and his brilliant powers for The definition of an aggressor, prob- of immigration, thus involving such ters supposed to be within the exclus-
tive inactivity occupied lalgely with scored for the French when Premier organization and compromise. ably the most important feature of nations as United States, Canada, Aus- ive jurisdiction of the other party to
i MacDonald agreed that a plan of se- The next important event took place the whole scheme, was determined to tralia, and New Zealand. This was the dispute. and they declared with
endessdisusson ofimpssilecurity should be adopted previous tooi September 16 when France def- be a nation which would not arbitrate
plnOo ol eae h egeo subsequently denied by the Japanese equal assurance that the amendment
plans for world peace, the League of any attempt at disarmament. The nitely abandoned her hope ofdan or accept the arbitraludecision. Def susationdnappehrJpnoe-aaesurakehtdhtmndet
Nations appears to have awakened to two leaders then left Geneva, travel- armed superstate which had been the nite sanctions (punitive measures) of foreign office. was not aimed at the American or
productive effort toward this all im- iing arm in arm along the path of mu- stumbling point of all previous plans. a military and economic nature were Although the amendment tas with- British dominions. The British urged
portant end. Since the inception of tual concession leading to universal Articles X and XVI of the Covenant provided for as weapons against an drawn, the Japanese delegates con- stiff opposition to the Japanese pro-
the League, the member states have accord. They left behind them, how- had long been disregarded by Euro- aggressor, the territorial, political, itmed to insist that they could not posal, but to no avail. It was only
atempteC n in suce asse s to ever, knotty problem: for the as- pean nations despite the fact that and economic independence of the'ag- I vote for the protocol when it came a matter of two day's discussion be-
revise the Covenant in such a way sembled representatives of the ma- their parliaments had ratified the en- gressor nation always to be respected. lefore the assembly in its its final fore two amendments to the protocol
tt mnighrstl omrd. a instrument jority of the nations of the world. tire pact. Only France and some of By this means the world "status quo" form unless their reservations were were adopted which satisfied in sub-
of universal concord. Each year hasy
brought forth its plan for world The first week was largely occupied her minor allies had cherished the be- was to be maintained and security so accepted. Surprising as it may seem, stance the original demand of Japan
peace, but never has a scheme been with details of organization. Discus- lief that this superstate might some- to be guaranteed. This-as it was none of the delegates were discour- By the first it is provided that when
ttended by success. sion of various peace plans, including time exist. The interment of this summed up in the September 29 issue aged. At the time when the situation a question in dispute is held by the
The accomplishments of the Lea gue the American Bliss-Shotwell plan fantasy equals in importance the of "Time"-meant: "Nations must ar- seemed darkest, when no ray of raison World Court of the League Council
have been largely words-high sound- failed to accomplish anything more British premier's concession concern- bitrate their differences; they must d'etre for the protocol shown through to be a matter solely within the do-
ing words organized into impossible than to arouse interest. It was ing the prior necessity of national se- disarm to reduce the possibility of the Nipponese cloudof discontent, M. mestic jurisdiction of the state this
pacts, known only today as part of not until September 7 that any defi- curity. war; they must fight if they, ignor. Politis, farmer Greek foreign min- decision shall not prevent considera
the endless proceedings of the annual nite step was taken toward the reali- The completion of the third week ing the League, decide to try might ister, said: "The dominating spirit of tion of the situation by the Council
assemblies. Last year witnessed the zation of the aims for a protocol. This founds the Assembly so confident of against the universal right." good will is prevailing among all del- or by the Assembly, under article 11
lowest point in the curve of the came with the unanimous adoption the ultimate success and adoption of Such was the draft submitted by egates"; and added that it seemed of the League covenant. The other
league's position as a power in world of a resolution declaring for League the protocol that on September 20 a the committee. Enthusiasm of the impossible that the Assembly would provision requires that a country
rifairs. The Corfu incident in which action looking to the settlement by definite decision was reached to call spasmodic variety was rampant on go before the world proclaiming that shall not be presumed to be an agres-
the League seemed powerless oc- arbitral methods of all international a World Arms Parley on June 15, every hand. Changes were made here the governments would remain indif- sor if a judicial sentence has been
curred coincidently with the Fourth disputes, such action including the 1925, providing the parliaments of and there, but they were of minoriferent to the Japanese plea and that pronounced against her unless she
Assembly's adoption of the draft calling as early as possible of a dis- fifteen states ratified the pact prior import and had no bearing on the no solution could be reached for the fails to submit the question to the
yent conference and the clarn- to this date. Two days after the draft general spirit of the pact. Each rep- regulation of the so-called domestic Council or the Assembly under article
treaty of mutual assistance whicharameafterthe offtthenrCovenant.oftProminentac reur-
soon fell into discard as an "instru- fication of the obligatory clause of the proposed protocol was presented resentative had a point to discuss, but problems. 11 of the Covenant. Prominent jur-
ment more productive of war than the protocol constituting the Court of to the League's commission on dis- each was satisfied successfully, until It was probably such persons that ists in attendance at the meeting con-
of peace." The press of the world International Justice. On September armament by Dr. Benes and the rep- on September 27 a storm cloud from made the ultimate success of the plan sider this amendment valuable for the
was almost unanimous in announcing 13, Dr. Edouard Benes, premier of resentatives of Great Britain, France, the Far East appeared in the person possible-the attitude -was represen- peace of the world because it is be-
that the end of the League's influence Czecho-Slovakia,.was appointed head Belgium, and Italy. The position of of M. Adachi, Japanese minister to tative of the feeling since the first of lieved that, a state whose case has
had come, that the Covenant had of a committee to prepare the text of signatory nations under the pact was Belgium. He offered an amendment September. The problem clearly was been thrown out of court would come
proved a failure, that the dream of the convention which should be used summed up'some days later when Dr. to the protocol which called upon the to find a formula which while giving before the Council in a humbler mood
world peace under the guidance of as a basis for further discussions, the Benes said that while each nation was League of Nations to endeavor to con- satisfaction to the Japanese would at and be less likely to resort to war
this association of nations was protocol or convention to be an open the sole judge of what it would ac- ciliate and mediate in disputes be- the same time keep the protocol of over a question previously judged to
futile. Even ardent supporters were covenant which would state that non- tually do, it was not the judge of tween countries even if the world arbitration and security strong be purely of domestic concern. At
silent--the fate of the League of Na- members of the League may sign or what it was under obligation to do. court of justice had ruled that the enough to win the approval of the any rate Japan and the British do-
tions seemed sealed. adhere to it. Dr. Bone's appointment Compulsory arbitration of all interna- dispute had arisen over matters League Assembly and the Parlia- minions appear to be both satisfied
was significant in that it placed the tional disputes in the International which were solely within the domes- ments of the world. The Japanese with the outcome and at the time this
Visitors Throng to Geneva I work in the hands of a man highly Court of Justice was provided for, tic jurisdiction of the state involved. continued to insist that they had un- article is written there is every indi-
It. was with such a cloudy back versed in the intricacies of interna- the decisions of this court to be final. In other words the final jurisdiction wavering directions from Tokio to cation that the protocol will be rati-
gound hatof NatnAssembledin tional law and long identified with The Court was also given the right of the world court was to be abolish- maintain their attitude of opposition fled by the Assembly.
Geneva. Switzerland on September the projects of the League. The suc- to determine whether the question at ed. The delicacy of the situation was to any scheme which would make From this- short history of the Fifth
Genev ;n e temb__ _. __v__ 1. .

fluence. It is true that there has
been no official or unofficial represen-
tative of the government. Indeed,
simultaneously with the opening of
the League Assembly the secretariat
received a refusal from Secretary
Hughes to accept an invitation to
send an American delegate to par-
ticipate in the Third committee of the
Assembly in discussing the draft,
prepared by the temporary mixed
commission of the Legaue for a treaty
controlling traffic in arms. But
American men and affairs have nev-
ertheless exercised a powerful part
in the formation of the protocol. In
the first place, the basis on which the
plan was built was a scheme offered
by Professor James T. Shotwell, David
Hunter Miller, and General Tasker H.
Bliss, all United States citizens, the
final pact containing approximately
their definition of an aggressor. These
men had long discussions with Prem-
iers Herriot and MacDonald which
had considerable bearing on the at-
titude taken by these men.
In addition there were thousands
of Americans in Geneva during the
sessions, many of them being jurists
of international prominence. It would
hardly be stretching a point to say
that no matter of moment was con-
sidered by the committees of the As-
sembly without taking cognizance of
the American feeling. American co-
operation in the matter of arbitration
and enforcing sanctions seems to
Shave been taken more or less for
granted, it being admitted that no
plan could be successful if this coun-
try opposed it.
Plan Conference
In one respect only do the member
nations seem to have neglected the

fw, w . v a w au
1, 1924. But the atmosphere appeared
to have cleared. From the very first
an over-powering enthusiasm foreor-
dained success. Fifty-four nations
were represented, two premiers from
world powers were on hand, every-
thing combined to promote an under-
standing which should lead to the
adoption of a plan of arbitration, se-
curity and disarmament. Four weeks
of endless discussions, arguments,
reservations, alternate despair and
hope have passed, and the Fifth As-
s,,mbly has emerged victorious with
a proctocol of arbitration and secur-
ity which is certain to be accepted.
In the days prior to the opening
of tle Assembly, Geneva took on the
aspect of an American college town i
in preparation for an important foot-
ball contest. The air was charged
with excitement, 15,000 visitors in-1
cluding many Americans, were on
hand, 400 representatives of the world
press had assembled-and each and{
everyone of the newcomers felt the
imminent importance of the event.
Hotel rooms were at a premium, tick-
6ts admitting to the opening sessions
were selling at scalpers' prices, pe

cess of the final draft of the protocol hand was within the domestic juris-
may be largely attributed to his in- ! diction of one of the nations con-

enhanced by the natural interpreta- Japan an aggressor if she faied to
tion of the amendment by delegates abide by a World Court decision

Michigan Awaits First Debate With Oxi
A History Of International Debating And A Description Of The Methods Of I

By Norman R. Thal
When the Michigan debating team!
meets the well known team from Ox-
ford University next Wednesday night 1
in Hill auditorium, a new chapter in
the history of Michigan debating will
be opened,-that of the international
debate. Iternational debating is a!
comparatively new thing, having beenl
started only two years ago, and thef
university may be considered one of
the pioneers in the that field.I
The first international debate wasl
held in the spring of 1922, when Bates
College sent a debating team to
England to meet the team representing!
Oxford at that time. The project was
so successful that it resulted in an!
invitation being extended to the Ox-j
ford team to visit the United States

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ly entertained, and a hitherto un- There are marked differences be tracts, the president's attention. He.
known spirit of good fellowship built tween the English and American types is then called upon and says his say
up between the visiting team and the of debating, which diferences may on the subject. If the society enter-
English colleges. best be explained by the fact that tains guests from another society,
In the fall of 1923 Oxford again whereas all American debating is in these guests come and take an active
sent a debating team to the United imitation of the law courts, all Eng- part in the discussions, speaking af-
States and a tour of the eastern col- lish debating is parody on parliament. firmatively or negatively, as their in-
leges was made. A number of im- This difference becomes especially clinations lie.
portant debates were held on this marked in practice, for while Ameri- Every speech is an individual's ex-
trip. The friendly feeling between can teams place the whole emphasis pression of opinions There is no at-
the English and eastern American on the contest between two teams, tempt to express a co-ordinate case.
colleges had by thistime developed to summing up the entire debate in the Thus those who speak for the same
such an extent that it seemed per- question, "Who won?", the English side of a question need not do so for
fectly natural that an American team consider neither teams nor any vic- the same reasons. As an example,
should again go to England, and so tories of teams as judgement on the suppose that the proposition were one
in the spring of this year a team merits of a debate. There is, of cour- approving of the Dawe's report. There
from Colgate College went to England se, a judgement, but it is of another ! would be nothing ridiculous, from the
and debated with a number of Eng- sort, it is a judgement on the merits English point of view, if one speaker
lish universities, among them Oxford. of the question and it is passed on opposed the proposition because the
The Colgate team is said to have re- i by the audience. There are no select- report was too hard on Germany, and
ceived the same welcome and recep- ed judges,-under the system of debat- for another man on the same side to

Assembly, the natural inference is eelings of -the United States,-in the
that the United States has had no in- matter of the disarmament confer-
ence. With the exception of Japan,
they have made it clear all during the
session that the only successful con-
:ord Team 2usice
Fo rde a , erence would be one held under the
auspcesof the League in Europe. It
has been felt that military disarma-
A.rgumentation inet is of primary interest to Euro-
pean nations, hence" the discussion
Certain customs of debate must be should be on the ground. Japan,
maintained, of which the chief is that alone, is said to favor hold on
"all remarks must be addressed to sprimary object of I
the chair" and other speakers re- a s ect of th : w -ii -
ferred to only in the third person. At ws a suc1es- i:e , Ii
the end the "house" votes on the pro- far ritoe v wi l g o i!) (I
position.far Europe will go !ii her t
position. insure the active pa.rticipatio 1
But these are mere trivalities; United States.
with them all the English debate is, In equal proportion to the influence
and purposely, a thing far more in- of America in the conducting of the
formal than the American. Only in- Fifth Assembly has -been the interest
cidentally doesIit contrast oratory aroused in this country by the re-
with oratory. It isits object to con- I suit of the conference. The press
trast argument with argument, to pro- seems equally divided, according as
duce a discussion in which the subject I the paper concerned has consistently
shall be looked at from hall points of supported the League or not. The
view. Such a method has a marked opposition papers insist that the pact
influence upon the style of oratory,- } contains a threat to American sover-
with many speakers waiting, a man eignty which will constitute a forced
must learn to please all or he will be f
4_ _. ..._-. entrance inton thten On thi

re ad t e he fre in the fall of. 1922. tion that the Oxord team had receiv- ing employed there would be no use oppose the report because it let Ger- ard with visible impatience If he
At this time Bates College suggest- ed here. for them. many off too easily, thereby actually is not pleasing, the president, as in-
of the world depended on their mis- Atethisttie BateshColegeesuggesthCeIhissno
on-hl thisd forndd an ssebly of aned that the Oxford team also be in- I This fall there will be two English A university 'in England forms, not controverting what his colleague had terpreter of the wishes of the house,
orgniation hich nad been po vited to visit and debate other colleges teams in the United States: The Ox- a debating team, but a debating socie- said.
ougncdateunct onl had few mots while in America. Because of the ifford team, after a preliminary debate ty. This society is a House of Com- Except for certain formalities, the one else.
previous defunct only a few months increased size of the undertaking, at the Town hall in New York City, mons in miniature. It elects its own English debate does not differ great- So a man 'tends to concentrate on
previouse competent statesmen. that the Institute of International Educa- will begin an extended tour of the president, the master of the debate, ly from the common argument. It the link he finds best received, and to
tecomingmassemblye wouldpreva te intion was asked to undertake the ar- western colleges with the University himself impartial and with only a is, of course, under the control of a become an exponent of one particu-
imortance ithtsembrlyt wouldateirangements for the itinerary of the of Pitsburg -on Oct. 3. At the same casting vote, just as the speaker of president; no one may speak without lar type of speaking. He will be clear
importance with the great counci Oxford team. time a debating team from Cambridge the House of Commons. The great first being recognized, nor may ayn- and coherent, or amusing, or rhetori-
of 11story, and the accomplishments The next spring, that of 1923, an- College will enter the United States majority of this society's debates are one interrupt a speaker, unless it be to cal; he will make an individual con-
other American debating team, that from Canada and open a tour of the on purely international affairs. The shout out a correction of some direct tribution rather than try to state the
Premiers Disagree i.of Columbia University, visited Eng- I eastern colleges at Cornell University members of the society meet together misstatement of fact about his own whole case; he will perform in com-
The most important single aspect land and debating with Oxford and on October 6. This is the first time to discuss some subject that interests opinions or actions. The president petition with other individual per-
of the conference was of course the other English universities. The Ameri- that a team from Cambridge has vi- them, and whoever so wish rises in Imay check unnecessarily offensive formers; and from this clash of many
fact that Premier Ramsay MacDon- can team is said to have been lavish- sited this country. his place' and, if he is forunate, at- language, irrevelance, or undue length.i minds, the truth may emerge.
aid of Great Britain, and PremierI
Herriot of France were present dur- " "
ing the opening days, each with the
avowed purpose of solving the close- Football Ticket Distribution For Eastern Games
ly related questions of the security,
arbitration, and disarmament. Each The deep interest which the campus fifths of her own stadium for the Yale- vard game: 6 tickets each for Prince- Secretary of the University, Trea- for Harvard game, 2 tickets each for
made an address to the Assembly, set- has evidenced this fall over the prob- Harvard game, and two-fifths of the ton game. surer of the University, Associate- Princeton game.
ting forth opposing views oil these lemis of football ticket distribution Princeton stadium for the Yale-Prin- 5. Members of football squad not at treasurer-comtroller of th eUniver- 12. Members and Graduates of pro-
matters. Premier MacDonald pro-1 has prompted the publication of the I ceton game. training table: 6 tickets each for sity, Deans of the University: six fessional and Graduate schools: 2
posed immediate disarmament based following article, which is a descrip- Still a third interesting feature is Harvard game: 3 tickets each for tickets each for Harvard game, 4 tickets each for Harvard game, 2
i k t e c or Pi c t n g m . tickets each for rinceton game
on moral guarantee of security-he tion of the way in which football tick- the fact that no alumnus is given Princeton game.Itickets~each for Princeton game tickets each for Princeton game,
set his face against preparedness of ets for the Yale-Harvard and Yale- more than two tickets to these two 6. "One seat applications" from un- 8. Old football "Y" men: 4 tickets 13. Ex-members of the College and
a military nature as a necessary pre- Princeton game are distributed.- I games, and that unless he signs an dergradates of the college and Shef- each for Harvard game, 4 tickets each Sheffield Scientific School and Profes-
requisite of national security and dis-' These two games were chosen, be- i oath to the effect that he will occupy field Scientific School and from ex- for Princeton game. sonal and Graduate schools who
cussed it as containing the seeds of cause they are two of the largest an- one of the two seats for which lie ap members of war classes both Col- 9. Competitors for football manag. were at the University one full year or
dissension which would grow into a nual games held in the East, and at- plies, he runs a big chance of not gett- I lege and Sheffield Scientific School: ership, active coaches of sports other more: 2 tickets each for Harvard
repetition of the clash of 1914. In a tract crowds even lager than those ing any. 1 ticket each for Harvard game, one than football, members of Graduate game, 2 tickets each for Princeton)
dramatic reply the following day which attend 'Michigan's big games. The order of allotment in detail ticket each for Princeton game. Un- Athletic committees other than foot- I game.
Premier Herriot held his audience The purpose of the article is to give for the two games appears below: dergraduates have the choice of apply- ball members of Freshman football I 15. University assistants in ad-
spellbound as he insisted onsecurity students an opportunity to compare 1. Subscribers to the Bowl Fund. ling for one seat in this group and the squad at training table, football ministration whose names appeared in
for the continental nations before 1the method used in distributing seats 2. President of the University,Presi- balance of their quota at the end of trainer and three assistants: 4 tickets the University Director of the previ-
disarmament could be considered. His at Yale, with the method used here.-( dent Emeritus, Football captain, Foot- the allotment; or for their full quota each for Harvard game, 3 tickets each ' ous year: 2 tickets each for Harvard'
stand is summed up by the saying of A number of features in the Yale ball manager, head football coach: I with their class. Graduates and ex- for Princeton game. game, 2 tickets each for Princeton

cuAa~uait~ Lc -eague. n e
other hand there are many papers
which agree editorially with the New
York Times which declared in its is-
sue of September 29: "There is in
this pact no latent threat to tho
United States. This country has stood
consistently and valiantly for interna-
tional arbitration, having gone so far
as to make it virtually unlimited. We
cannot now repudiate this policy."
Then there are those who find in the
Japanese amendments a revival of the
menace of the yellow race in which
an opportunity is given Japan to put
the United States in a false position
at almost any stage of the complicat-
ed arbitration established by the
amended protocol.
U. S6 Interests Guarded
Admittedly these are factors to con-
sider. Japan's insistence on the
amendment would indicate that she
proposes to bring the immigration
question before the World Court at
the first opportunity. But whatever
the outcome, the United States has
little to fear at the hands of the
League Council since Great Britain
and her dominions are concerned to
just as great an extent.
The protocol has its defects, but
surely this nation cannot in honesty
object to its basic principles of arbi-
tration, security, and eventual disarm-
ament. They. lie at the base of Amer-
ican citizenship and government and
epuld not be better employed than in
the promotion of world peace. The

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