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May 25, 1924 - Image 11

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1924-05-25

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Political

And Economic

Situations

In,

India

4 4 4

An Interview With Ganhdi
Bombay, India- ficult problem that now confronts us
April 14, 1923. and time alone will solve it. Caste
Due to a rather unfortunate com- is merely a frank, scientific statement
bination of circumstances I am able to of fact in India as it exists in all
give to the readers of The Daily j countries to a 'greater or Less degree,
accoftut of al intervieWv with Mr. end the cause of the 50,000,000 un-
Gandhi which took place at Juliu touchables has been emphasized be -
beach on the afternoon of the thirt- cause. of the extreme difficulty of the
eenth. Mr. Gandhi, who was recenty problem, the immediate need of in-
released from prison by the British, proving their condition, and the be-
is recuperating fro m an operation for lief that hany progaress in their case
a pendicitis at a cottage on this will be magnified a tpusand tires
be>ch, w hlh is 4 mile fromBombay in is infhrke on eon that are
ind readily consented visitors when rl to
informed that they we Americans. ; "The use of alcohol and drugs is
The party was received by Mr. C. rapidly increasing in India ; woren,
F. Andrews, an Englishman, who is working in the cotton mills are giving
an intimate friend of Mr. Gandhi. opium to their babies to make them
Rev. Andrews entertained with a sleep while the mothers are working;
sketch of Mr. Gandhi's life until the the government forces the cultivation
latter appeared some ten minutes lat- of iopium. We shall prohibit the cul-
er. ture of opium in Inda, and discourage
Picture a slight figure, naked except coholic beverages.
for a loin cloth, his pale skin so tight-b
ly drawn over his body that one could "Industrial reconstruction does not
almost count his ribs, his head clean mean a general reversion to primitive
shaven except for a tuft of hair on methods of manufacture or methods.,
the top, indicating his Hindooism, of tilling the soil. It merely means
rather a prominent nose under heavy 'a denial of the gospel of speed, an I
eyebrows, a pair of eyebrows that at sh~l have the time to develop spirit:a I
one moment express the spiritual nally as well as materially. It means
force of a Hessiah, at another moment, that the farmer of India, is today
the keeness of a cross-examiner, and weaving his own cloth rather than en-
again the humor of a parent laughing couraging a system under which men
away the mistakes and fears of his and women becomes parts of machin-
children. Gandhi is very quick men- es; it means that the Indian merchant
tally, never hesitating for an answer, is"bityenshattha arcan
which is given looking the questioneri buying shoes that are made in,
squarely in the eye; and in perfect India and that the thousands of snalk
English speaks distinctly and direct- manufattreths will e saved froms a
ly. He has a, noticeable sense of hum- ,.competition that had the producers of
oy Hnd laughsrequ seny Outsidethe raw material at their mercy and
there were several hundred pilgrims ;wined the country of all the profs
waiting to see him, all High Castes, as of nmanuacturing without giving a
it happened, but only an infinitesimal substantial return. My world will be
portion of the 250,000,000 human be- a world of happy labor, whose foun-
portin ''dations are Spfiua and oul force,'
ings who are looking to this little man where the Spirital and materil dre,
to show them a better way of living. erpe ofeyritual and material dev-.
Naturally the first question was, elopmet f eery man will go for-
"Mr. Gandhi, w-at do you stand by ward hand in hand."
and what do you propose to do to Asked to state his attitude toward
reach your goal?" Gandhi's reply the British Government, Mr. Gandhi
was a statement of thefour cardinal denied being antiBritish per se but
points of the non-cooperative move- insisted on India for the Indians; not
ment, and interrupted only occasional- necessarily as a ruling force, but a
ly by a few questions, outlined the greer partneirship ,with England und-
aims of his party and described the er which they will not be ruled by
situation as it exists in India today. force: 'uder which they will equal'
"The four points which the Non-co- 'the English socially and whic will
>perative hope to impress upon the concede their right to self detern'n-
living conditions of. India are,:. ation at the "proper time. He points
rirst---Religious unity, Second-Free- out that'the attitude of the B3ritish: to
om of the untouchables (the lower even the Maharajah's is one of toler-
easts), Third-Total abstinence from ant condescention and that there has
liquor and drugs, Fourth-Industrial been fio real progress for the Indian
reconstruction. ' .' 'people under Br itish rule; that more
"Since the above conditions are op- than 00 .times more money is spent I
>osed to the poli:cy of the British gov- on the' lUcatonso European and An
rnment the attainment of them nec- go-European children than on native
ssarily involves a hange ip the prs- Indians 'a11 that instead of the re-
nt form of government in India. We forms of 1919 improving conditins,
ope, and believe., that this change can their failue ha actially made them
>e brought about without violence, worse.
:or the progress that has been made At th'is 'juncture Rev.. Andreivs'
shows beyond a doubt the power 'of gentle ieminder-that Mr. Gandhi was'
Spiritual, even material force. How- convalecing from a severe operation
ever the Indian is not a coward and was sufficient to start the party to-"
inder certain circumstances might re- ward the door but not before Mr.-
sort to physical foice where it is nec- Gandhi's friendly; tolerant voice had
ssary to gain his liberty or to estab- 'again assured us that the Swarajyar
ish and maintain organized govern- would cont iue absolute non Co-Oper-
nent against foreign oppression' or ation with the present goveirninut
nob rule. ' : utilI ndiaha5otaned the freedi.
"We place Religious unity above our that shoild and will be hers.
ther aims because it is most desired fWhen one consides that Mr. Gand
by us and most misrepresented by hi has m'or followers, in his life-
hose who are opposed to our purpos- time than any leader in history, re-
is. The world is consistently inform- ligious or otherwise (inost authorities
d that the moment that the present concede over 200,000,000) one wonders
'orces of occupation are withdrawn, what is the source of his power. iow-
.he different religionists will fly at ever, a little' reflection on the terrible
ach others throats and chaos will degradation and misery of present day
result. The text books in our schools India 'and the justice of the cause of
have been deliberately falsified in or- this simple, sincere pleader in the
ler to make it appear to young In- .cause of common humanity, the ques-
Huan students of history what condi- tion is not so difficult to understand.
ions in India previous to British oceu- Gandhi is accused of being a dreamer,
really were. As a matter of fact the a philosopher, a mystic; his people
lifferent religionists are closer than believ~e he is a Messiah who will lead
:hey have ever been, and' united on them to better things, but one who ts--
;he basis of truth, progress toward tens to his words doubts that he is a
>erfect unity, in the past two years, good and great man, or questions his
4as been so rapid that there is war- sincerity. He bases his case on truth
rant for the belief that the problem iand love and keeps it alive by spirit-
an and will eventually be solved. ual and soul force and personally 1
That the Higher Caste and the Mo- think he will win the concessions he
iammedans are now meeting and act- desires from England unless the Sov-

ing together is sufficient proof that iets offer him something better while'
he old fear of Mohammedan domin- England is'thinking .about it.
anee is disappearing under a common -A. J. Diehi, ex '27.
cause. -
The caste prejudice. is the most dif- ' Daily classified for real reeults.

Leads Indian Non
Cooperatives

Nahatma Gandid
Gandh'is9:' F
1. I am because God is.
2. Speed does not make character.
3. Acknowledge one God and follow
Hindooism to reach Him.
4. My sense -of"humor saves me from
a broken heart.
Aids Gandhi

Effects of British Policy
The sources of a nation's wealth years was 16,000,000 pounds sterling
are agriculture, commerce, manufac- per year. One-fourth of all the re-I
ture, and sound financial policy. venues derived in India is annually
The British rule has given peace, remitted to England as "Home
but the administration has not pro- Charges," and if we add to this the
I moted and widened these sources of portion of their salaries which Bri-
national wealth in India.,I tish officers employed in India an-
The commercial policy of Great Bri-- nually remit to England, the total
i annual drain of the Indian. revenues
she pursued with Ireland and the to England considerably exceeds 20,-
other colonies. The British manu,-d
facturer, in the words of H. H. Wil- Those whose earnings' are about 42
son, the. historian, "employed the arm pounds per capita ask f r 10 shillings
of political injustice;' to keep down per head from a nation earning less'
and ultimately strangle a competitor than two pounds per capita. The
with whom he could not have con- total home charges in 1900-01 were
tended on equal terms." When Queen 17,000,000 pounds, and an addition of
Victoria became the Empress of In- several millions is sent by the Eng-
I dia the evil had been done, but never- lish officers in India, which increases
theless there was no change in the as the employment of British officers
policy pursued before the East In- in India increases.
dia company's rule ended in 1858, and The 17,000,000 pounds sterling re-
India ceased to be a manufacturing mitted as home charges are spent in
country. British manufacturers still f England as (1) interest payable on
watched and controlled the Indian the Indian debt, (2) interested on
tariff after 1859 and until 1919. The railways, (3) civil and military
import of British goods was facilit- cluarges. The public debt amounted
ated by the reduction of import duties, to 224,000,000 between 1877 and 1900,
but the slow growth of looms and and this was largely due to the policy
la few factories in Bombay aroused of construction of railways by guar
the jealousy of the British Parlia- anteed companies. It was also due
iment, and in 1872 all import duties to other minor causes. These are
were abolished except those of salt the plain facts of the economical sit- I
and liquor. j uation in India up to 1919. Given
: In the year 1892 a five per cent these conditions, any fertile, indus- I
duty was imposed on cotton and trial, peaceful country in the world
yarns imported into India, and a coun- would be what India is today. If man-
tervailing duty of five per cent was ufacture is crippled, agriculture ovtr-
imposed on such Indian fabrics as taxed, and laws are the same in Asia
competed with the imported goods. as in Europe.I
In 1896 yarns were freed from duty,! If India is poor today it is through'
but a duty of three and one-half per the operation of the economic policy!
cent was imposed on cotton goods pursued by the British parliament on
and an excise duty of three and one- .behalf of the capitalist class of the
half per cent was imposed on all British Isles. British Indian govern-
goods manufactured at Indian Mills, ment was more a representative of
this including coarse as- well as fine the capitalists of the British Islesl
fabrics, and the poor Indians earning than of the true Britishers. Its policy
less than 2 1-2 d per day were taxed was directed by the capitalists and
by a jealous government. The infant imperialists of the islands. Indians (
mills in Bombay, instead of receiving had no voice in the moulding of the!
help and encouragement, were re- L policy of their own tariff and when-I
pressed by an excise duty unknown ever the Indian National congress of- I
in any other part of the civilized fered any suggestion they were not,
world. Thus the manufacturing in- !;considered by the government of In-
dustry as a source of national income dia because the government was there,
has been suppressed deliberately. not for the governed, but for the go-
Distribution of Revenue verning class and the capitalists of
.Thetotal revenue of India from the British Isles.
1891 to 1901 amounted to 647,000,000 Railroads
pounds sterling. The annual average Two private associations, called the
is 65,000,000 pounds sterling. The ex- E. I. Railroad company and the G. E..
penditure of England during 'theseP., which run from Calcutta to Pesh-

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awar and from Bombay to Calcutta, concerns, and the government ha
respectively, were formed in 1845. payv, from 1849 to 1858, annually
How were they financed? The govern- each company 1,528,046 pounds
ment of India made an agreement with 4F6,04) pounds respectively. The lo
the companies, the terms of which I456,049 pu rspcieg The no
were that "If the net receipts from increased,nt as long as the inte
the railways was less than five per was guaranteed the companies n
cent of the capital expended the go- n tIoney, and new companies "
ven! n fIda ol aego started. If the people had had
vernment of India would make goodshare in the government of India 1
the difference from the revenues of I
India, and if the net receipts were ig hve to te pariant
more than five per cent, one-half of in orde t potetludia r
the excess would go' to 'the railroad: front undue expenditure, railway li
company and the other half to the I on this guaranteed method should
y be undertaken except on the gro
government of India. To take an ex- of absolute necessity, that all o
ample, if the tariff yielded four pers
cent, on the capitalexnd, the go- Ilinies should be left to private en,
vernment of Indiawul expended,heg prise. and that canals were filling
en~t oakIdptegwould pay one per needs of India both as a means
cent to make up the guaranteed rate I cheap transportation for the pci
of interest, and if the tariff yieldedcaatanso fr te pea
seven per cent of the outlay, the' and as a means of protection aga
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Both of these companies were losing Patronize Daily Advertisers.--Ad

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It has often been said that the:
only way to get the first thou-

Sakert All.
Sakert Ali, the Mohammedan lead-I
er recently "liberated from 'a British
prison, where he was confined on
the charge of preaching sedition, is
again taking an active part in the
Nou Co-operationist movement in India
instituted by Mahatma Gandhi. This
arovement is intended as passive re-
volt "against' British rule.
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