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May 25, 1924 - Image 10

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1924-05-25

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We kBeg.
I 25



Parties and State Government

Tues, Tiur4.,

15th Annual Season

First Week

By Thomas H. Reed


(This is the sixh of Professor Reed's series of ar-
licle's On gv0ernmlwtt and political par/ies. The seven lt
and last of these articles, which will discuss theS non-
partisan movement, will b~e pub4lished next Sunday.)
State government on the whole is much less effected
Iby the action of .political parties than is natioflal gov-
clement. Condiitons vary a good deal from state to
state. in some, political parties have been reduced,
- as in California, to a very low ebb; in others like Ohio
they are extremely vigorous and active il state affairs.
It is very difficult to give a composite account of state.
government and politics. To give the institutions and
characteristics of a single state is to present a picture
which corresponds with only one of the forty-eight.
Difficult as it is we must attempt something in the
natuer of the composite picture.
There is an even greater need of the harmonizing
influence of parties in state government than in na-
tional government. Besides the executive, legislative
and judicial branches set off against dne another, in
the states the executive power itself is usually divided
lbetween several elective officers. It not infrequently
happens that even wren they are all of the same party
nothing like harmony can be brought about between
them. I have seen a Governor and a Secretary of
State of the same party glare hostility at one another.
for six years.and never perform an act with relation to
one another which was not intended to'do harn. This
is a somewhat unusual situation but there have been
many others similar in kind though not so extreme in.
State elections are universally fought on party lines
with this difference from national elections, that there
is on the whole greater freedom in the direction of
independent voting. Men Wvho would not think of cast-
ing a ballot for any but their own party's candidate
for President will without much hesitation vote for the
candidate of the opposite' party for Governor. As we
descend in the scale of offices, this tendency toward
indepenlence becomes more and more markedl. It
is. however, greatly hindered by the circumstance that
the long ballot with its curious list of unknown per-
sonsrunning for unknown offices causes people in sheer
despair to fall back upon the recommendation of their
own party.
lu the actual conduct of state government the party,
usually counts less than it does at Washiington. Our
state legislatures are organized in strict imitation of
the houses of Congress. There are the same commit-
tees always containing a majority of the majority party,
and a Speaker of the lower IHouse who-uses his pawers
in a partisan manner.. It: is, however, only in rare
instances that the menibers of the legislature actually
divide on party lines in determining the fate of any
measures before them. There is som'etinies a go(1
deal of talk about party responsibility and an attempt

to keep some sort of larty control of the legislature
but it rarely amounts to much. Upon a few very im-
portant meiasurcs the membhers .of the }party and the
legislature will caucus. Persons who attend a:caucus
are mnorally bIund to abide b y its decisions. The re-
stilt is that caucuses are ra ely callel andl reluctantly
attended. Thel reasons which must often determine
the action of rmembers of the legislatureare sectional
ani individual rather than partisan.
There is a rather close parallel befween the power
of the Governor and that of the Presid' ent. The people
of the state have come to regard the Governor as the
one officer who can really he counted upon to act in
a representative capacity in the state government. The
Governor has the ear of the public as no nember of
the legislature has it. He. has a veto power even more
extensive than that of the President. His power of
appointment is less trammeled in most cases by plro-
visions for merit appointment. The legislators indi-
vidually are by no mneans able to cope with him and
it is only whoa there exists a well disciplined majority
oppose(l to hi'i i that they can stand in his way. From
what has already been said it is easy to infer the
truth that it is only rarely that this circumstance will
arise. In most states the control of the Governor over
the legislature has somewhat less of the party and more
of the personal element than in the case of the Pres-
ident. : The machines which have been built by influ-
ential Governors like Hiram Johnson and Robert 14a-
follette have been personal rather than party machines.
They have certainly )roved to be personal in the sense.
that the party could not get control of them.
There is some reasonable, justification for the break-
ing lown of national parties lines in the coneluct .of a
state govrenment. 'The issues of state government are
not identical with those of national governnient. A
rman may come, for example, from the rural portion
of an agricultural state, believe, in a low tariff and
find himself in other respects also a D)emocrat in na-
tional affairs. On the other hand he may be deeply
interestel in the adoption of a progressive irrigation
policy by his state and finds himself there more inti-
mately allied with a great many Republicans. The fact
that the Democrats stand for the things he believes in
in the nation does not necessarily mean that the Re-
lpulicas (dlo not stand for what he w'ants in the state.
The 'issues of .politics become confused. There is a
certain tendency for the parties in the states to align
themselves on opposite sides of great questions but it
is only rarely that they succeedl iii so doing. Jt seems
ridiculous froi a certain point of view to allow the
fate of state policies with regard' to prison reforn,
child labor: and' rheIimproveet' ocgf' ricuzlture i& he
settled in an election where the real issues are the
national administration's polif in'toMexico :or the pro-
tective tarift. There would, however, be very little to
nouridi national party machines of., if it 'were .not

for the power and patronage which comes to them by
virite of controlling the states. There was a time
when this was an all sufficient justification for the
complete subordination of state issues to those of na-
tional politics. There is much less of this now than
formerly. In some states it has almost altogether dis-
appeared. In others it is disappearing.
On the other hand the states are such lar its
that it is practically impossible to carry on their poll-
tics without parties and, energetic organizers as we
are' we have not felt equal to the task of having two
sets of parties, one for state and one for national af-
fairs. On the whole it is probable that national par-
ties will continue to operate in the states much as they
do 'at present, that is very vigorously around election
time but with comparatively small effect in the daily
operation of government except in matters of patron-
There can be no question that the direct primray
system has weakened the hold of the parties upon
state government. This has not been altogether an
unmixed blessing. There is a certain advantage in
the existence of vigorous parties, one ready to take
power front the other when occasion offers. This is
what party responsibility really means, 'that one party
should be in control of all branches of the government
and that there should be another party reaiy. and
willing to take over that control whenever the people
desire a change. State politics have become less a
matter of paty anl more a matter of individual lead-
ership. Ve are for Groesbeck, Smith or Pinchot, not
for the Republican or Democratic parties. We have
sulbsti tuted individual responsibility for party respon-
sibility. Some .are already beginning ;o regret the
Time alone, however, can tell whether the settle-
ment of state issues on their own merits and the
filling of state offices upon the' basis of state needs
was enough to offset the loss of effective party respon-
sihility as a; means of securing democratic control in
state government. I would counsel deliberation, not
ru ing fron the evils that we know' to those that we
have forgotten but cautiously and deliberately feeling
our way toward better devices in government. Rore
was not made in a (lay, neither was Michigan, Massa-
chusetts or \Missouri. Gf ;overnmienttal processes are iM
the course of evolution just as are the creatures of the
physical world. There riever was a tiune when they
were perfect. In fact they never will he perfect ul-
til they are (lead and we are in the cofin ith them.
They possess an indefinite capacity for' perfecet dilaty.
They will always be changing, though the units of
tim in which changes are operated may be centuri;es,
we do not neel to be discouraged because Ieither the
teformers of 1912 or the reactionaries of 1Q'4 have
found the key to the ,perfect relation of national par-
ties to state government.


In a Sma~rt New Comnedy of Life by Emmna Beatrice Bmunner



Jessie Bonstelle
Mary Hone
Marion Fairbank
Edwin I. Wolfe

Katherine Alexander
Virginia Howell
cs Alargaret Storey
Wlt~ler Sherwin
ld Walker sll
Stepheii Nastfogel, Scenie Artist,

Minor Watson
Eden Gray
Walter Young
Lester Vail
Adams T. Re







No muter whatt purposess
the garments serve, they
will bze muzh more satis-
factory i fcleaned here
in Benzo . Costs are low
Telephone 13





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' :.


. * '

--- Today In 7
First Baptist Church
Members of the G. A. R. and allied
rganizations will be the specialt
luests for the memorial day service
t the First Baptist Church at 10:30.
Eeverend It. E. Sayles will preach on
What 1M1ean These Stones?" At noon
,he Church school and stuidents class
ill meet at the Guild house under the
lirection of Howiird R. Chrapman,
dil members of the B. Y. P. U. will
Ueet at 5:45 at t11e Guild house to go
n canoes to Beefsteak hill where Miss
erry Hamilton, '24M, will lead a brie
ervice on the topic, "Personality."
Episcopal Church
Reverend Charles D. Erdman, D. D;,
f Princeton, N. J., will present the
iorning sermon on "Let Us Rise Up
nd Build," at the St. Andrew's Eps-
opal Church at 11 o'clock. Holy corn-
nunion will be held at 8 o'clock, at
2:15 there will be a bible class fort
oung women, and at 4 o'clock the,
tudents will gather at Harris hall for
hike and picnic.
Congregational Church
Seniors are specially invited to the
horning service at 10:45 o'clock 'at
lie Congregational Church. Reverend
[erbert A. Jump will preach on "Ar-
ows of Little Faith: A Sermon to
ie Youth." The student hour at 5;30
ill be a welcome to Mrs. E. Knox
Mitchell, the new wife of the univer-t
ity pastor of this church. Al Stanch-a
eld will contribute some special mu-i
ical features after which an informal (
upper will be served. The fireside
hat at 6:30 will discuss "How Choose<
ne's Life Work?" and the motion pie- a
ure service at 7:30 will be a patri-

he Churches ---
otic film featuring Alice Brady in
"Betsy Ross and the flag."F
First Methodist Church1
"I Know" is the pastor's subject for
morning worship at the First Metlio-'
dist Church at 10:30 o'clock. Bible
classes 'will be held at noon and open
house at 6:30 at Wesley hall. Mr.
Millard Pryor will lead tlie guild de-
votional meeting at 6:30 and at 7:30
an international peace program will
be presented. One subject will be
"Peace As We Ought To Pursue It,"
Znd Miss Estelle Downing, associate
professor of rhetoric at the Michigan
State Normal, Ypsilanti, will speak
on "Indications Of Woman's Attitude
T[wardl War and Peace."
First Presbyterian Church
"What Is Most Worthwhile?" will be
the Presbyterian Church by Reverend
discussed at the morning worship of
Merle 11. Anderson,. minister. At:
12:30 o'clock a student class will be,
led by Dr. Anderson, a 5:30 there
will be a social hour, and at 6:30
Christian Endeavor will meet for a
special musical evening.
Zion Lutheran Church
The subject chosen for discussion at,
.he morning service of the Zion Luth-
eran Church is "Praying in the Name
of Jesus." The student forum will
observe Senior Night -with a supper
served by the women of the church
at 6:00 o'clock. A service to com-
memorate the Savior's ascension will
be held Thursday evening at 7:30.






If you contemplate sometime
buying an Oriental handmado
rug-I will be glad to have you
come often to my home and se
my new importations of Chinese
rugs. Unless you have already
decided on just what designs and
colors you want, the seeing of,
the many new styles and 'differ-
ent combinations of color will
be a great help to you, and I
enjoy showing the rugs to those
who appreciate beauty.

v '
... "
.. ' -

The smart sandal forsummer
wear in town is black- pref-
erably patent leather. This
smartlypatterned, youthfully
styled Walk-Over model,
with its famous Walk-Over
smooth fit and special anni-
versary quality, is priced low
enough to be an added con-
venience in every well dressed
woman's wardrobe.

.. r .. , . . . 1 , ,.. ,. . _ ..

, .


RF i


An anniversary
ipecial, in patent

- - We w e
r! ~

M115 A. IAJN ST.

928 Church


- 'j~.

Patronize Daily Advertisers,-Adv.




a'JVVKR. vue win,
P ay the best
possible price
for them

summer weather

" r
,, r

phis .season


p Di

We Have



Ferry's Lawn Seed and Garden Seeds and tools to work
the gardens and lawns with. Lawn Mowers, another
shipment of them expected the first of the week, priced
from $7.00 to $18.00.






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