The Michigan Daily-Tuesday, August 10, 1982-Page 5
PSYCHOLOGISTS SAY THE DANGER COMES FROM TOO MUCH
Self-deception may be helpful
NTA (AP)- Shakespeare's prescription, their mental health by deceiving themselves about whether they succeed or fail, said Sharon Whittaker-
e own self be true," may lead to unhappiness the importance of their work, according to John Har- Bleuler, a sports psychologist at the University of
ure, a group of psychologists says. tung, an anthropologist who was not present but British Columbia in Vancouver.
d, they argue that a bit of self-deception whose paper was read at the meeting. In studies of professional tennis players, she has
the key to success in everything from jobs to THEY MAY convince themselves that they respect found that a player losing a match may assume
s. The researchers, who spoke yesterday at a their superiors and that their jobs are important even dominant behavior after winning a point, in the hope
of the International Primatological Society, though they are given meaningless chores by those of turning the tide.
" n 1A 1upe"or.11AlM
R could be
cautioned against an excess of self-deception.
"MODERATE self-deception is helpful in adjusting
to culture and people," said James Welles, a
psychologist from Los Angeles and an orginator of
the psychological concept of self-deception.
"The normal person has a slight amount of self-
deception, just as he has a slight amount of paranoia
or mania," Welles said. "The danger of self-
deception is excess."
People trapped in unpleasant jobs often maintain
Welles said many animals deceive other members
of their species but that humans are the only animals
to engage in self-deception.
"Self-deception is the distinctive feature of
humans," he said. Daniel Krakauer, a New York
zoologist, was more cautious, saying only, "Homo
sapiens is the most self-deceived of any species."
ATHLETES ENGAGE in very subtle forms of self-
deception, and that may be a determining factor in
The player is often unaware of it, but slight changes
in stance, handling of the racket or facial expression
will be picked up by an opponent.
Welles said self-deception taken to excess may be
the cause of social ills.
"When you have a philosophy, you tend to gather
data that confirm it" and ignore other data, Welles
said. Eventually, the philosophy begins to look decep-
tively like the absolute truth.
(Continued from Page 1)
bombing runs lasting more than three
hours, and gunboat artillery pounded
Palestinian positions in west Beirut,
along the Mediterranean coast, and in
the Syrian-controlled hills near Tar-
shish, 19 miles east of the capital,
Lebanese and Palestinian sources said.
The bombardments on the crumbling
Lebanese capital were concentrated on
the coastal Ouzai neighborhood, the
southern Palestinian refugee camps of
Sabra, Chatila and Burj Al Brajneh,
and the central Arab university and
stadium areas - where most of an
estimated 6,000 Palestinian guerrillas
are holed up.
The attacks apparently were aimed
at pressuring PLO guerrillas to
evacuate west Beirut - under siege by
Israeli forces who invaded Lebanon
Ski Celestial *AP Photo
As seen from a National Guard helicopter on maneuvers near Camp Grayling in Michigan, the simple act of water
skiing becomes what appears to be a comet in the night sky.
Number of women in office has tripled in seven years
(Continued from Page 3)
for the American Woman and Politics
at Rutgers University, agrees.
"Women who get nominated have about
the same chance of winning as men,"
For a long time, a woman could land
a nomination only if the situation called
for a sacrificial lamb, someone to run
against an unbeatable male. That time,
says Mandel, is in the past.
WOMEN ARE voting in larger num-
bers than before-and in larger percen-
tages than men-another factor com-
batting the bias against women can-
Women got the vote on Aug. 18, 1920,
but many women who were adults then
never got the voting habit. In 1980,
however, the Census Bureau reports, a
fractionally higher percentage of
women than men voted.
But what's happening can hardly be
called a women's revolution.
It will be a long time before women
hold office in proportion to their num-
bers in society. Turnover is slow in
politics; incumbents win most elec-
tions, and most incumbents are men.'
THE 1982 round of primaries not yet
over, it is too early to know how many
women are running for Congress or
state or legislative seats.
However, Rep. Millicent Fenwick, a
Republican, is favored to win her race
for a Senate seat from New Jersey and
in Missouri Harriet Woods, a state
senator, is the leader in the race for the
Democratic nomination to oppose
Republican Sen. John Danforth.
If either wins, the number of women
in the Senate will go beyond two for the
first time in history. Sen. Paula
Hawkins (R-Fla.), elected in 1980, and
Nancy Kassenbaum (R-Kan.), elected
in 1978, were the first women to enter
the Senate without having first
inherited their congressional seats
from a husband who had died in office.
SIXTY-FOUR women filed for party
nominations to congressional seats, but
most will not survive the primary
SHORT OR LONG
Men and Women
Liberty off State ........68-9329
East U. at South U. ....... 662-0334
Maple Village ...........761-2733
process and it appears that about 25 will
be candidates for House seats, in-
cluding 17 of the 19 incumbents-all ex-
cept Fenwick and Shirley Chisholm (D-
N.Y.), who is quitting Congress.
Among the candidates for the House
is Cissy Baker, running in the Ten-
nessee Republican primary. She is the
daughter of Sen. Howard Baker, the
Senate majority leader.
Roxanne Conlin, a Democrat, is
trying to become Iowa's first woman
governor and Lt. Gov. Madeleine Kunin
is making a run in Vermont, which also
never elected a woman governor
Finally, the question: Does it matter
if women were to hold half the political
"Yes, it would matter," says the
Democrats' Lewis. "Women's lives are
different, their experiences are dif-
ferent. In a country where half the
policies were made by women, women
would not make 59 cents to every dollar
.made by men. Old women would not
live in poverty, young women would
have the same opportunities as men for
education. I tend to think that with
more women making policy we would
have fewer wars."
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