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January 26, 2012 - Image 5

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10 The Michigan Daily - michigandaily.com

Thursday, January 26, 2012 - 5A

The Michigan Daily - michigandailycom Thursday, January 26, 2012 - 5A

SURVEY
From Page 1A
The survey also showed that
University freshmen claimed to
have a higher workload in high
school than other freshmen. At
the University, 63.1 percent of
freshmen said they spent at least
six hours studying, whereas only
39.5 percent of freshmen across
the country said the same.
The survey also found that
46.4 percent of University fresh-
men completed five or more
Advanced Placement courses in
high school, compared to 21.7
percent of all freshmen in the
United States.
Though the University's
switch to the Common Applica-
tion last year has resulted in an
increased number of applicants it
did not significantly change the
percentage of incoming fresh-
WARNER
From Page 1A
position as coordinator after her
daughter was diagnosed with
a form of brain cancer in 2003.
She said Warner's confidence in
the facility led her to seek treat-
ment for her daughter and even-
tually apply for the position at
the hospital.
"Pat ran this institution with
heart and with intellect that
enabled us to feel confident that
we could stay here and pro-
vide our daughter with the best
chance of surviving and thriv-
ing," Parent said.
MASTER'S
From Page 1A
care system," Genovese said.
The Health Informatics pro-
gram will combine the "inno-
vative and problem solving
techniques" of the School of
Information with the School of
Public Health's "knowledge of
healthcare of populations as well
as their ability to influence indi-
viduals to live more healthy life-
styles," Friedman said.
He added that the University's
blend of information technology
and public health expertise pro-
vides a forward-thinking faculty
that will prepare the next gen-
eration to meet the needs of the
expanding U.S. health care sys-
tem.

men who considered the Univer-
sity as their first-choice school.
In 2010, 68.9 percent of incoming
freshmen said the University was
their first choice, and in 2011, the
percentage dropped to 65.5.
Matney wrote in a separate
e-mail interview that the small
margin of difference shows
Michigan's continuing popular-
ity.
"What I take from this is that,
although a much larger num-
ber of students are applying to
Michigan, we are also the most
desired destination for a rising
number of students," Matney
wrote. "(The University) is spe-
cial in the aspiration of thou-
sands."
Authors of the study noted
that rising tuition costs and a
slowly growing economy con-
tributed to a rise in freshmen
debt levels across the country.
Survey data found that the per-
Parent commended Warner
for giving her the support and
independence to start a pro-
gram that joins families and
faculty.
"Families and staff adore
her," Parent said. "She's there
100 percent of the time and
makes herself available, as she
is responsive and truly listens to
their voice."
Scott Newport, a UMHS vol-
unteer and the parent of a former
patient, said he has immense
respect for Warner's longstand-
ing commitment to families over
the years.
"It's people like Pat War-
ner who are great leaders, and
"There is widespread agree-
ment that informational technol-
ogy will be vital in solving the
problems of the healthcare indus-
try," Friedman said.
School of Information Dean
Jeffrey MacKie-Mason said an
aging population and a wealthier
society have contributed to the
growing demand for educational
opportunities in health-related
information technology, and
careers in areas like health analy-
sis, hospital administration and
health insurance.
"Cost of health care will soon
become one of the single most
important expenditures in the
United States," MacKie-Mason
said. " ... It is because of this that
there are a lot more demands for
informational technology in the
healthcare system."

centage of all incoming freshmen
in the nation in 2011 who needed
$10,000 or more in loans to pay
for their firstyear of college more
than doubled the percentage in
2001, from 5.6 percent to 13.3
percent.
University freshmen, on the
other hand, exhibited the oppo-
site trend. In 2011, 3.4 percent
of University freshmen expect-
ed to use $10,000 or more in
loans, while in 2001, 5.6 percent
expected the same.
Matney wrote in the email
that the decrease in loans has
more to do with an increase in
financial aid from the University
rather than a change in the finan-
cial background of attending stu-
dents. She cited the University's
commitment to M-PACT, a finan-
cial aid program that increases
grants and decreases loans for
students in the Ann Arbor cam-
pus.
everything in those kinds of
institutions depends on leader-
ship," Newport said.
Newport said his appreciation
for Warner comes partly from
his gratitude for the doctors who
worked at Mott.
"We work with the doctors
and nurses on a daily basis, and
after all of the visits, we sit back
and appreciate the leadership
that they work under," Newport
said. "She encourages the staff
to be the best they can be. I'm
going to miss her."
UMHS spokeswoman Mar-
garita Wagerson said UMHS
will hold a national search for
Warner's replacement.
LSA senior Kyle Heckaman
wrote in an e-mail interview
that he is applying to the Health
Informatics program for the fall
because it will allow him to utilize
a variety of academic skills.
Heckaman added that he is
considering working in a hospi-
tal as an information officer, and
that a degree in Health Informat-
ics would help him use available
information to address deficien-
cies in the health care industry.
"After I realized that direct
patient care was not for me, I still
wanted to remain in a health-
related field, one that would allow
me to utilize the quantitative and
analytical skills I learned while at
studying biochemistry," Hecka-
man wrote. "A degree in health
informatics will allow me to do
both of those things."

REGULATIONS
From Page 1A
the majority of regulatory work of
psychological studies is done at
the departmental level by institu-
tional review boards. The boards
review proposals for experiments
before they're performed, con-
duct random audits on research-
ers and handle complaints from
participants against researchers
or particular studies.
"It is set up-solely to review
experimental procedures," Seif-
ert said. "The board has faculty
members from across the Univer-
sity, and they reviewthe proposed
procedures to see if they are ethi-
cal or not."
Seifert added that the boards
report to the federal government
if they find evidence of legal vio-
lations that cannot be handled
internally.
"The institutional review
board is there to guarantee that
researchers follow the ethical
principles outlined bythe (Ameri-
can Psychological Association)
and federal law about how partici-
pants can be treated in research,"
Seifert said.
Christine Moretto Wishnoff,
health program specialist at the
National Institutes of Health,
said the "Common Rule" - a
portion of the federal regulation
code on human research subjects
within the U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services - is
the main federal law overseeing
experimentation. The rule also
mandated the establishment of
institutional review boards to bet-
ter protect volunteers in psycho-
logical experiments.
"The charge of the institutional
review board is to assess that risk
to subjects have been minimized
and that risks are reasonable in
relation to anticipated benefit,"
Wishnoff said.
The violations NIH deal
with are usually not very seri-
ous, Wishnoff said. Lapses in the
required yearly reviews are the
most common, but she said she
has never seen a study that would
seriously imperil subjects brought
to her office.
She added that a key criterion

for the funding that NIH pro-
vides for psychological research
is based on the ethical consider-
ations of the proposed experi-
ment.
"Typically when we look
at studies that would result in
duress, we would make sure there
is an evaluation of whatever the
research would be," Wishnoff
said. "Issues of subject protection
and concerns are flagged at that
point (of the evaluation). A grant
cannot be paid until those con-
cerns are addressed."
Both Wishnoff and Seifert
agreed that the use of deception
and other misleading techniques
will continue to be necessary in
psychological experiments in
order to obtain honest results
from participants.
"The nature of science has
somewhat changed," Wishnoff
said. "There will always bestudies
that employ some level of decep-
tion or disclosing only certain
aspects of a study design."
Edward O'Brien, a Rackham
student who has conducted psy,
chological research in the past,
said potential ethical dilemmas
concerning psychological experi-
ments were clearly presented to
him, even during his undergradu-
ate years at St. Joseph's University.
Before he could conduct experi-
ments at the undergraduate level,
O'Brien said he had to take a sum-
mer course about experimental
ethics, and he was also required to
complete an online course at the
University of Michigan before he
was allowed to work with human
subjects.
O'Brien said he believes the
greatest ethical concerns facing
psychological research today are
not harm to the participant, but
rather the inadvertent revela-
tion of a participant's confidential
information or results from a test.
"Having personal information
like a cell phone number or an
e-mail address that the participant
didn't agree to give (are more of a
concern), as compared to the old
days like the 'shocking experi-
ment' (application of electric
shocks to participants) that would
physically harm the participant
(by giving them electric shocks),"
O'Brien said.

O'Brien added that institutional
review boards emerged informal-
ly at the Nuremburg trials after
World War II with the revelation
of Nazi experiments. Wishnoff
said these were formalized when
the Common Rule became law in
1991.
Beyond research psychology,
professional psychological care
also receives strictly enforced
regulation. The Michigan Board
of Psychology - whose members
are appointed by the governor -
regulates psychological treatment
and practices and oversees profes-
sional licensing.
Robert Hack, a limited license
psychologist and member of the
Michigan Board of Psychology,
said the board doesn't usually deal
with research issues, but instead
focuses on complaints against pro-
fessionals in the practice. If there
are reported violations against
psychologists, the complaint often
undergoes a process similar to that
of an institutional review board.
"(The complaint) goes to the
office in Lansing which asks us to
investigate and (also) the assistant
attorney general's office to investi-
gate violations," Hack said. "It'sup
to interpretation sometimes. Some
of it's relevant, but sometimes it's
just a therapist not really doing
what (the patient) wants them to
do."
LSA freshman Tonia Ballantyne
said she was required to partici-
pate in basic psychology experi-
ments for her Psychology111class.
Though some of the experiments
were handled professionally, she
said she was correctly debriefed
after, which she said she felt was
an ethical concern.
"(The researchers) had manipu-
lated certain variables, but they
never said what they were on the
debriefing form," Ballantyne said.
"I thought that was very contra-
dictory to what we had learned in
class."
The researchers were flustered
when they encountered a glitch
in their computer system, and
even admitted that their debrief-
ing form didn't say anything about
what the experiment addressed,
Ballantyne said.
"The professionalism was down
the drain at that point"

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