2 - The Michigan Daily - Friday,_October 1, 1999
Continued from Page 1
the other, nudging the top plate upward. 'Yesterday s
earthquake in Mexico was probably on a subduction
fault as well. Preliminary reports indicated that it was a
7.4 or 7.5 on the Richter scale.
The largest earthquakes. those with magnitude
between 7 and 9 on the Richter scale, often occur on
subduction faults. Subduction faults appear where an
ocean meets a body of land. In these situations, the
ocean plate slips under the land plate causing a quake.
The Pacific Ocean has a rash of these faults. The
islands of Japan are vulnerable. The western coast of the
Americas are subduction faults, except for the San
Andreas fault that runs the coast of California.
South America's Pacific coast and the islands around
New Zealand routinely experience quakes even larger
than the recent newsiakers. But though they are of
value to geologists, quakes centered on sparsely popu-
lated islands have less impact on the world than quakes
hitting densely populated centers, so they are less fre-
quently reported, Ruff said.
In addition to the clear-cut faults, there are seemingly
random "hot-spots" where there is abundant seismic
activity in the middle of a plate.
The largest earthquakes to hit the contiguous United
States in recorded history was a triplet of quakes that
shook the area of New Madrid, Missouri in 1812.
Ranging in magnitude from 8.4 to 8.7, the three quakes
were completely isolated from any plate movement.
[hi was a clasic.vl mpl. of an int rnle earth-
quake, said geoloy Prot Ben A. v an der i luim. An
ancient thult cracked undcr the strain of todav's plate
movements. causin'g a serin'.in i eatihqude.
Even though New MIiadrid h is beCn qui nt ince then.
the possibility of another eThqu iak caln't b uled Out.
said van der Plui-m. It is still considered actie. hut it
could be decades befre any more moemrent.
Intraplate earthquakes are not usually as severe as the
New Madnd example. said geology Prof. Rob Van der
Voo. They are also not as frequent as earthquakes that
occur on plate boundaries.
Ruf said a similar incident is not likely to happen in
Michigan. Michigan experiences very little seismic
activity, he said. The few quakes it feels are usually cen-
tered in other states. Michiganders felt some shaking
from an earthquake in the Cleveland area last year, but
there was no structural damage anywhere in Michigan.
Even if a large earthquake were to hit Missouri again.
there would not be any serious damage in Michigan.
Chimneys might crumble and trees might sway, but
buildings would stay standing.
The U.S. Geological Survey predicts that every year
there will be 18 earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7 and one
of magnitude 8 or above. In terms of the number of
quakes, 1999 is a normal year.
But 1999 is above average in the number of quake-
related deaths and the cost of damage. Three large earth-
quakes have devastated three urban centers in the past
six weeks. With a human population that recently topped
6 billion, van der Pluijm said, the probability that a seri-
ous earthquake will strike a populated area is greater
than it was even 10 years ago.
Mexico's earthquake was roughly the same magni-
tude as the one that shook Turkey. Turkey's claimed over
15.000 lives while five deaths have been reported so far
in Mexico. One difference was that Turkey's quake
struck in a densely populated area; Mexico's was cen-
tered on the coast in a largely rural district.
The fact that the earthquakes in Turkey and Taiwan
happened in the pre-dawn hours when many people
were asleep was also significant, said van der Pluijm.
Early morning quakes give people little time to react,
and toppling houses account for many deaths.
Turkey's earthquake was about four times weaker
than Taiwan's, yet more than eight times as deadly.
While Taiwan's quake was centered in a less-populated
area, shoddy building construction arguably played a
role, Ruff said. With the booming global population,
constructing new buildings quickly may compromise
the strength of the buildings.
Ruff said that the cost difference between normal
buildings and earthquake-proof ones is not all that great.
Stronger buildings help, said van der Pluijm, but they
would not necessarily stand if a strong quake were to
occur in close proximity. They might minimize damage,
but they would not prevent it.
The recent urban earthquakes do not mean the earth
is going to come to an end in the next three months. But
similar earthquakes will continue to rock the world in
the next century, and as the population expands they will
affect increasing numbers of people.
AROUND THE NATION
Bradley contributions top competitors
Democrat Bill Bradley has raised more money in the last three months for his
presidential campaign than Vice President Gore and has more of it left in the bank
his campaign said yesterday, marking a dramatic shift in fund-raising momentum
as Bradley has gone from long-shot challenger to serious threat.
The increasingly pitched Democratic battle stands in sharp contrast to the GOP
contest overwhelmingly dominated by Texas Gov. George W. Bush. Yste',
Bush said he had collected $56 million this year and S19 million in the last t e
months - more than the two Democrats combined. Even with a sharp increase in
spending, Bush has stockpiled S37 million.
A day after Gore announced he would move his operation to Tennessee.
Bradley's team revealed surging fund-raising that enabled him to raise more than
S6.7 million between July and the end of the third quarter yesterday, compared with
Gore's S6.5 million.
The former New Jersey senator also has "more than S10 million" in the bank,
according to senior adviser Anita Dunn, while Gore's consultant-laden team esti-
mated between S9.5 million and S0 million still on hand.
A few months ago, Gore's advisers expected fund-raising to be one of his major
assets in fending off an challenge from Bradley, confidently predicting that by thi*11
they would raise all the money they needed to spend in primaries next year.
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Continued from Page 1
But IFC adviser John Mountz said
that "they are working on an appeal."
The fraternity now faces the possibil-
ity of losing its seat on IFC, forgoing
participation in social functions and a
new pledge class.
The future of Reddy's IFC presiden-
tial term also is uncertain, since he is
also a FIJI fraternity member, Mountz
said, but added that the decision has not
The campus chapter failed to comply
with only a few of the various new ini-
tiatives, Baney said.
The guidelines require that a gradu-
ate trusteeship program be established,
requiring graduated members to get
involved with pledge and member edu-
cation programs and coordinate chapter
Other guidelines included a risk
management policy for conducting
social activities; an alcohol-free house;
participation in Interfraternity Council
education programs; performing no
less than 500 hours of community ser-
vice as a chapter and participation in a
leadership program at the FIJI academy.
Three-ofthese requirements were not
complied with, Banley said, including
failure to attend the summer seminar at
the FIJI Academy, failure to sign com-
mitment papers and a feeling from
graduate members that the chapter was
not taking the guidelines seriously,
But Turner said that failure to attend
the seminar is because "there was a
communication gap." FIJI President
Manna Kalhoun allegedly did not
receive the letter because the fraternity
headquarters did not have the proper
forwarding address, Turner said.
Fraternity members were also
required to sign contracts stating their
commitment to upholding the stipula-
tions, Baney said adding that the inter-
national organization did not receive all
of the required signatures by the Sept.
But Reddy and Turner denied that the
members were not fully committed to
the fraternity and the guidelines.
The interview were conducted and
the forms were distributed to the mem-
bers Sept. 12 and 13 and the deadline
for the forms was one week later, Sept.
20, Reddy said. But the forms were not
returned until one week after the dead-
line, he added.
"But they didn't say that the absolute
deadline was a week," Reddy said.
"They said take your time, take a week,
so we took two."
In that two-week period fraternity
members tried to address member con-
FIJI members were slow to sign the
commitment papers because they were
unsure of how this contract would
affect their lease agreements as well as
having additional questions that needed
to be answered, Turner said.
As of last Monday, at a chapter meet-
ing, all but one of the commitment
papers were signed by in-house mem-
In respect to out-of-house members,
not all have receive the forms and there
were scheduling conflicts with the
interviews, Turner said.
But Reddy added that in terms of the
commitment papers members were
"primarily concerned with live-in
Baney expressed concern that senior
and live-out members had not signed
the forms even though they are less
Graduate members were also con-
cerned that the review process and the
graduate trusteeship program was not
being taken seriously, Baney said.
Continued from Page 1
Dolby Digital Surround Sound and will
add DTS by the end of the month for
the revival of the Beatles' "Yellow
Additionally, the new screening
room has much more leg room than the
historic theater. Collins said that
though they considered putting in the
popular stadium seating, they opted to
go with off-setting seats so people can
see the screen instead of the back of
The look of the theater itself is
unique too. As Frost described the
room, there's an "outdoor feeling in
here," referring to the cityscape and
twilight backdrop on top of the walls in
the theater. The collage depicts historic
Ann Arbor movie theaters and perfor-
mance theaters, going back to the 1908
Star Theater riot, during which students
destroyed the "nickelodeon.'
Complementing the screening room
itself, a lot of work has been done on
the addition housing the theater.
To prevent sound bleeding from one
theater to the other, the historic audi-
torium and the screening room don't
directly touch. Instead, a corridor
leading to the screening room sits
between them and will house the Ford
Gallery of Ann Arbor Founders. The
Gallery will be made up of 26 plaques
depicting the founding of Ann Arbor,
going back to glaciers carving out the
area and will go up to around the
1950s. Work has not yet started on the
Gallery, which is now one brick wall
and one wall painted yellow. The
Gallery will be complemented by
solid-colored banners hanging from
The Gallery is not the only aspect of
the new addition that isn't finished.
Mars crash result of
simple math error
NASA's Mars Climate Orbiter was
lost in space last week because engi-
neers failed to make a simple conver-
sion from English units to metric, an
embarrassing lapse that sent the $125
million craft fatally close to the
Martian surface, investigators said yes-
Officials are scrambling to deter-
mine whether a similar error is buried
in the computer files of two other
spacecraft currently cruising through
space: the Mars Polar Lander, sched-
uled to hit the Martian surface on Dec.
3, and the Stardust craft bound for a
It now appears the error had affected
the orbiter mission from its launching
almost 10 months and 416 million
miles before its Sept. 23 failure. Yet the
problem was never caught by the sys-
tem of checks and balances at the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory in California,
which manages this and numerous
other interplanetary missions for
As a result, flight controllers believe
the spacecraft plowed into the Martian
atmosphere, where the stresses crippled
it, aborted its insertion into Martian
orbit and most likely left it hurtling on
through space in an orbit around the
veto of GOP plan
WASHINGTON - Dozens of dis-
putes left most congressional spend-
ing bills unfinished as fiscal 1999
turned to 2000. President Clinton
promised to veto a Republicanplan to
save money by slowing income-sup-
port payments to millions of workm-
"Let me be clear: I will not sign a bill
that turns its back on these hardwork-
ing families," Clinton said yesterday at
the White House.
"They're doing all they can to lift
themselves out of poverty, to raise their
children with dignity. I don't think we
should be putting more roadblocks in
AROUND THE WORLD
\ , ,
Russia sends ground
troops to Chechnya
MOSCOW - Russian troops
launched a major ground offensive into
the separatist southern region of
Chechnya yesterday with the apparent
aim of creating a buffe zone to block
infiltration of Chechen guerrillas into
neighboring parts of Russia, according
to Russian and Chechen officials.
It was Moscow's most powerful mil-
itary operation against Chechen guer-
rilla forces since 1996, when the
Chechens forced Russian troops to
withdraw from the region in disorder
and defeat after a brutal three-year con-
flict that left the rugged Caucasus terri-
tory virtually independent of Moscow.
Russian leaders threw a blanket of
secrecy over the new offensive, but
Prime Minister Vladimir Putin hinted
strongly that it had begun, adding that
Russian troops in fact had been fight-
ing just inside the Chechen border for
"Military operations are already
underway in Chechnya; Chechnya i~
Russian territory, and our troops' can
move anywhere," he declared.
The chair of parliament's Defense
Committee, Roman Popkovich,
that "certain essential villages re
being taken; certain operational space
is needed to rule out ... counterat-
Quake kills 11 in
MEXICO CITY - A powerful
earthquake rattled Mexico
office towers and damaged hundreds
of adobe houses in the Pacific Coasi
state of Oaxaca yesterday, leaving al
least 11 people dead across southerr
Damage from the quake, which reg-
istered a magnitude of 7.5, was noi
widespread. But the tremors sent hun-
dreds of thousands of frightened peopk
into the streets of cities and villages.
- Compiled from Daily wire re s
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SOw w wDTRA( 1 E LY AVAILABLEx -
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NEWS Jennifer Yachnin, Managing Editor
EDITORS: Nikita Easley, Katie Plona, Mike Spahn, Jaimie Winkler.
STAFF: Lindsey Alpert, Jeannie Baumann, Risa Berrin. Marta Bril, Nick Bunkley. Anna Clark. Adam Brian Cohen, Gerard Cohen-Vrignaud.
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PHOTO Louis Brown, Dana Linnane, Editors
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rtAFlifLJCS STAFF- Alx Hoge.