Continued from Page 5
Margaret Mitchell's novel was
published in June of 1936, and sold
more than a million copies in the
next six months. About four weeks
after the book's release, producer
David Selznick paid $50,000 to
Mitchell for the film rights. He
would later send along another
$50,000, feeling that the original
amount wasn't enough.
Even though Selznick had started
his own studio in1935, he realized
that he needed help in making Gone
With The Wind - especially be-
cause the-man he had chosen to play
Rhett Butler was under contract to
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer at the time.
So Selznick was forced to make a
deal with Louis Mayer, who had al-
ready passed on purchasing the rights
to the book under the advice of the
Midas-touch boy producer Irving
Thalberg, who said "Forget it Louis.
No Civil War picture ever made a
nickel." The deal was that Selznick
received Clark Gable and $1.25 mil-
lion, and gave Mayer, who was also
his father-in-law, the distribution
rights and half the profits.
Finding someone to play Scarlett
was a much harder task. Over 1400
new actresses were tested, as well as
half the leading ladies of Hollywood.
Bette Davis turned down the part
twice, and when Norma Shearer de-
See GWTW, Page 6
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Archibald C ox
North Campus - 927 Maiden Lane Main Campus - 546 Packard
Watergate figure turns his sights.
to keeping government ethical
Archibald Cox began his government career during the Truman
administration and was solicitor general, arguing the government's cases
before the Supreme Court, during President Lyndon Johnson's
administration. He was named special prosecutor to investigate Richard
Nixon's involvement in Watergate, and was fired by Nixon in what is now
known as the "Saturday Night Massacre." He is now a professor emeritus at
Harvard Law School and chair of Common Cause, a citizen's lobby group
based in Washington. Cox came to Ann Arbor last month to give the
keynote address at the "Ethics: Cornerstone of the Public Trust" conference
sponsored by the Institute for Public Policy Studies. After the speech, Cox
spoke with John Hunter of WPZA-AM and The Daily's Michael Lustig.
Hunter: Mr. Cox, the first question I wanted to ask you is one of the
things I noticed you've said- I believe it was back in 1987 - that you felt
Mr. Poindexter [John Poindexter, former National Security Adviser and
figure in the Iran-Contra affair] and Col. North [Oliver North, Poindexter's
assistant] should be granted immunity in return for testimony.
Cox: I don't recall that... but you may be right. Most of the things I
said at that time were to urge congressional committees to slow down about
promises of immunity. I recognize that it was inevitable they would
promise immunity, but those promises always make prosecution more
difficult. And if we gain some benefit in terms of the hearings, we lose a
good deal in terms of prosecuting those who we have reason to believe
violated the laws.
Hunter: Do you think Col. North should be granted immunity or do
you think he should be treated as, for example, a common citizen who is
accused but not.convicted?
Cox: I don't think there's any reason to treat him less severely than the
ordinary citizen. From many points of view, the high government officials
who abuse trust by violating the laws are a greater problem than the
ordinary citizen. But you must remember that is part of the context, and in
most jurisdictions it is possible to grant an ordinary citizen what we lawyers
call "use immunity," meaning that the answers to the questions can't be
used to prosecute the person to whom that immunity is given. We often use
that as a tool for investigating other crimes. In retrospect I'm inclined to
wish the congressional committees had been less generous in granting
Hunter: You were intimately involved in one of the more controversial
government matters - we're speaking of Watergate - we've had the
Watergate of the '70s, the Iran-Contra affair of the '80s. Mr. Cox, which of
the two do you rank in breach of trust... high misdemeanors, collusion,
things of that nature?
Cox: I'm inclined to think that on the whole the apparent wrongs of the
Iran-Contra affair were more serious, more dangerous to the democratic
process than the Watergate affair. I say that because I think of Iran-Contra's
effect overseas... It was our national policy not to exchange arms for
hostages... and [other countries] found out that was untrue, made it much
harder for them to believe what we say in other areas, and therefore those
deccptions had a bigger effect on our national welfare.
I think that it is harder for members of the public to grasp the
seriousness of the Iran-Contra affair as easily as they could grasp the
seriousness of the Watergate affair. After all, everybody knows that perjury
See Cox, Page 12
Continued from Page 9
and then switched to voice, is get-
ting her BMA with computer science
because "music is a very risky
thing." She sees it as a way to sup-
port herself through graduate school,
although "LSA grades suffer before
But not all students see the future
in such a pessimistic way. Mc-
Cormick, who did her undergraduate
work at Oberlin College, first came
to the University as a business stu-
dent working towards a master's in
arts administration, but gave that up
after a year and worked for an insur-
ance company for three years before
entering the graduate program in
"I feel a lot more confident about
things now," she said.
David Wilcox, a senior majoring
in theater, purposely avoided the
BMA because acting "is the only
thing I've ever wanted to do." People
who use that program "don't show
much confidence" because they are
almost not expecting to find a job.
The theater program is somewhat
different than other programs in the
School of Music because acting stu-
dents take many classes in English
and history. The focus of the pro-
gram, Wilcox said, is on examining
plays as literature.
He has completed the sequence of
six courses needed for a bachelor's
degree in acting and right now is
"dabbling" in different classes. "I
think actors like to dabble because
they can use a bit of everything,"
Wilcox said. "Any class you take,
conceivably, you'll get something
out of it."
Computers have become
commonplace in the lives of
many people, and that is no
different for musicians, actors, and
Realizing this, The School of
Music, began, in 1987, funding the
Center for Performing Arts and
Technology (CPAT), which sup-.
ports research and development of
technological applications to the
Roberta Alexander (M.M., 1971)
Opera singer at the Met and many of
the world's leading opera houses.
George Crumb (A. Mus.D., 1960)
Regarded as one of the most impor-
tant living composers.
Patricia McCarty (B.M., 1974,
Associate principal violist, Boston
Bob McGrath (B.M., 1964)
Star of TV's Sesame Street and
classical and pop music performer.
Earl V. Moore (B.A., 1912, M.A.,
Music School dean and composer of
Jessye Norman (M.M., 1968)
One of the great opera singers of the
Rico Saccani (M.M., 1981, A.
Conductor, first-prize winner in the
1984 Herbert von Karajan Interna-
tional Conducting Competition.
Source: Music at Michigan
With this came a computer center
unlike any other on campus. The
computers, Macintosh SE's, are no
different than any other computers,
but they are attached to keyboards
*and sound equipment. A student can
play a tune on the keyboard, and
save it on a computer disk. A com-
pleted score can then be printed out.
The computer center has 11 stations
which can be programed separately,
but also mixed into a "mini-orches-
tra," said Michael Knight, a video
technology consultant with CPAT.
The music school's Digital Mu-
sic Performance Ensemble opened
the Midwest Music Conference in
January with an all-electronic per-
formance, Knight said.
Knight, who recently helped pro-
duce a music video for jazz artist
Bob James, which is currently being
aired on cable station VH-1, was in-
volved with the Stravinsky dance
concert at the Power Center last
month, where, for the first time,
dance performances were integrated
with video production.
Besides the live dancers on stage,
live and computer-generated images
were projected on screens behind and
above the dancers. Technology such
as this was also used in a dance
composition class last fall with
which Knight was involved.
Another instrument being used by
CPAT is the NeXT computer, which
was designed by Steve Jobs, founder
of Apple Computer. The University
is one of just a few to have this
. In a demonstration, Henry Flurry,
associate director of CPAT, showed
what NeXT can do. Choreographers
and stage directors, he said, can use a
human figure icon, which he has
named "Ralph," to block out scenes.
The view can be oriented so that the
user can see it from the front , as an
audience would, and from the top and
By dragging a mouse, the user
can create a series of steps for a
dancer, which the computer will
save. Music for dancers and spoken
lines for actors can be recorded using
keyboards and microphones hooked
into the computer, Flurry said, and
all can be combined so that the
"dancer" can move to music or the
"actor" can move while reciting
Past, present, future. Ancient in-
struments, countless hours of prac-
tice, computer choreography. Les-
sons, auditions, performances. The
story of the School of Music, like
the lives of its students, follow
similar paths, where years of hard
work and determination in the be-
ginning pay off with success at the
Eric Trautman, John Williston, and
watch as teaching assistant Joe Luk
keyboard to create new sounds.
Charley's happy hour. M
Free Food and great Dri
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D W ai
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PAGE 6 WEEKEND/MARCH 10, 1989 -
WEEKEND/MARCH 10, 1989