_______ ___Wednesday, September 21, 1988
The Michigan Daily
By Philip Meguire
This is in answer to Mark Greer's
editorial of Sept. 19.
Regarding the introductory quote from
Dean Steiner: while his choice of words is
debatable, even perhaps tactless, two fun-
damental facts remain. First, not enough
American Blacks possess completed doc-
torates to allow universities to hire many
more Blacks into the tenure 'track than
they now have. Second, not that many
Blacks apply to graduate schools. This
.should change over the next 20 to 40
years, as it has changed for women.
An incident Greer omits from his ac-
count of the racial composition of the
economics faculty is that the American
Black Glenn Loury was a promising
member of that faculty a few years ago.
He no longer is because he had the good
fortune receiving an offer from the
Kennedy School of Government at Har-
In 1954, at the height of McCarthy
Philip Meguire is a visiting research
investigator in the School of Business.
hysteria, Lawrence Klein was "purged"
under orders from the State legislature.
Does this incident really shed any light on.
conditions here today? Who knows
whether Klein would have remained on our
faculty until 1980, the year he was
awarded the Nobel Prize. That no Nobel
laureate in economics has ever been a
member of our faculty is not a fair criti-
cism of the University.
Even after controlling for education and
other variables, women appear to earn up
to 40 percent less than men. However,
this finding may saymore about the qual-
ity and relevance of the data and statistical
methods used than about any possible
economic discrimination against women.
For instance, among the many bald facts
that empirical studies of sex differences in
wages do not take into account is that men
hold most of the dangerous and dirty jobs
and that such jobs pay a premium. Eco-
nomics is still a fair way from a complete
understanding of wage levels; Greer's
rhetoric does not get us any closer.
While Black enrollment in doctoral
studies in Economics and allied business
disciplines is low, that of women and
Asians is much higher than Greer would
have us believe. Hence, it is not likely
that women and Blacks are discouraged
from pursuing graduate studies in these
disciplines by the prospect of being sub-
jected to the views on racial and gender
differences in wages attributed to Gary
Becker and Dean Steiner. Such "hard-line"
views are not part of any dominant ortho-
doxy in labor economics and are irrelevant
to the vast majority of courses in other
branches of economics and business.
I have no information concerning the
alleged recent denial of employment of
two Blacks by the Economics department
other than whathwasscontainedainGreer's
editorial. Nonetheless, having a doctorate
from MIT or a resume with 40 scholarly
publications does not constitute ipso facto
grounds for being granted a tenure track
appointment at this University. Admit-
tedly, to have published repeatedly views
like Greer's might well prove an obstacle
to receiving such an appointment because
such views are not consistent with either
received economic theory or data.
A jealously guarded prerogative of aca-
demic life is the ability to choose and in-
teract with one's colleagues because the
production of knowledge and the training
of the next generation of scholars are col-
lective enterprises. Hence, no university
that wants to keep talented facu
hire new faculty over the objectio
If Blacks and women are not rec
fair shake in academic life due t
male elitism, then Black and w
universities should be strength
places where Blacks and women c
and make knowledge grow - s
Phallocratic Caucasian Arrogance
ulty will cation would be much better spent on a
ns of the voucher plan that would allow women and
Blacks to choose freely among all univer-
sities, including those catering especially
ceiving a to them.
o white, The offensive quote about alleged racial
women's differences in intelligence taken from a
ened as textbook co-authored by Steiner would be
an study defensible had the adjective "alleged" in
afe from fact preceded the phrase "differences in in-
The re- telligence." It is a harsh fact of academic
If Blacks and women are not receiving a fair shake in academic
life due to white, male elitism, then Black and women's univer-
sities should be strengthened as places where Blacks and women
can study and make knowledge
grow - safe from Phallocratic
sulting academic competition among uni-
versities could only have a salutary effect.
Such universities would necessarily be
private and hence subject to the handicap
of not being financed by taxes. Therefore,
an increased role for Black and women's
universities would necessarily entail hav-
ing the government get out of the busi-
ness of owning and financing universities.
The tax money now spent on higher edu-
life that many scientific hypotheses are
excluded from investigation not because of
the evidence against them but because the
prevailing orthodoxy regards entertaining
such hypotheses as morally repugnant.
Greer's dismissal of Becker's work is pre-
cisely what I have in mind. One can be-
moan the resulting constriction of aca-
demic freedom while having no sympathy
for, or agreement with, such hypotheses.
1 __ _
Edited and managed by students at The University of Michigan
Vol. I C No,10420 Maynard St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Unsigned editorials represent a majority of the Daily's Editorial Board. All other
cartoons, signed articles, and letters do not necessarily represent the opinion
of the Daily.
Stop serving grapes
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'U' ignores Latino
ON SEPTEMBER 2, 1000 students at
the University of California at Berkeley
marched on a Safeway supermarket
protesting its sale of California table
grapes. On Sept. 7, University of
Michigan Food Services began serving
California table grapes in all the dorms,
but Michigan students were silent.
The California march was the latest
effort in the four year California Table
Grape Boycott led by Cdsar Chavez
and the United Farm Workers of
America (UFW) to end the spraying of
toxic pesticides on California grapes.
A government study showed that
over 300,000 workers are poisoned by
pesticides yearly. In the San Joaquin
Valley - a center of grape production
in California - the cancer rate among
children is 600 times the national norm.
The spraying of these pesticides en-
dangers the lives of migrant workers
and residents of surrounding commu-
nities and their residues threaten con-
sumers nationwide. Because these
pesticides are absorbed by table grapes,
they cannot be washed off.
Since UFW President Cdsar Chavez
ended his 36 day hunger strike on Au-
gust 21, fasting chains have started
across the country and many campuses
have taken up the cause. Cornell and
the University of Massachusetts are
continuing their boycotts from last year
and the University of Colorado joined
them. Yale, UCLA, and Stanford are
staging protests and demanding boy-
cotts from their food service programs.
Local action is vital to this movement.
Here in Ann Arbor, the movement is
surprisingly limited. Although the Ann
Arbor food co-ops are boycotting Cali-
fornia grapes and selling Michigan
grapes approved by the UFW, local
supermarket chains and University
Food Services continue to provide Cal-
Dave Foulke, the associate director of
Food Services, told the Daily that the
University is aware of the boycott, but
is required by state law to purchase the
cheapest grapes available. Foulke said
the University participated in the UFW
lettuce boycott in the early 80s after
dorm residents petitioned Food
Services; however there has not been a
similar petition to boycott grapes.
This lack of interest and activism is
deplorable, particularly on an issue in
which grassroots action is essential and
effective. The UFW encourages peo-
ple to boycott any supermarket in their
area selling California grapes.
Kroger and Farmer Jack are guilty of
profiting off the sale of California table
grapes. Although Farmer Jack adver-
tises pesticide-free grapes, a represen-
tative of the chain told the Daily that the
grapes were indeed from California.
The UFW requests that all table grapes
from California be included in the
boycott, so Farmer Jack should be in-
As a major consumer, Food Services
contributes to the grape-growers'
abuses. Thus the most important action
for University students is to petition
Food Services to stop serving Califor-
nia table grapes. It is important not
only to be aware of this issue but also
to take action against the culprits who
are nearest at hand.
By Anne Martinez
Demographers have predicted that by
2010, Latinos will be the largest ethnic
minority in the United States. Under these
circumstances, there is no doubt Latinos
are interested in President Duderstadt's
plans for the 21st century. But what
about now? It is easier for me to think
about the last four years, the time I've
been at the University of Michigan, than
the next 100 years.
In 1984, after several years of voiced
concerns for an academic programs about
Latinos in the U.S., the Latino Studies
Program was born. A year later, the Uni-
versity started to undo the Program. In
1985, Latino Studies was granted a 3-year
probationary period as a program in LSA.
Imagine declaring a major in a program
that might not exist when you graduate.,
In 1986, the Latino Studies director posi-
tion was changed from one assistant pro-
fessor to half an assistant professor.
The University's second-rate treatment
of Latinos is not limited to Latino Stud-
ies. Four years ago, when I came to
Michigan, one of the first places I went
was Minority Student Service (MSS),
Anne Martinez is a senior in Anthro-
pology and Latino Studies.
where I found no Hispanic Representative,
and no precise idea of when one would be
hired. Somewhat discouraged, I did not
return to MSS for almost a year. Now,
we find history repeating itself. The His-
panic Representative position at MSS has
been vacant since July 1, and might be
filled by the middle of October. As one of
than a supplement for Latino faculty.:
This underrepresentation is true of staff
positions, as well. In fact'
underrepresentation of Latinos is found in
every segment of this University EX-
CEPT the custodial ranks, where Latinos
have consistently been overrepresented.
With all this in mind, it is not difficult to'
In 1985, Latino Studies was granted a 3-year probationary pe-
riod as a program in LSA. Imagine declaring a major in a pro-
gram that might not exist when you graduate.
the best offices for resources and support
for Latinos, the University's obvious lack
of concern for the MSS position is not
encouraging for new students. And it is
especially troubling to find that this is the
second time in four years that the position
has been neglected.
This lack of concern is demonstrated not
only in MSS, but throughout the Univer-
sity. The Latino student population, pre-
dominantly Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and
Cubans, has NO Chicano professors, and
perhaps a handful of Puerto Rican and
Cuban professors to serve as role models
and mentors. The University seems to be
using the King/Chavez/Parks Visiting
Scholar Program as a replacement rather
believe that Latinos have the lowest grad-
uation rate of all groups at Michigan.
The University's most recent solution
to all our problems is the Office of
Minority Affairs (OMA). Unfortunately,
OMA has not provided the vital leader-
ship, mentors, or support that Latinos at
Michigan need. Latinos need commitment
from the University, not concessions
President Duderstadt, we need to effect
change for next year, for next term. Not
for the next century!
If the University cannot effectively re-
cruit and retain Latinos in this, the
Decade of the Hispanic, what hope is there
for Latinos at Michigan in the 21st cen-
Letters tot . t ,
Police attack UFW
To the Daily:
Your editorial of 9/16, "No
Nazi Rights," was a two-edged
sword. It raised the issue of a
dilemma in our society: a conflict
between the wrong of racism and
religious prejudice on the one
hand and the right of free speech
on the other.
One can hate the philosophy of
the Nazis but, as Americans, they
have a constitutional right to
express that philosophy. And
when threatened by physical
violence as a result of that
philosophy, they have a right to
police protection. I assume that if
the Nazis attacked people at their
place of worship, the police
would protect the worshippers
and arrest the Nazis.
What bothered me was your
than restriction of their freedom
which, after all, is what they
advocate. Perhaps we could try
the expression popular during the
Viet Nam war: suppose they gave
a war and nobody came? Just
think of the victory of the Nazis
coming to Ann Arbor in full
armor, marching with goose-
stepping police protection with
no one to watch them, scream at
them, fight with them. I don't
think they would bother to
- Robert E. Beyer
To the Daily:
Since my recent opinion
piece "Econ. dept. fosters
elitism" (Daily, 9/19/88), it
has come to my attention that
m~rticnlar 'sentence ireferringr to
nomics, instructors in these
course do not advocate such an
explanation. By no means did
I mean to imply that these in-
structors themselves may be-
lieve in the inferiority of mi-
norities or women.
However the mainstream
theory, which forms the core of
these courses, as well as the
entire discipline, logically im-
plies that women and minori-
ties earn less than white males
because of the lower
productivity of the former.
ANYONE WHO THINKS that cam-
paign violence went out of fashion with
the 1968 Chicago convention should
go visit Delores Huerta in her hospital
bed in San Francisco. Last
Wednesday, Huerta, vice-president and
co-founder of the United Farm
Workers Union (UFW), was brutalized
by San Francisco police outside of a
hotel where George Bush was making
a campaign appearance.
to protect farm workers and consumers
from poisonous pesticides sprayed on
our fruits and vegetables. Why does
George Bush offer other than more
empty rhetoric? Mr. Bush's statement
against the UFW demonstrates, again,
that he is wealthy, comfortable and in-
sensitive to the struggles of working
people in our country. It also reveals
his ignorance of the pesticide threat to
our environment and our people."
If I ;t JFR77 1