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April 10, 1984 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1984-04-10

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Page 4

Tuesday, April 10, 1984

The Michigan Dai

Edited and managed by students at The University of Michigan

Jackson sets black agenda


420 Maynard St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Vol. XCIV-No. 152

Editorials represent a majority opinion of the Daily's Editorial Board
Destructive engagement

ECENT agreements between
apartheid South Africa and
neighboring black-ruled nations should
not fool anyone into believing that
temporary peace in the region means
an end to the internal oppression of
South Africa's black majority.
The adoption in November of a new
South African Constitution which
recognizes the political rights of some
non-whites may have been a positive
step, but the overall picture remains
bleak: the new political system ex-
cludes the nation's 22 nllion blacks.
Reagan administration policy
makers may try to claim that their
1981 "constructive engagement"
policy - softspoken diplomacy in
contrast to Carter administration
restrictions on trade - has helped
bring about the peace agreements in
Mozambique and Angola. But the
painful truth is that the internal war
against blacks in South Africa is still
being fought. "Constructive
engagement" has done nothing to end
this -war. In fact, if anything, the nice-,
sounding policy has made South Africa
a stronger nation economically and
militarily and better able to continue
its apartheid practices. The policy has
certainly boosted U.S. multinationals'
profits and investments in the region.
It is not a policy of peace.
South Africa, even with the new Con-
stitution, maintains racially
segregated residential areas, has laws
preventing marriage and sex across
the color line, and requires that all
blacks 16 and over carry a pass.
Since the Reagan administration's
policies took effect, the United States
has replaced Britain as South Africa's
primary trading partner, and its
largest source of corporate investment.
How can the United States claim that it
is anti-apartheid?
Recent United Nations surveys show
that "constructive engagement" has
shot up U.S. corporate investments-by
some $8 billion over the past three
years. So, while more than 1,000 cor-

porations profit from the racist
regime, studies show that there have
been no significant improvements in
the living standards of South African
black workers relative to whites. In
some sectors of the economy, the in-
come gap between whites and blacks
has actually widened.
So what may appear to be diplomatic
breakthroughs for the Reagan ad-
ministration, and what may seem like
a bend in South Africa's rigid, racist
system turn out to be no solutions at all
to the real problems at hand.
Pretoria's stand against com-
munism makes it a nice cold war ally,
but some sanctions need to be put back
in place if Americans wish to separate
themselves from apartheid practices.
Three House bills, if passed, would
begin separating the United States
from South African racism and
weaken the economic and military
power of the white minority which
The first would ban the import of
South African currency and put an end
to U.S. bank loans to South Africa's
public sector. Most importantly, this
bill would make mandatory adherence
to the Sullivan Code - a restriction en-
suring that black workers in U.S. com-
panies operating in South Africa
receive equal pay for equal work. The
second would revive the export con-
trols imposed by the Carter ad-
ministration and halt all exports that
would sustain the South African
military machine.The third would ban
all new investment in South Africa.
A 1983 study showed that despite the
fact that blacks make up 80 percent of
South Africa's workforce, they still
hold less than 1 percent of all
managerial and administrative
positions and hold less than 25 percent
of all professional and technical jobs.
In encouraging U.S. corporations to
expand in South Africa the U.S. gover-
nment is encouraging racism. That is
far from a "constructive

By Phyllis Crockett
Jesse Jackson's strong showing
among black voters means he
will have a major voice in
negotiating the national political
agenda at the Democratic
National Convention in San Fran-
cisco. He is clearly in a position
to make significant gains in a
way blacks have never done
"Jackson's leverage comes
from being a powerful
Democrat," says Roger Wilkins,
senior fellow at the Institute for
Policy Studies in Washington,
D.C. "He is one of the most
significant members of the
Democratic Party in the country.
That wasn't true four months
JACKSON'S power derives
from grass-roots blacks. In
Chicago and New York, they
gave him 80 percent of * their
votes. In the South, particularly
in Mississippi and Virginia,
where blacks have had little
voice in party politics, the tur-
nout for Jackson exceeded all ex-
This strong showing comes
despite the fact that many black
leaders have endorsed Mondale
or remained uncommitted. But
Jackson's proven ability to
deliver the black vote, and the
Democratic nominee's need for
that vote, means Jackson will
play a major role at the July con-
"Blacks have a chance to get
their agenda through because of
Jesse Jackson," said Maxine
Waters, California State assen-
blywoman from Los Angeles.
"There's absolutely no doubt
about it. The Democratic Party,
must take us seriously."
SAYS ROGER Wilkins,"There
will be two black agendas - one
to deal with the Democratic Par-

ty, the other to deal with specific
programs." Though described
by some as a Jackson adviser,
Wilkins holds no official post in
the Jackson campaign.
"Jackson will say to the party,
'Blacks have supported the party
reliably for decades and got little
or nothing. Now we want guaran-
tees that the party will help black
candidates,' " says Wilkins.
"Jackson will also want the party
to develop black candidates and
run them throughout the coun-
Voting rights is the top item on
Jackson's agenda, according to
Dr. Ronald Walters, Jackson's
deputy campaign manager for
issues. Most important, he said,
"Jesse Jackson will find it im-
possible to support any
Democratic Party nominee for
president who does not support
our second primary challenge."
THIS REFERS to runoff
primaries in the South where
blacks have run for Congress and
won in the first election, but must
face a runoff if they poll less than
50 percent of the vote. At that
point, says Walters, a political
science professor at Howard
University, "The blacks lose
because the black vote is then
diluted." He explains that this is
key to Jackson's agenda because
"without the second primary,
maybe as many as 15 blacks
could be elected to Congress, and
with their numbers added to the
blacks already in Congress, more
progressive legislation could be
passed for everyone."
Jackson feels so strongly about
this issue that if the Democratic
platform fails to include what he
wants on voting rights, he may
run as an independent.
Walters admits that's a
possibility. "Jackson would lose
his leverage if he said flatly that
he wouldn't run as an indepen-
dent," he explains. However, he

thinks this is unlikely "if the
Democratic leadership deals
fairly with him."
JACKSON'S agenda fits into a
national black agenda called the
People's Platform, which grew
out of a year-long series of
meetings involving more than 50
black civil rights, religious,
business, community, and social
organizations. The 55-page plat-
form calls for huge cuts in defen-
se spending, repeal of recent tax
cuts, and restoring social
programs with adjustments for
inflation. It also calls for specific
changes in welfare programs to
emphasize education and job
Jackson will be the chief broker
for blacks at the convention, but
not the only broker. "The
problems are too broad, too much
is at stake, for any one person to
broker on behalf of the black
nation," says Joseph Lowry,
president of the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference
and chairman of the group which
put together the People's Plat-
"We agree that Jesse Jackson
will play a pivotal role at the
convention," adds M. Carl
Holman, president of the
National Urban Coalition and co-
coordinator of the People's Plat-
form. "But the nominee and the
party must also respond . . . to
what other black . leaders are
saying as well." Holman and
others say Jackson and nearly
every other black at the conven-
tion will be pushing the same
agenda - the People's Platform.
ALTHOUGH Jackson has had
his difficulties with some of the
nation's black leaders, there now
appears to be an effort to set dif-
ferences aside. In fact, it now is
difficult to find a black leader
who will publi'cly say anything
against the Jackson candidacy.'
"They have been silenced," says

California's Maxine Waters.
"Jackson's campaign has made
believers of them - or at least
the grass roots have made
believers of them."
Many political observers won-
der what will happen to the
tremendous momentum built up
by the ever-growing numbers of
blacks voting for Jackson. Can
that momentum be sustained in
November when Jackson is net
the nominee? The consensus is
that it all depends on the
Democratic Party.
"Blacks will not come out in
huge numbers just to vote against
Ronald Reagan. They have to
feel they have something to vote
for," says Roger Wilkins. if
Jackson comes out of the conven-
tion enthusiastic, winning some
key planks in the platform,,and
Mondale has the nomination, and
everyone can see that picture of
Jesse holding up Mondale's hand
and beaming, if blacks can see
that enthusiasm and then, if
Jackson and other black leaders
-get out and stump the country
for the Democrats, blacks will
again come out tosvote in great
"The Democrats have some
impressive black elected officials
to field," he adds, citing-
especially mayors of some of the
country's largest cities. "If all
these people get behind the
nominee, the knowledge that
blacks have something positive tb
vote for, coupled with the
knowledge of how hostile the
Reagan administration has been
toward them, then you will see a
black voter turnout like you have
never seen before."


Crockett is a producer
National Public Radio.
wrote this article for
Pacific News Service.



Computing procedures disc

Hidden policy

T HE REAGAN administration is
playing a dangerous game in Cen-
tral America. It is substituting covert
operations for foreign policy and
placing American interests above the
interests of those that it is ostensibly
trying to protect. Reagan is im-
plementing his own questionable
policy and avoiding the analysis and
evaluation that diplomatic arena
It was revealed last week that for
the last few months, Americans
working for the CIA have been super-
vising the mining of Nicaraguan har-
bors and shipping lanes. The actions
represent the first direct American:
military involvement in that nation
and call forth questions concerning the
means exercised by the administration
to advance United States interests in
the region.
Since 1981, the United States has used
advisors in Honduras to monitor rebel
operations within Nicaragua, but the
recent mining involves a direct
military commitment. As one Senator
noted, the mining "crosses a threshold
that brings us closer to a direct con-
frontation with Nicaragua."
This intensified confrontational
Cfndnr%'O : n c ni lnnfl...M-r na -n : i

sources within it. This kind of hide-
and-go-seek does not befit a diplomatic
arena as sensitive as that in Central
America. The United States needs a
much more conscientious and well-
reasoned approach to its policy in the
An administration official justified
the mining saying: "If the country
whose ports are being mined is con-
sidered responsible for some kind of
aggression, in this case support for
guerillas in El Salvador, then mining is
considered an act of self defense just
like any other use of force." However,
it is likely that the administration
would have difficulty standing behind
this reasoning were Nicaragua to
mine Long Island Sound in response to
American support of rebels in
The mining is also of questionable
benefit to American interests. In the
last month-and-a-half it has damaged
vessels from 6 nations - including a
Soviet ship - and brought disapproval
from European governments. France,
in fact, offered to help the Nicaraguan
government clear the shipping lanes of
American mines. The mining has
raised eyebrows in Europe, strained
relations with the Soviets, and done lit-
tlen Th CTA igAing to nnawful

To the Daily:
I am a student in Computer and
Communication Sciences 274. As
a single parent and a feminist I
have found it discriminatory to
work within the system of rates
and hours at the Computing Cen-
Since the rates are lower
students are encouraged to use
the Computing Centers at night.
The lowest rate is from 2 a.m. un-
til 7 a.m. which makes it the op-
timal time to do work. However,
it is unsafe to be on the streets at
this time; the noise level in the
Computing Centers themselves
makes it unlikely for a woman to
be heard; there is poor lighting
around the centers; the parking
is located at an unsafe distance;
and access to various centers
makes it hard to escape, yet easy
for an attacker to hide. Besides if
a woman were attacked, it would
be considered her fault (being out
that late at night, "she was
asking for it"). Therefore,
women are less likely to use the
Computing Centers at night.
Thus, we are forced to use our
money at a more expensive time,
which means we get less ex-
perience on the terminals.
As a single parent I am forced
to findchild-care at the ungodly
time of 2 a.m. to 7 a.m. In order
not to totally disrupt our lives I
am forced to find overnight ac-
comodations for my son. I have
child-care during the day but I
can't take advantage of it
because of the high rates. And
with the amount of business con-
cerns taking up C.P.U. time
during the day, the shut-downs
are more frequent, and the waits
for printouts longer. I see this as
a feminist issue because the
majority of single parents are
I also find this system
discriminatory against working-
class people. A working-class
student will probably have to
work at night, and therefore
she/he cannot takenadvantage of
the lower rates, yet she/he is the
student least able to buy more
computer time. Statistics show
that by the turn of the century the
majority of those below the

best interest of equal opportunity
that learning students be exempt
from the current rating system.
Thus, students would have a flat
24 hour rate.
This system could be easily
implemented by a section in
To the Daily:
As a representative body of un-
dergraduate computer science
students (and computer
engineers until a larger
organization can be formed in the
fall), one of the main respon-
sibilities of the Undergraduate
Computer Science Organization
(UCSO) is to provide the students
with reliable information. Such
is also the responsibility of the
UCSO is deeply disturbed that
this responsibility was not met in
the article "Computer merger
spurs student questions" (Daily,
April 3). It is even more distur-
bing that after being notified of
the factual errors and vague-
ness of certain points, the Daily did
not print a correction which
would clarify these points. The
following is a list of corrections:
1. The name of the new depar-
tment is the Department of
Electrical Engineering and Com-
puter Sciences (EECS). Dr.
Gideon Frieder is the Chairper-
son of the Computer Science and
Engineering (CSE) Division
within the new department.
2. The statement "but next
year all courses will be changed"
is false. The courses will remain

computer identification numbers
representing our student status.
The University has stated that
it has a commitment to women in
the sciences. If it truly wishes to
help women it will stop this
discriminatory practice. If you
questions cleaj
the same, only the course num-
bers will change.
3. There is no "new plan"
scheduled to start in the fall. The
Computer Science and Computer
Engineering degree programs
will not change until the faculty
of the CSE Division, with the in-
put of students through the un-
dergraduate organization, vote
on changes. Like all other degree
requirement changes, students
will have the option of applying
the new requirements to their
degree program.
4. Computer Engineering
students will remain in the
College of Engineering and Com-
puter Science students will
remain in the College of
We encourage our rea
discuss and respond to
Whether those topics co
bor community, state, n
issues in a straightforw
manner, we feel such aa
tion of the Daily. Let
should be typed, triple-sr

. .
rimina te
agree with me please mention
this to others, as only by making
people aware of the problem can
we hope to correct it.
-Robyn Maynard
red up
Literature, Science, and the Ants.
A core of common lower level
classes will be developed.
We hope that this letter clears
any misunderstandings or con-
fusion caused by the original ar-
tile. If there are any further
questions, please leave a note, in
the UCSO mailbox in the CCSpf-
fice (221 Angell Hall). UCSO Nyill
be happy to answer them where
possible or refer the question to
people who can.
-Allen Falcon
John Underhill
Janet Onstott
Oscar Lankford
ders to use this space to
issues of their concern.
ver University, Ann Ar-
ational, or international
yard or unconventional .
dialogue is a crusial fun-
ters and guest columns
paced, and signed.
by Berke Breathed
P1NNR"5 ON 7W-,J
o \ 0I
11f " . r


I5 56T...
_O DM2W 1

A WTrn. TV.,
AI M EL ...





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