. .rr Y '(1(s['_a. .L1\UUV '_41 t L p1'(/ TFf J.fTl Ta"T.7 i:7._ _
(Continued from Page 6)
Throughout the story, William hints that his father's
alcholism caused family problems, and made his
mother a more sensitive, humble, and grateful in-
dividual. when Bert and Ray, a pair of antique dealers,
teach Ma the business, she picks it up quickly and soon
beats Bert and Ray in her selling ability. However, she
is always unhappy to let them have first dibs at antique
sales, for she appreciates their having started her in
the business. William quickly learns about business,
mostly the dishonest practices such as hiking up
prices, making profits, and taking people for rides.
Though there is a little too much description of antique
itefhs, the story picksup when Bert and Ray decline
the purchase of an oriental silk screen which Ma then
buys. The screen turns out to be quite valuable, and it
is purchased by the Freer Gallery for $20,000. Bert and
Ray are extremely jealous. Ma is understanding of
their behavior, however, and William reveals a sense
of self through his intelligence, perception, and deep
appreciation of Ma.
Throwing Shadows is of particular interest not only in
its literary achievements and relevance, but also in its
connection with two major yet perhaps unfamiliar
children's book awards. There are roughly more than
60 kinds of awards given annually in this country in the
area of children's literature. The Newbery Award,
given to the author of the most distinguisned con-
tribution to children's literature published during the
preceding year, and the Caldecott Medal, given to the
illustrator of the most distinguished children's book,
are ones you're probably able to associate with this
specialized and growing field of literature.
Throwing Shadows has been nominated for the
American Book Awards, Children's Literature
category. This award has met with recent heated con-
troversy and wide publicity. In contrast to the National
Book Awards, which it replaced last June, this' new
award includes in the voting process booksellers,
publishers, and librarians. This makes the awards, ac-
cording to authors and literary critics, a commercial
The collection has been named among the Notable
Children's Books for 1979. Chosen among thousands of
children's' books published last year, Konigsburg's
book won this award for "literary quality, originality
of text and illustration, clarity and style of language,
excellence of illustration, design and format, subject
matter of interest and value to children, and likelihood
of acceptance to children."
(Continued from Page 3)
her heart with the purpose of
measuring renal hormones, but the ex-
periment had to be stopped suddenly
when she "ran into some pretty intense
complications." Emergency care was
provided and she was hospitalized.
Julie says the complications were a
fluke and insists that her experience did
not scare her away from volunteering
in other experiments. Last week she
participated in a flu vaccine ex-
periment for $30. "It's almost, kind of
fun," she says, explaining that it's an
easy way to earn money. "I would do
more (experiments) if I knew about
more," she says.
At any given time there are usually
several notices on bulletin boards at U'
hospital and other places around cam-
pus advertising experiments that need
participants. There are occasional ads
in the Daily but many potential subjects
hear about a project from people who
have already participated in the ex-
periment. A person is usually more
receptive to the idea if a roommate or
close friend is a living testimonial.
Many different departments, schools
and colleges around the University of-
fer research experiments in which
students can participate. If these aren't
enough to keep the dedicated guinea pig
(sorry) busy, the Warner-Lam-
bert/Parke-Davis Research Division
has a community research program
that welcomes student volunteers.
Located just a busride away on
Plymouth Rd. by North Campus,
Parke-Davis community research is
primarily concerned with testing new
drugs on normal volunteers. The
products tested in the community
research clinic have already undergone
laboratory tests .on animals and now
must be tested on normal humans
before they can be given to subjects ill
with the disease they're supposed to
treat. Often there are only a small
number of subjects participating in a
test, because the sooner the research is
over, the sooner the drug can be used on
subjects who are ill.
Parke-Davis does not advertise for
volunteers, although the manager of
the research clinic, Dave Wood, says
they may consider doing so soon. Most
of their volunteers are community
people-homemakers, students, and
people employed in health-related
professions-who have heard about the
program by word of. mouth. Parke-
Davis representatives have gone to
civic, church and medical groups in the
community-to explain their program.
"Ann Arbor's a good community with a.
research-oriented mind," says Wood.
A typical experiment at Parke-Davis
might involve a dozen volunteers.
About half might be given a placebo,
and half a new drug. Tests such as
blood and urine samples and blood
given, and if necessary,
could stay overnight in one of the
several hotel-motel rooms at the clinic.
If some of the subjects get sick to their;
stomachs or show other adverse sym-
ptoms, the experiment is stopped. The
subjects are under closely controlled
observation, and emergency care is
available if needed.
The pay for a Parke-Davis ex-
periment is on a scale similar to that of
the University experiments. And like
the "compensation" the University
provides, pay is decided on the amount
of time spent on the project and the
degree of inconvenience and discom-
fort. The amount of risk the experiment
poses supposedly does not enter into
consideration when deciding how much
to pay for an experiment, since risk is
supposed to be minimal in all of them.
Some pay variations in seemingly
similar experiments may occur
because of differences in the amount of
grant money each researcher has to
spend on volunteers, explains Dr.
William Coon, head of the University
Medical School's Human Subject
The Human Subject Review commit-
tee looks at all research proposals that
use human subjects in the medical
school. They ask questions on both
procedural and ethical grounds before
granting or denying approval of the ex-
periment. When reviewing proposals to
do experiments on healthy normals,
says Coon, the committee examines the
amount of payment volunteers are to
receive and asks whether it may be a
subtle form of coercion. They consider
whether the experimenter may be
trying to buy people because of the
risks involved and whether the amount
of money offered is so great that people
can not be truly rational when deciding
whether or not to participate.
The review committee considers over
600 proposals a year, and each project
receives an annual review. Of the new
proposals brought to the committee,
thirty to fifty per cent are returned to
the researcher to be revised before they
Students who want to volunteer in a
research project often have their own
"review committee" of parents and
friends to give them the go-ahead.
Parents generally don't approve and of-
ten beg their offspring not to volun-
teer-usually to no avail. Some poten-
tial subjects just don't bother to inform
their parents of their plans.
Friends of scientific prostitutes call
them fools and idiots, but most
dedicated volunteers are unperturbed.
"My friends think I'm pretty crazy,"
admits Julie. -She hasn't had any luck
convincing them to join her, but she
(Continued from Page 5)
paradoxically, we are told the flight
from teaching enhances teaching.
O n the effects of institutional self-
interest on the non-academic
aspects of University life we may look
briefly at counseling services, residen-
ce hall operation and off-campus
housing. Non-academic services are of-
ten offered as proof of the University's
concern for students-although it is
generally acknowledged that we are in
a phase of "laissez faire" attitudes
toward student life.
... academic counseling is extremely
poor at the University and -has been so
over the last 20 years.
in the residence halls the
dominant motive of its administration
is convenience of operation with least
risk to its operators.
"Dormitories are by and large
sterile and institutionalized to the
extent that they resemble penal in-
stitution, quarters more than
facilities needed by young people
involved in the educational
University Housing Office
... In the field of off-campus housing
there is good evidence that the Univer-
sity created the current off-campus
housing crisis through its expanding
student enrollment over the past 20
Tf social scientists were looking for
jan engine that shreds the human
personality, they need look no further
than the conditions of student life at the
University of Michigan. Here is an en-
vironment that the average adult in the
outside world would be afraid to face.
... (Honigman cites many "prices"
students have to pay, including high
housing costs, transportation and
parking problems, social and sexual
adjustments, lack of privacy and time,
academic obligations and crises of
identity). We have all the ingredients
necessary to make people passive and
apathetic. They have neither the time
nor energy to think about how or why
the University is being run. Nor will
people with their noses barely above
water make waves.
The effect of this total environment is
to make the institution easier to run.
. . . It seems to me that the separate
features of the University environment
when placed together form an uncon-
scious pattern of institutionalization or.
... 25-40 per cent of undergraduates
drop out before graduation from the
University ... The system doesn't seem
to miss them and has only a mild
curiosity as to why they leave.
There is no doubt that as a business
the $500 million a year University
of Michigan is a success. In the enor-
mously competitive world of higher
education, out of some 3,000 American
colleges and universities, the Univer-
sity of Michigan ranks in the top 10, and
some would say in the top 5.- .
But we may wonder whether the
modern university in gaining the world
has not perhaps lost its soul.
The tendency of the university, both
as an institution and as a financial
dependent of the public, is to too often
reject controversy and support only
an official orthodoxy. That the univer-
sity is profoundly asleep socially and
morally, that it discriminates against
unorthodox or controversial ideas, and
that it is more concerned with the put-
suit of prestige and social success than
the truth, are charges frequently
brought against the modern university.
I believe such charges are true.
In and out of the administration with Robert Honig
Supplement to The Michigan Daily
Kael the critic
Associate editor Adrienne Lyons
.Cover photo by Steve Hook
Ann Arbor, Michigan-Sunday, April 20, 1980