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May 21, 1974 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1974-05-21

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Michigan Daily
Edited and managed by Students at the
University of Michigan
Tuesday, May 21, 1974
News Phone: 764-0552
Terrorist hypocrisy
THE RECENT ATTACK by Arab terrorists on Israeli
civilians at Maalot and the subsequent reprisal raids
by the Israeli air force once again reveal the hopeless-
ness of violence in the Middle East. The murder of school
children can not advance the cause of the Palestinian
people; it merely points out the hypocrisy of the Arab ter-
rorist organizations.
The terrorist organizations have stated publicly that
they are persuing peace through the creation of a non-
sectarian state in Palestine" where both Jews and Arabs
would live as equals. Yet this latest attack can only drive
a wedge between Arabs and Jews, and make any sort of
peace more remote.
During recent peace efforts the terrorists have re-
jected any Arab Palestinian Involvement with negotia-
tions. Nahjef Hawatmeh, the leader of the Popular Demo-
cratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine which was
responsible for the tragic incident at Maalot, has stated
openly that Henry Kissinger's peace missin was the tar-
get of the attack. The mistrust, which has been consid-
ered a major factor separating Israel and Syria in nego-
tiations, can only be heightened by this action.
The selection of Maalot as the site for the attack
cannot be considered a coincidence. Relations between
Maalot and the neighboring Arab village of Tarshiche
,ave been particularly, good. Things have gone so well
in fact, that the two have joined and are administered
by a single government which is equally divided between
Arabs and Jews. This latest attack can only be considered
a blow against coexistence.
IN THE PAST we have seen the United Nations condemn
Israel for reprisal raids while remaining silent on
terrorist attacks. The loss of civilian life is just as tragic
when it is caused by a reprisal raid as when it is caused
by an act of terrorism, yet these losses are inevitable as
long as the terrorists base their operations in heavily.
populated areas and Israel maintains its policy of re-
Why should Israel be expected to stand by while its
citizens are murdered? Terrorism must be actively op-
posed. Those who harbor, aid, or remain silent to ter-
rorism share in the guilt.
Kelle/s opifio
Business as usual
ATTORNEY GENERAL Kelley's recent decision not to
prosecute television repair companies which over-
charged consumers in a recent stateinvestigation is a
Kelley's decision reflects a pervasive national atti-
tude among overnment officials of overlooking business
and official crime. Granted the consumer may only be
,taken for $20 to $75: petty larceny. But would that same
TV dealer decline to prosecute if he discovered a policy
on your part of covering the cost of his portable radios
with your overcoat? And would the police merely counsel
that you "clean up your act."
More importantly, multiply that $20 to $75 fraud by
the number of charges made daily to repair America's
mechanical servant-masters. The product would likely
dwarf all the bank stick-ups for the entire year.
The mentality which suggests that only the poor
and uncouth commit crimes has led the highest public

officials in the land to scheme,-like the businessmen in
question, over how to "cut their losses" and maximize
gains regardless of the public good.
IT IS PRECISELY this erasion of law and order in the
normal intercourse of citizen and business or govern-
ment, where honesty should be taken for granted, which
creates runs in the social fabric and makes many of us
so distrustful.



THAT'LL BE A $1.50. IT
-U -
\ \
fil s li risitw05 17 1.
Portugal: Documents

In the fortress of Caxias Pri-
son, near Lisbon, 296 agents of
Portugal's secret police await
trial, locked in cells where they
recently interrogated, beat and
tortured political prisoners. Two
reports released here after the
coup detail tortures used by the
3000-man force - still called by
its old name, PIDE - which
was the backbone of the former
PIDE was disbanded by the
military junta the day after .ts
April 25 coup. In Portugal's
three African colonies, w h e r e
PIDE was as active anj feared
as at home, military ,telli-
gence units of the armed forces
have-absorbed its operativs's. In
Portugal, prison awaits them,
and the manhunt continues f o r
those still at large.
PIDE WAS established by dic-
tator Antonio Salazar over 40
years ago with the help of a
senior Gestapo officer. (Nazi
ties to Portugal are still evident
today. General Antonio Spinola,
president of the one-year inter-
im government, served as an
"observer" with German troops
in Russia, despite Portugal's
neutrality in World Wa: II.
Starting in the 1930's with the
Spanish Civil War, when Salezar
was obsessed with fear of com-
munist insurgency, PIDE work-
ed up a rule of terror. "Mili-
tants" were arested and shot
in prison or sent without trial
to Portuguese colonies - t h e
Cape Verde Islands or Timor.
After Marcelo Caetano replac-
ed Salazar in 1968, te secret
police acquired a new, some-
what more sterile designation -
DGS, for Directorate General of
Security - but the politica li ll-
lags continued. C)mosunist
sculptor Dies Coelho was shot
in the head while walking a
London street.
PIDE operated from a mar-
ble-baled building in Lisbon,
opened to newsmen S days after
the coup. Broken glass n
doors smashed by rifle butts
told of the Marine assault on
the headquarters, which offered
the only armed resistance .o the
coup. Files on hundreds of
thoudsands of Portuguese citi-
zens and groups lay scattered in
rooms and hallways, disorder in
contrast to the smart ura-mod-
ern communications equipment
with which PIDE kept in con-
stant radio contact with agents

pOlice tortures

in distant lands.
Reporters were not aowed to
visit rooms used for torture, or
to view devices - other than a
two-pronged elbectric "billy club"
found in an office, a gift from
a U.S. police chief to a PIDE
counterpart. But details of
PIDE'S techniques .'re contain-
ed in two reports now available
in Lisbon.
ONE IS A dossier secretly
compiled under the old regime
by a group of psychiatrists, soc-
iologists and psychologists tram
case histories of 520 persons
who underwent "interrogation".
The other, prepared by the com-
mittee for political prisoners,
examines 100 case histories of
torture occurring bstween No-
vember, 1973 and April, 1974.
The reports show toat ballu-
cinations, acute anxiety a n d
terror, and complete 'disorienta-
lion from space and time norm-
ally resulted from P I D E 's
techniques. Ninety 'ercent of
the victims studied suffered
nervous breakdowns.

removed to a psychiatric hos-
pital. PIDE agents started his
interrogation in a room con-
taining nothing but a table and
two chairs, one for a agent
and one for the pri;oner. On
the third day, Costa's chair was
taken away. If he dozed of, the
interrogators would allow him
to sleep for a mimte before
dropping a coin o.i the table or
splashing cold water into his
"I hit my hand ag'iiest tl's
wall to keep myself awake,"
Costa told his psy:hiarist, "be-
cause it was so much worse to
be woken up than not to sleep."
On the seventh day, Costa col-
lapsed and could not be awak-
ened. He was allowed a visit
from his wife, then th- interro-
gation resumed with sleen de-
privation until he felt the walls
and the floor were moving. In
the third week, PIDE a d d e d
beatings. Finally, they played a
tape recording which sounded
like his wife screaming in ter-
ror. "The effects of this were

"The reports show that hallucinations,
acute anxiety and terror, and complete
disorientation from space and time normal-
ly resulted from PIDE's techniques. Ninety
- per cent of the victims studied suffered
nervous breakdowns."
" .": 'ti'- } iS w:,r: '.}:::,{"r:".<' is a i", :i {% '{ :i Y ;j r?

Torture often took the form
of scientific experimentation.
Prisoners were forcifully in-
jected with a variety of ,ruth
drugs, and subjected to sophis-
ticated methods of sleei and
sensory deprivation. The agents
kept detailed records, b a t h
photographic and wricren, so
doctors could study the physical
and psychological effects of var-
ious measures, and "improve"
PALMA INACIO, leader of the
LUAR (League for Revolution-
ary Activity), was ate of the
prisoners tortured with ' r u t h'
serum. He was eventually killed
when PIDE'agents doubled the
dose as part of their experiment.
Inacio was also a vic. m of
sleep deprivation, and P I D E
recorded that he had set the re-
cord for the longest sleepless
period, 11 days. Engineering
student Carlos Costa also under-
went this torture before he was

devastating," wrote the phychia-
trist, "and the breakdown was
THE "STATUE," in which the
subject was kept in a crucifix-
ion position for long periods,
was a .standard torture, a n d
electric shock techniques w e r e
also routine. The statue torture
was used for over two weeks
last December at Caxias on a
woman named Maria ishbriela
Ferreira, who was also kept
naked in a small cell and beat-
en hourly.
PIDE agents tried to burn the
files recording these n".ictices
when they sought refuge i their
headquarters, after the coup,
from the army and their tfellow
citizens, fleeing "like rats re-
turning to their holes", as one
long-time Communist described
Philip West, an Australian
jformalist, is based is London.

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