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March 02, 1976 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1976-03-02

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Eighty-Six Years of Editorial Freedom
420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Tuesday, March 2, 1976 News Phone: 764-0552
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan

'U' lax c
"New truths are always being pre-
pared in the cellars of violence."
-Antoine de St. Exupery
campus as to the legitimacy of re-
search being conducted by Aerospace
Engineering Professors James Nicholls
and Martin Sichel. Their study of the ex-
plosion of clouds of fuel might be a
source of weaponry information to the
Air Force, and may violate University
rules on warfare research.
As the student member ,of the Classi-
fied Research Review Committee, I am
less concerned with the possible ill ef-
fects of Nicholls and Sichel's research in
particular than with the fact that many
University research projects may have
military applications.
'I am less concerned with
the possible ill effects of Ni-
choll's and Sichel's research
in particular than with the
fact that many University
research projects may have
military applications.'
Only two of the many researchers I.
have spoken with whose work is funded
by the Department of Defense (DOD)
have expressed any concern with the po-
tential warfare benefits of their studies.
In the course of my work on the Re-
search committee, I have requested that
the committee ask DOD for assurances
that particular projects are not intended
to provide weapons information. But I
have been told repeatedly that a re-
quest for such an assurance would be
impossible, because DOD would cancel
any contract the approval of which
would be contingent on a statement of
the purpose of the research.
EVEN IF THE DOD would issue state-
ments of purpose, their veracity
could not be confirmed. At least one rea-
son for this is the size of the organiz-
ation's bureaucracy, which breeds a
non-uniformity of information.
DOD bestows many research grants at




this university and at universities
throughout the country. Grants are
made in such diverse fields as molecul-
ar biology, area studies (e.g. Chinese
studies), and linguistics.
In an interview published in Science
magazine, several Air Force officials,
accurately described the DOD's relation-
ship with the University:
"The Department of Defense makes a
very thorough effort to insure funding
only research projects directly rele-
vant to the military's technological needs
. . . DOD's interest in some particular
area can stimulate growth and develop-
ment planned to fill specific . .. techno-
logical gaps in the military's capability
"The extent to which a project aids
the educational function of the Univer-
sity is not important in the decision to
grant a contract. This is presumably a
consideraion of the University in approv-
ing and forwarding the proposal."
many fields would have funds cut
such as laser physics and theoretical sta-
tistics. A former navy colonel has told
me that most of the funding for arthritis
research has been supported by the
army. Indeed, research in such areas is
undoubtedly to the benefit of all society.
However, everyone's hands are revealed
by the following statement: "The De-
partment of Defense makes a very thor-
ough effort to insure funding only re-
search projects directly relevant to the
military's technological needs."
Military-funded research is not a new
phenomenon - it has proliferated since
World War II. Hence, many researchers
now accept funding by the military as
perhaps not only an acceptable prac-
tise but even patriotic. For example, a
former associate chairman of the Uni-
versity told me he regretted that the
University had turned down the offer to
establish 20 years ago a center for ap-
plied mathematics fully funded by the
DOD. The center is now located at the
University of Wisconsin. The man told
me, "There isn't anything the military
doesn't use."
WHAT IS IMPORTANT is that Nicholls
is being picked out for something
that isn't really drastically different
from what a lot of other people are do-
ing. Indeed, Nicholls is unfortunate in
that he requires a small amount of



Daily Photo by STEVE KAGAN

Carter: man of ambiguity

ON THE DAY of the Massachusetts
primary, a race that is expected
to narrow the crowded Democratic
field of candidates down to two or
three contenders, a closer look at one
front runner, Jimmy Carter, is in or-
Because of Carter's recent New
Hampshire "win," he stands to gain
more than any other candidate from
a strong Massachusetts showing. For
if Carter can match his first place
"granite state" finish with an en-
dorsement from the more liberal
Massachusetts constituency, he will
be well on his way towards the nomi-
nation at Madison Square Garden.
But hopefully the Massachusetts
voters will prove smarter than their
New Hampshire neighbors before the
day is out. Just a quick look behind
Carter's toothy smile will show them
the only political platform the ex-
Georgian has consistently campaign-
ed for is himself.
.A .guilty of spouting rhetoric, and
Carter, not to be caught In any direct
contradictions, can only be found
guilty of being more ambigious than
all the rest. Yet through his carefully
planned public presentations, he
seems to have almost deliberately
misled liberals into thinking he is
more liberal than he actually is.
He tells liberals for examole, that
he supports unilateral arms limita-
tions, while assuring conservatives
that he would in no way concede
more militarily to the Russians than
they concede to us.
Carter has succeeded in making
few real committments to the voters.
His campaign promises are so politic-
ally ambivalent that once in the
White House he would be bound to
nothing more than doing exactly as

he wishes.
And this is not a pleasant thought
in light of Carter's record as gover-
nor of Georgia. He has boasted that
he saved the state $50 million by a
reorganization of the executive
branch and has promised a similar
federal reform if elected.
But other reports have stated that
the results of the reform were not
so positive, an dthat Carter achieved
his government re-organization only
by steamrolling the plan through
the Georgia state legislature.
A MAN WHO stimulates these sorts
of questions about his past exec-
utive record, is far from no the ideal
candidate for the presidency.
Carter has also pointed to his re-
cord as governor to lead us to be-
lieve that hs is not of the old school
southern segregationist stock, but a
representative of the "New South'',
a progressive who welcomed black
support and the end of Jim Crow in
Yet during his campaign for the
governorship he won the endorse-
ment of several obviously racist pub-
lications, he was quoted as saying he
could win the election "without a
single black vote", and one of the
first persons Carter invited to ad-
dress the Georgia legislature after
his election, was George Wallace.
ONE LAST glance at his hecord in
public office is sufficient to tell
us that Carter has had no political
experience except in the state of
Georgia. His supporters have in fact
lauded the positive gains to be made
from putting an "outsider" with no
legislative experience, in the White.
But in view of the role Congress
must play in enacting legislation that
will stem the tide of urban woes,
erase unemployment and a host of
other problems, is it desirable to
make an "outsider" the chief execu-

classified parameters in which to con-
duct his research, just as former Presi-
dent Richard Nixon was picked out
among all former presidents to be the
one investigated.
In March 1975 I recommended to Pro-
fessor Carl Cohen of the Research Poli-
cies Committee (of the University Senate
Assembly) that all research proposals
funded by agencies of the DOD should
come under the same scrutiny that clas-
sified research does at present. I added
that it might be desirable to require re-
searchers to explain the intended appli-
cations of their research. My proposal
was turned down.
It was at this time that I realized the
three problems to my proposal: (1) The
DOD would simply not provide much in-
formation; (2) Even if the DOD did pro-
vide the information, the committee
would only receive their version of the
matter; and (3) Given the first two prob-
lems were solved, there would be no
w-v to verify the DOD's information.
I would stress that classified status of
University research is not the only indi-
cator that it will have military applica-

been placed in the role of advancing
knowledge in the world, giving depth to
human perception. From its genesis the
university has had the service of pow-
erful elites to perform its leading re-
It is precisely because of the power
elites' domination of universities that de
facto regulation of research is possible.
I believe unless research policies are
viewed with some notion of social limita-
tions in combination with this knowledge,
rational interpretation of research is un-
likely and unrealistic expectations would
My suggestion to those wishing to alter
the situation created by unregulated Uni-
versity research, where the University
community is told one thing and another
thing is being done, is to first find out
what is going on. They should then re-
onest from the government that military
research f'nding be directed under truly
spn-rate nrganizations containing a mini-
mum of bureaucrats.
Flhem Flahi is on TSA senior who
sm'es 0n the Classified Research Review
Co 1,1 mi/ee.

Nigeran hostlity hurts U.S. in Africa

(PNS) - Among the long-
range effects of America's An-
gola policies, none may be
more damaging to U.S. inter-
ests in Africa than the recent
rupture with Nigeria - black
Africa's undisputed leader.
Most populous black nation in
the world, Nigeria has the larg-
est military on the continent
and an economy the size of the
rest of black Africa combined.
A POWER in the Organiza-
tion for African Unity (OAU)
and the moving force behind
the recent formation of the
West African Economic Com-
munity, Nigeria is a leading ad-
vocate of African unity against
the white minority regimes of
Rhodesia and South Africa.
Now, with the threat of war-
fare between black Africa and
the white-ruled southern nations
looming in the wake of Angola,
the break with Nigeria may
severely limit American diplo-
matic leverage on the continent.
This, added to Nigeria's role
as America's largest foreign
source of oil, set off a brief
panic in Washington when Radio
Nigeria announced last week
that "revolutionary young offi-
cers" had overthrown the Ni-
gerian military government.

The coup proved abortive, but
concern with Nigeria did not.
NIGERIA first broke with the
U.S. last year when it condemn-
ed American involvement in
Angola and recognized the So-
viet-backed MPLA - leading a
gradual shift of African senti-
ment which culminated in the
OAU's recent recognition of the
The breach widened when
President Gerald R. Ford sent
a letter to the Nigerian head
of state, suggesting that the
OAU denounce Soviet interven-
tion in Africa and require a
Soviet withdrawal as a precon-
dition for a pullback of South
African forces.
The Nigerian government
bristled that the Ford letter
was "overbearing" and "insult-
ing to the intelligence of Afri-
cans." After the government re-
leased the text to the feisty
Nigerian press, one paper pub-
lished a front-page photo of
Ford with the superimposed
words, "To Hell with America."
A WAVE OF anti-American
demonstrations swept the coun-
try. Students in four cities
marched on U.S. buildings, rip-
ping down American flags and
in two cases burning them.

Now, with the threat
of warfare between
black Africa and t h e
white-ruled southern
nations looming in the
wake of Angola, t h e
break with Nigeria
may severely limit
American diplomatic
leverage on the conti-
The State Department quick-
ly protested that the letter was
not meant as an insult, but most
African observers agreed that
the American maueuver was ill-
conceived at best.
The letter not only' equated
the Soviet Union - long-term
supporter of the Angolan inde-
pendence struggle - with black
Africa's arch enemy, South Af-
rica, but was delivered so close
to the opening of the OAU sum-
mit that it appeared a flagrant
attempt at arm-twisting.

both sides played down the dam-
age to U.S.-Nigeria relations,
only a short time later Nigeria
ordered the closing of a U.S.
communications facility in the
northern city of Kaduna. The
base was part of the CIA-run
"Foreign BroadcasttInformation
Service," which monitors radio
transmissions worldwide for
U.S. policymakers.
The Kaduna facility's CIA
link had stirred protests before,
but the sudden and unexplain-
ed decision to shut it down
probably reflects Nigeria's de-
sire to have nothing more to do
with America's intelligence ma-
The coup attempt provided a
new spark for anti-Western sen-
timent. When the government
announced the plot had been in-
stigated by Britain, angry mobs
- ignoring British denials -
sacked the British High Com
mission and attacked the U.S.
Embassy next door.
BUT NIGERIA'S leaders are
unlikely to force a complete
break with the U.S., on which
they depend for much of their
economic backing. The Nigerian
economy is built largely on the
oil industry - at present run
by Gulf, Mobil and Texaco and
dependent on the U.S. market.

In addition, Nigeria's ambiti-
ous Third Development Plan-
a $45 billion project to bring
the nation into the circle of "de-
veloped countries by 1990"-will
draw considerably on American
investment and technical assist-
But Nigeria's new diplomatic
toolness toward the U.S. will
likely continue, reflecting a re-
newed African concern about
ties between white-ruled South
Africa and its Angolan partner,
the U.S.
AND IF RUMORS that the
OAU is considering armed war-
fare against the white-ruled mi-
nority regimes prove true,
America's diplomatic loss over
Angola may severely weaken
its ability to intervene on the
diplomatic level.
Charles Ebel is an editor of
Africa News in Durham, North
Carolina. Africa News moni-
tors African affairs for radio
markets through a network of
Africa specialists in this coun-
try and in Africa. Ebel has
also travelled extensively in Ni-
geria and West Africa.

News: Susan Ades, Charlotte Heeg, Carter's candidacy could ultimately
Rob Meachum, Jeff Ristine, T i m mean four years of a President who
Schick, Margaret Yao has neither the experience nor any
Editorial Page: Michael Beckman, inclination towards cooperating with
Stephen Hersh, George Lobsenz the legislative branch. And after Nix-
Arts Page: Chris Kochmanski on, do we need to elect another one-
Photo Technician: Ken Fink man government?
* 4 -






DNA I'd like to present a few facts
To The Daily: about the last membership
THE RECENT PIECE by Ann meeting, facts which President
THEorcieceNfoteeo Weeks has chosen not to make
Abor Science for he2 P e known.
(The Daily), February 25, 1976)
discussing the political and eco- At the last membership meet-
nomic impact of experimenta- ing, the membership voted to
tion with recombinant DNA fails recognize and install the Bar-
to assume the appropriate per- gaining Committee elected by
spective with respect to politi- the membership in January.
cal pollution of pure science. It Ms. Weeks should remember
would seem that if it is true this event; she herself admin-
that it is the elite of the land istered the oath of office to the
who benefit exclusively while committee.
the poor suffer further oppres-
sion by scientific advancement, In her recent mailing to the
the logical and appropriate ac- membership, Ms. Weeks stated
tion is to modify the political that her interpretations of the
system of economic distribu- bylaws were defeated by a
tion and not to abort scientific "two-vote margin". The vote
and technological advancement, margin is inaccurate, but even
It is my firm belief that the if it were only 2 votes, would
hope and promise of the future that make her defeat less valid?
lie in the advancement of scien- After all, Ms. Weeks was de-
tific knowledge which is itself clared the President on the ba-
pure and which is poisoned on- sis of 1 vote!
lv by political avarice. In suite
of this gross political distortion, THE PRESIDENT SEEKS to
it is imperative that the pursuit abolish the Bargaining Com-

The one point Weeks used to
stress, and which gained her a
lot of support, is that the lo-
cal should be run for the good
of the membership by the mem-
bership. Now that she's in of-
fice, is there any reason why
she now believes that her will
should overrule that of the mem-
There is one concern greater
than the question of who han-
dles grievances. The most im-
portant thing is that grievances
must be handled. Several cler-
icals are sitting at home job-
less while, this political folly
continues; they're out of jobs
and our contract isybeing vio-
latedi with impunity because
the President thinks her "griev-
ance committee" is more im-
portant than grievances. It is
time to stop all the foolishness.
The membership decided on
Februarv 17,rwho was going to
handle brievances, so let the
Bargaining Committee get busy
doing it.


To The Daily:

WOMEN'S DAY is an import-
ant holiday, celebrated around
the world on March. 8. On that
date in 1908, 30,000 working and
poor women marched in the
streets of New York City to de-
iand an end to sweatshop con-
ditions and child labor, and for
shorter hours, a minimum
wage, decent housing, and for
women's rights, including the
right to vote. It is time to cele-
brate the role women have play-
ed, and are still playing, in all
struggles to end oppression
and exploitation in the world.
It is a time to expose the
source of women's opuression
and show the way to fight it: a
time to speak to the problems
women face in the home, the
workplace, the community.
We are celebrating Women's
Day this year with a program
which includes songs, speakers,

event will take place on Thurs-
day, March 4th at 7:30 p.m. in
the International Center. We
hope to see you and your
friends there.
The Revolutionary
Student Brigade
Mar. 1, 1976
To The Daily:
ON FEBRUARY 26, the Daily
printed yet another article on
the editorial page critical of an
ally of the United States-Zaire.
The Daily appears to have an
obsession with articles that cast
the United States in a villainous
light. If the Daily is truth-
fully concerned about publish-
ing articles condemning totali-
tarian rulers in Africa, then the
government of Zaire's President
Mobuti is not the place to be-
gin. Rather, a good target
would be Soviet backed regimes
of Colonel Qadaffi and Idi
Amin, the tyrannical dictators

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