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September 10, 1976 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1976-09-10

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Page Four

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Friday, Septombor 1 Q, 1 976

Page Four THE MICHIGAN DAILY Friday, September 10, 1976

Mao:The
TOKYO (AP)-Mao Tse-tung was a soldier, classical poet,
historian and Marxist philosopher who placed his faith in China's
peasants. A peasant's son himself, he put them in the vanguard
of the Chinese Communist revolution.
His armies, raised and operating from rural bases, crushed
the Nationalist forces of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in a
bloody civil war, clearing the way for the proclamation in 1949
of the Chinese People's Republic.
IN THE'TUMULTUOUS YEARS which followed, Mao con-
tinued to build on the peasant base, pouring 500 million of them
into rural communes. Two decades later he put them in the
forefront of an ambitious program to industrialize China by
the turn of the century.
Chairman of the Communist party from 1945, symbol of
state and father of the republic, Mao regarded himself pri-
marily as a teacher. He felt it was his task to lead the Chi-
nese masses into a life free of hunger, disease and ignorance.
Beyond that, he dreamed of creating a new Marxist man, one
of many parts able to till the land, work in the factories, bear
arms and grasp political thought.
Mao lived to see many of his dreams become reality. By
the 1970s, China appeared to have made long strides in its
ageless battle against famine, disease and unemployment. Its
800, million people, while still poor, superstitious and largely
illiterate, had enough to eat, were adequately if modestly
clothed, and had a roof over their heads. Opportunities in edu-
cation, industry and agriculture had been opened up to many
of peasant, worker or soldier origin.
THOUGH HE WAS VIRTUALLY enshrined by the Chinese
as a Marxist demigod, Mao made many enemies within his
own party and in international communism during his \lifetime.
,He quarreled with the Russians over ideology and split the
world Communist movement. He sought to bring China over-
night into the industrial age with a great leap forward in 1958
and aroused the ire of the pragmatists. A believer in the theory
of continuing revolution, he carried out a series of massive
purges which shook up the army, government and party and
raised a new crop of foes.
Yet he also displayed on several occasions the Chinese
genius for compromise. When it suited the Communist party,
and the nation, he actively cooperated with Chiang Kai-shek.
Mao was able to unite China under a single political entity
the Communist party. The emperors who preceded him had
never accomplished anything similar.
For Mao, the party, which he helped establish in 1921, was
everything. But he did not hesitate in the mid-1960s to tear
it apart when he believed it had taken a wrong course toward
capitalism."
PARTLY TO CORRECT this trend, partly to recover the
personal power he had lost to President Liu Shao-chi, party
General Secretary Teng Hsiao-ping and other leaders, Mao
launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966.
When it ended three years later, Liu and Teng were in dis-
grace and thousands of other senior Communists were out
of jobs and undergoing re-education.
But when it became apparent later that many of those
cashiered had been the victims of a personal vendetta by his
designated successor, Defense Minister Lin Piao, and the radi-
cal wing of the party, Mao consented to have a number of
them restored to their old posts. Among them was Teng Hsiao-
ping, rehabilitated in 1973 and by the =tart of 1976 one of the
most powerful men 'in China after Mlao himself.
Teng had been the protege of Premier Chou En-lai, and
when the latter died in January 1976 it was widely concluded
that Teng would become premier.
BUT WTR CHOU GONE, Maoists began attacking Teng
as .a "capitalist roader" - one who sought to bring capitalism
back to China - and a campaign of criticism was launched
against him in February and March 1976, after a surprise an-
nbuncement that Hua Kuo-feng had been named acting premier.
Despite demonstrations in Peking supporting the late Chou
-- and hence Teng - the announcement came that the Maoist
radicals had won out: Hua, then 56, was named premier and
first vice chairman of the Communist party - second only to
Mao'himself. The 72-year-old Teng was stripped of all his gov-
ernment and party posts but allowed to keep his membership
in the party "to see how he will behave himself in the future,"
Peking radio said.
Mao had just completed the remaking of the party, gov-
ernment and army in January 1975, six years after the Cultural
Revolution and four years after the unveiling of a new heresy,
led by Lin Piao. Lin was accused of plotting to overthrow Mao
and the government. Shortly after that Lin was killed in a'
plane crash in Mongolia in 1971.

career

of

a

revolutionary

leader

IN THE WANING YEARS of his life, Mao saw many of after "I learned to use the method of resistance to protect! youths educated in Moscow, among them Chou En-la, they plac-
his old cronies and collaborators pass from the scene. In 1975, myself." ed their faith in the worker proletariat of the big cities. Mao for
death took a party founder and one-time acting chief of state, H-is mother was the dominant influence of these early years.' a time fell from favor.
Tung Pi-wu, and Kang Sheng, an old personal friend who had Mild mannered, illiterate and understanding, she shielded him Later, Mao established the first Chinese "soviet" on the
been the party's intelligence chief. !from her husband's ire.' border of Hunan and joined forces with 2,000 men led by Chu
Then, in January 1976, Chou died of cancer at the agej Teh to form the first Red Army and become its political com-
of 78. Chou had been at Mao's right hand since the days of! HIS FIRST CONTACT with the grim realities of revolution I missar. Chu, an old Ezechuan warlord, became its commander-
the "Long March" retreat in the 1930s. They had collaborated( occurred during a famine in Changsha, where he had gone to in-chief.
to forge the army, the government and the administration. continue his studies. Ile saw a peasant rebel executed, and
Mao's role in old age was oracular, composing new direc- it left a deep mark on his young mind. Unable to operate underground in Shanghai, the young
tives for the faithful to interpret and put into practice. His All these events contributed to his revolutionary makeup minbHusaofandeKiangsy wCh alomhadtet up.t There theienew
obsession persisted: to keep the party pure and selflessly ded-1 At the age of 1, he worried about the threatened partition Red Huarmyfnded off a sriesofaoffesesfro. the vastl
cated to communism. of China by foreign powers.
HIS OLDEST FOE, Chiang Kai-shek, died at 87 in Taipei,:! Schooled in history, the classics and politics by a private superior forces of Chiang Kai-shek.
Taiwan, in 1975, without having accomplished his 'vow to re-s teacher, Mao went to the Tungsban primary and middle schools OUTMANEUVERED and rapidly weakening, the party de-
conquer the mainland. But in death he denied Mao the full in nearby Hsianghsiang, where he saw his first newspaper. The1 cided to break qut from its east coast "soviets" and join forces
fruits of the 1949 Communist victory. Chiang's son and sue-(winds of republican revolution, fanned by Sun Yat-sen, were; with other Communist armies in the west.
cessor, Nationalist Premiier Chiang Ching-kuo, insisted he would blowing, and, in a gesture of defiance to the imperial govern- 1 By then Mao was again in the dog house, dismissed as
chairman of the Chinese "soviet" government. The young
hh{nh F. } Turks were in command. In January 1934, the first movement
began in what is now known as "The Long March'. It ended
f $ ^'4F R t tR ;in Shensi province in the winter of 1935 after an 8,000-mile fighting
f .~ trek through some of the most forbidding terrain in China.
}Yp fi'Adopting guerrilla tactics, feinting and maneuvering skill-
fulMao was able to bring the remnants tosaehvni
Shensi, but only after breaking with Chang Kuo-ta, commander
Iof the Red Fourth Front Army, who chose to head in Sinkiang, a
Iin
move which ended in disaster.
FROM YENAN, the cave city next to the Gobi Desert which
'^r 'tft fl."> ; 1became the Red capital, Mao organized a united front cam-
. . paign to persuade Chiang Kai-shek that all Chinese should bury
,t y r~fitheir differences and form a common defense against the invading
S This policy culminated in December 1936 at Siang, where
M~~rI Chiang had been taken captive by Chiang Hseuh-liang, pro-Red"
x.,. Kuomintang commander of Manchurian forces. Chiang Ka-shek
~iagreed to the united front and the Communists entered another
n: period of cooperation with their old enemy.
But cooperation with the Kuomintang government, which
.f. ; had its wartime capital in Chungking, lasted only a few years,
A Kuomintang attack on the New Fourth Communist Army ended
W w the honeymoon in 1941. By the end of World War, II in 1945, the
ties between the two were tenuous. Mao approved the postwar
mediation mission of Gen. George C. Marshall of the United
States, and on En-ai participated. But it broke down in 1947,
Tf and China's civil war flared up once more.
it THE COMMUNISTS WERE driven out of Yenan in that same
year, but the welltrained armies of Lin Piao in Manchuria turn-
ed the tables, and in 1949 the Nationalists were driven from
AP Photo the mainland.
Chaiman Mao Tse-tung is flanked by other Chinese leaders in a 1967 photo. At left is Premier Chou Enlai who died last From 1949 to 1959, Mao was concurrently chief of state and
January. At right is Mao's deputy, Lin Piao, who was later accused of plotting to overthrow Mao and the government, chairman of the party Central Committee. His bold plans for
never compromise with Mao over the future of Taiwan, the met,. Mao and other students cut off their traditional pigtails h ra nutil epfrado 98 akie n rtc
30th and last Chinese province still free of Communist control. Revolutionaries wore their hair short. Presntedusiamng the amyDefornseMstrnw.Peng lost his wh
One of Mao's failures was an inability - some said an.i IN 1911, CARRIED away by the fervor of revolution-the ; jbtuteao also followedrgiving wtortheParglty eaiss
unwllignes -to ette te Cinee-Svie coflit. elaion emperor had been overthrown and a republic established-Mao headed by Liu Shao-chi.
between the two Communist giants broke down over ideological joined the new army for six months, and spent his spare time Mao traveled to Moscow in 1949, where he met Josef Stalin
differences only seven years after the Chinese Communists reading newspapers and radical books. and signed, after hard bargaining, the Chinese-Soviet Treaty of
came to power. They 'deteriorated steadily, sometimes convul- From 1913 to 1918, Mao studied at the Hunan No. 1 pro- Friendship and Alliance, later to became virtually a dead letter.
sively, in the two decades which followed. I'vincial normal school, where he rebelled against the principal,i The concessions in trade and commerce wrung out by Stalin
Few could have foretold that in the 1970s Mao would cordi- whom he accused of being too conventional. In those years, in exchange for relatively modest financial aid of $500 million
ally receive presidents of the United States and heads of other Mao read extensively and was influenced by Chen Tu-Hsiu and ebtee a n esae i gis vrrligo
Western nations while heaping scorn and derision on the Soviet Hu Shih, intellectual leaders of the Chinese literary renaissance. foreign aid again.
Communist party and its leaders. Mao later became a teacher in his native Hunan, but was ON A SECOND visit to Moscow in 1957, Mao perceived that
PATRON AND SUPPORTER of the fledgling Chinese Na- so poor he had to sell his fur gown to live. In July 1921 he the Soviet-induced thaw inside Russia and among its satellites
tionalist and Communist movements in the 1920s, the Soviet
Unio grdualy rew o dstrst ao nd hs isisenc ofwent to Shanghai to become one of the 12 founding members of would lead to crisis in international communism. This was the
theChneenssofthnCinsereoltin.Ma'schic ottheteComunstpatysHs omrieHnaobcaetheceten. egnnngofthsieoogcaowrcetee tefwoComuis
peasnt athr thn te polearia wokeras sandrd earr of revolutionary activities and there he first met Liu Shao-chi, giants.
of the revolution, in Soviet eyes, violated conventional MarxistwhwolbemepsintnytoedsgadinheCtul Mao's feelings about Moscow were reinforced in 1960 when
wisdom, and challenged Moscow's leadership of internationalReouin4yarltrfropsngM . the Chinese-Soviet quarrel neared a flashpot and the Russians
communism. difrneMbrtitaheoeon192ad'e s t life in the next few years was one of organizing lab- withdrew thousands of technicians and large industrial projects.
Longsimmering dfeecsbrthnoteoeni 42adoers nw governrsofunsand frblio nemreaant Natural calamities that produced bd harvestsconbined
flared into near war in 1969 after a series of Chinese-Sovietjthne goenroHua.wttemiaksftegetlapowrdpugdCiaito
borde clahes.FLEEING TO Canton, in South China, he became involved recession. Yet Mao persisted in organizing the rural communes
Mao was born Dec. 26, 1893, in Shaoshan, Hunan province, in the Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen's Nationalist movement. Coi-j which, he later insisted, had proved their worth.
to moeraelywell-to-do peasant family. Hisfteaevr munists ere admitted as members on an individual, rather than Concerned about the possibility that the Russians mgt t
and demanding man, put him to work in the field at the age1 a party, basis.' tack, Mao encouraged development of nuclear, weapons. The
of 6, and his primary school teacher often beat him. In what! Stricken ill, Mao returned again to Hunan clandestinely, first Chinese atom bomb was exploded in the Takla Makan Desert
he later called his first act of rebellion, the young Mao fled where he organized more than 20 peasant associations. Three of Sinkiang province in October 1964. A dozen others, some of
from these influences at the age of 9 and hid for three days k ears later Mao wrote his first major work on the peasants, in them hydrogen bombs, followed.
in a mountain valley. Three years later, after being scolded which he recognized their revolutionary potential. But Mao insisted China would never be the first to .se
by his father for laziness, hie threatened to drown himself. The party center, crushed in the Kuomintang bloodbath of nuclear weapons and declared willingness to scrap ;tem if the
That brought about a reconciliation, and Mao said that there- 1927, showed little enthusiasm for Mao's peasant views. Led by rest of the world did likewise.

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