THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Wednesc cty March 23, 1 977'
Page Two THE MICHIGAN DAILY Wednesday, March 23, 1977
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Struggle on f or vacant post,
(Continued from Page 1) hands up in the traditional In-
With returns from last week- dian greeting as she was driveni
end's general election nearly' from Jatti's residence.1
complete, Gandhi's successful,! One of Gandhi's last acts be-
foes, Morarji Desai and Jagji- fore her resignation was to re-
van Ram, claimed their new voke the press censorship order
government would have a ma-! promulgated after the national;
jority of at least 326 seats in the state of emergency was de-
lower house of Parliament. d Glared in June 1975. The state of
A spokesman for Desai's Ja-! emergency was ended Monday
nata People's party said its shortly after the announcement
members in the new Parliament j that Gandhi had lost her seat in
and those of Ram's Congress for Parliament.
Democracy would meet tomor- A Janata party spokespersonj
row to elect a leader who would said the new government's first
become prime minister. task would be to dismantle the
Despite the humiliating defeat authoritarian system set tip dur-
she and her Congress party suf- ing the emergency, and partic-
fered in the general election, ularly the measures Gandhi
Gandhi smiled broadly at re- pushed through Parliament to
porters and held her clasped weaken the independence andI
THURSDAY, MARCH 24
Dr. Rudi Paul Lindner
Professor of History, Tufts University1
"CURRENT RESEARCH ON
NOMADS AND OTTOMANS"
4:00 P.M., EAST LECTURE RM.,
3RD FLOOR RACKHAMt
Or for Near Eastern and North African StudiesC
and Department of History
IF 111 MIORF
power of the judiciary to review told reporters who asked wheth-
the actions of Parliament and er he would accept the office:
the nrimp minhniser! Ih0,,p navopr chrkraA ronnmot.-
The U.S. State Department
said yesterday that it expected
improved relations with India
as the result of its "full return
to the democratic path."
Desai, the 81-year-old chair-
man of the Janata party, is ex-
pected to win the post that
Gandhi leaves. But Ram, 68,
i nave never si re respns I
bility which the country wanted
me to shoulder."
Ram is a former second-in-
command of Gandhi's Congress
party. Desai is a former deputy.
prime minister and finance min-
ister who was fired by Gandhi
AND 11R. WILLIAM LAAST
ASSOC. PEACE CORPS
DIRECTOR IN GHANA
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 23
(Continued from Page 1) pro-west.
bunch of clowns. I would I "Actually," said Nath, "the
much rather have had her win government is really in the
by a very small majority, so hands of the bureaucrats, and
she would have learned a les- politics doesn't have that much
son, but still be kept in office. to do with it. What we're most
I think she was doing a pretty likely to see is a liberalization
good job." of the press, and a new respon-
Another engineering gradu- siveness to the people from the
ate student, Mukesh Sanghai, leaders. India's people are not
also expressed concern. "I am politically naive in any way,
scared because they have a two and the leaders know that they
thirds majority." (As of last will have to produce for them."
night, the opposition parties Both Chendke and Sanghai
were still about ten seats short said that they plan to return to
of the two thirds mark, but over India afteretheyiare finished
thirty seats had not yet been with their educations, and thef
decided.) "They could pass election results - no matterI
things just to suit themselves, which way they had gone -
just like the Congress party did would not have affected those
when they had the two thirds plans.
majority after the last elec- "I'm really not involved in
tion." politics at all," said Chendke.
Speculation about the future Nath was more enthusiastic,
was as mixed as reaction to the though. "When I was in New
election results were.I Delhi last summer, I felt un-
PARK FEELS that there will comfortable talking about poli-
be some changes made, main- tics, even with close friends.
ly because the two year-old People said they were happy,
"emergency" has now been lift- but everywhere I went I felt
ed, and an open society has this undercurrent of discontent.
been restored. Both Park and This (the election) makes me
Nath felt that the new ruling very happy, and now I want
coalition would be much more very much to go back."
in American Culture
will sponsor a mini-course entitled "The History of Ethnic
Groups in Detroit, 1850-1930," to meet Wednesdays and
Fridays, from 12-1 in Room 1437 Mason Hall beginning
Wed., March 23. Interested students may register on a
drop/add form through the Program Office, 164 LSA Bldg.
More information is posted in the Program Office as well os f
at Checkpoint The course will be offered by PROFESSOR }
OLIVIER ZUNZ, Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology.
Long road to end
of Gandhi regime
A News Analysis
NEW DELHI, India W) - The first sparks of the voter
rebellion that drove Indira Gandhi's government from power
were struck on a hot, dusty afternoon last April at a spot
called Turkman Gate.
There in the walled city of Old Delhi hundreds of slum-
dwellers, enraged over heavy-handed government programs
for slum clearance and family planning, clashed with po-
lice on April 19 in the first significant resistance to Ghand-
hi's authoritarian experiment.
When the dust had settled that afternoon and the tear
gas had blown away, 12 Indians were dead, dozens blood-
ied and India's silent poor had been kindled into a people's
WHAT HAPPENED at Turkman Gate was, in retrospect,
only the first of several warnings that the silence of India"s
poor should not be mistaken for endorsement of the way
some local officials exercised the unfettered authority ac-
corded them under India"s national emergency.
The antigovernment sentiment culminated in last week-
end's general elections. On the basis of nearly complete
returns Gandhi's opponents claimed they would have a ma-
jority of at least 126 seats in the lower house of Parliament.
After last April's episode at Turkman Gate, antigovern-
ment feeling had boiled to the surface in other regions.
ON AUG. 2, hundreds of demonstrators protesting alleged
incidents of forced sterilization set fire to a family plan-
ning station in the village of Khatauli in Uttar Pradesh
State. The state is India's most populous and was a target
of the government's sterilization drive.
Then on Oct. 18, a town in the same region. Muzaffar-
nagar, experienced the worst known violence of India"s 21
months under emergency rule.
Moslems in Muzaffarnagar,. a center for sugar and lum-
ber production, became enraged when local police allegedly
tried to haul off more than a dozen of their neighbors for
sterilization operations. Hundreds of Moslems protested
in front of the district magistrate's house, and then re-
treated to a neighborhood called the Umar Khan Market.
In the evening, when the crowd refused to disperse,, po-
lice opened fire on the demonstrators, according to Moslem
leaders. At least 25 protesters were killed. Dozens were
wounded. The district magistrate was later transferred
The government's response apparently tended to make
matters worse. The Information Ministry kept turning out
a steady stream of statements about the family planning
program's popularity, while other ministries denied any
disturbances had ever taken place.
But villagers knew to the contrary, and as a result the
government and the ruling Congress party lost virtually all
credibility in the Indian countryside, where most of the na-
tion's 620 million people live.
After press censorship was lifted and the election cam-
paign began two months ago, it became apparent just
how broad and deep the public's antigovernment feeling
GANDHI AND government ministers started acknowl-
edging "excesses" in the family planning program and
promising investigations of those local officials they alleged
In the end, though. India's voters were in no mood to for-
get Turkman Gate, Khatauli, Muzaffarpagar and the Other
incidents where their neighbors had openly rebelled against
With only a few exceptions, all the goernment ministers
affiliated with the emergency were voted out of office.
"You know what happened?" said one Indian journalist
as he watched a jubilant victory procession by the new
Janata party. "We all underestimated our people."
3 PM -
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The fifteen following MAJOR ADVERTISING SPOTS
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MAW will also regulate all Kiosks, to decrease clutter and
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STUDENT PROGRAMS OFFICE
(Continued from Page 1)
day in 1976 yet not a single
charge of fraud was filed."
The proposal could only ap-
ply to federal elections,: but Car-
With graduation just around the corner, you have several important
decisions to make. Most importantly, which hospital will provide the
greatest opportunities for your nursing career? We understand your
concern and offer:
Career mobility to any of our 34 specialty units
A closed-staff hospital providing immediate interaction with the
medical staff t
ter has called for encouraging
states to enact similar laws for
In a message to Congress,
Carter noted that five states al-
ready permit, election day reg-
istration of voters and "the rec-
ord shows that it has usually
increased voter participation
without iricreasi-g voter fralld."
Under the plan, which Mon-
dale said has binartisan sup-
port, a state could receive 20
cents for each vote cast in the
nrevious presidential election to
help pay for increased registra-
THE OTHER ELEQTION re-
farn proposals, however, did
not receive the same biparti-
san s'ipoort. The pas received
a mixed reception from Rep'b-
licans who are, by and large,
e mected to line up in onposi-
tion to pu1blic financing of con-
They wo1l1 also pose amend-
ing the Hat^h Act to permit
greater narticination by feder-
al emploves in partisan uolitics.
Sen. Howard Baker (R-Tenn.),
the Sen-te minority leader, told
reorters. "T fa-or the abolition
of the Electorial College ... I
do not favor federal financing."
HE ALSO SAID he was re-
serving jidgment on Carter's
'rnals to encourage greater
i rnt~r registration.
Baker's House co'anterpart,
Ren. John Rhodes of Arizona,
said he thoght the voter reg-
stration proposals would pass
the Hose by a substantial mar-
gin "with a lot of Republican
However. Sen. John Tower of
Texas, chairman of the Senate
Reublican Policy Committee,
said the same-day registration
proposal wobiA "open the door
to abuse ... it would open a
Pandora's Box of possibilities
of voting tombstones, livestock
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