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April 12, 1973 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1973-04-12

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I1v Sid weanDa
Eighty-two years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan

Media gather to discuss

foreign affairs


420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mich.

News Phone: 764-0552


New minimum wage proposal-
too little and too late

"j HAVE BEENtenormously im-
pressed with the people who
conduct our foreign relations," said
Bill Blair, former President of
Radio Free Europe.
And with that, he kicked off the
State Department's National Fore-
ign Policy Conference for Editors
and Broadcasters late last month.
About 500 members of the press lis-
tened as Asst. Secy. of State for
Near Eastern and South Asian af-
fairs Joseph Sisco began the first
briefing of the day.
"We have important political,
economic and strategic interests in
the area," he said. "Instability is
too risky - too fragile - too dan-
gerous." Sisco outlined the U.S.
plan for an interim agreement in
the Middle East, possibly beginning
with the opening of the Suez Canal.
For the most part of the day,
though, the numerous assistant sec-
retaries spoke more generally of
U.S. foreign policy and our na-
tional interest. "U.S. economic in-
terests are served in the develop-
ing world," said the secretary for
Inter-American Affairs.
"Africa is important to us and
the world generally in economic
terms," said another secretary. "It
offers vast resources and increas-
ing markets."
The foreign policy spokespeople
were emphatic on the need for
stability and order in the develop-
ing world, and stressed that "We

expect foreign governments to be-
have fairly" to American invest-
ors abroad.
"EVEN THE MOST far-out gov-
ernments understand private fore-
ign capital has an important role to
play in the development process,"
said Acting Inter-American Affairs
Secretary John Crimmins.
He explained, however, that what
he sees as a drive of developing
nations to gain control )f their
own economic destiny "sometimes
.goes to extremes, with the expro-
priation without provision for corn-
pensation of the American business
The secretaries gave short brief-
ings, then turned to questions. Wal-
ter Stoessel, Jr., European Af-
fairs Secretary, sees an adversary
in the Soviet Union "for m a n v
years to come," and though ncarly
all remarked in some way on our
closer links to China and the
U.S.S.R., U.S.-Cuban relations still
seem to be in the freezer. Crim-
mins remarked that their "policy
of export of revolution coiltinues."
Not all of the speakers dealt ex-
clusively with regional relation-
ships. Julius Katz, a secretary on
resources and food policy, took up
the topical energy crisis. le said,
however, that he would "rather not
speak of an energy 'crisis,' " and
that it is "irresponsible to stress
the confrontation aspects of t h e
Asked about specific solutions to

the shortage of energy sources,
Katz said he would "rasher do that
two months from now when I see
President Nixon's energy mes-
AS TALK MOVED on to mone-
tary and trade affairs, the orange
"On the Record" sign was replac-
ed with a black one reading "Ba::k-
ground only." Information cannot
be attributed to the particular of-
ficial speaking with this rule, but
only to a "spokesman." It seem-
ed, though, to be mostly an expli-
cation of how trade barriers work-
ed rather than the announcement
of any new policy.
The most general elaborations on
the Nixon foreign policy doctrine
came fron Under Secretary of
State Kenneth Rush and Assistznt
Secretary of State for East Asion

ippines, he said he liked : h a t
country because with martial iaw
and the green revolution, it equal-
led Marshall Green.
Seeing Indonesia as 'something
of a model" for. the developing
world, Green cracked that, "Su-
karno was literally the father of his
The audience laughed uproarious-
ly at Green'sexplanation of why
most of the world's problems come
about: Remarking that, he had just
read men speak 25,000 words daily
while women use 30,000, he said
that "Men use up their 25,000 words
all day only to go home to wives
who haven't even begun on their
Commenting that South V i e t-
namese President Nguyen V a n
Thieu was "often-times maligned,"
he defended Thieu's visit to the
United States and called it "help-

IN HEARING of the Nixon administra-
tion's proposal for increasing the
minimum wage from $1.60 to $2.30 over
a four year period, the initial impres-
sion is that it is a major forward-look-
ing move on the part of the Administra-
tion. Yet, upon closer examination, we
can only come once again, to the con-
clusion "too little and too late."
Under the proposal, a minimum rate
of $1.90 will go into effect upon enact-
ment of his law, with it increasing to
$2.10 next year, $2.20 in 1975, and finally
at $2.30 in 1976. The 1973 figure of $1.90
over a 52 week, 40 hour period gives a
worker a year's salary of $3,952. Yet, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics figure for a
family of four's "modest but adequate"
need is more in the area of $11,000. A
figure which requires both parents and
one child to work at the minimum level
to survive cannot be considered an ade-
quate figure.
Furthermore, the impressive figure of
$2.30 only provides $4,884.00 for a full
work year. With economists predicting at
least a ten per cent increase this year
in the cost of living, with no downward
trend in sight, it is not inconceivable
that, by 1976, the "modest but adequate"
need for a family of four will be more
In the area of $14,000.
THE PROSPECT of a higher wage mini-
mum raises other problems. Many
small merchants have expressed fear
that enforced higher wages will force
them to lay off workers. Prices will un-
doubtedly rise, as employers use such
raises to meet increased wage standards. .
Thus, the proposed minimum wage in-
crease is terribly short-sighted, for it
doesn't even come close to fulfilling the
needs of the average person, either now
or In the future. It also,ignores the needs
of those who may become unemployed
because of the wage increases.
The proposal also promises to be dis-
criminatory towards youth. It has been
recommended to Congress by Secretary
Business Staff
Business Manager
RAY CATALINO.................Operations Manager
DAVE LAWSON.................Advertising Manager
SANDY FIENBERG................. Finance Manager
SHERRY KASTLE............... Circulation Director
JIM DYKEMA ......... Sales & Promotions Manager
DEPT. MGRS.-Caryn Miller, Elliot Legow, Patti Wil--
ASSOC. MGRS.-Joan Ades, Linda Coleman, Linda
Cycowski, Steve LeMire, Sandy Wronski
ASST. MGRS.-Chantal Bancilhon, Roland Binker,
Linda Ross, Mark Sancrainte, Ned Steig, Debbie
STAFF-Ross Shugan, Martha Walker
SALESPEOPLE-Deva Burleson, Mike Treblin, Bob
Fisher, Debbie whiting, Alexandra Paul, Eric
Phillips, Diane Carnevale

of Labor Peter Brennan that working
youths under 18 be allowed to work for
80 per cent, of the minimum wage, with
18-21 year-old youths working for 85 per
ALTHOUGH THIS proposal is designed
to cut down on the number of young
workers that would be, laid off as a re-
sult of the mandatory wage hike, event-
ually being unable to garner the equal
pay for the same amount of work would
undoubtedly seem .unfair to many of
those affected.
The Administration, further faced
with charges that such a provision would
cause employers to layoff older workers
for young and cheaper labor, countered
with suggestions that the sub-minimum
wages would only apply for the first
twenty weeks for those under 18, and
for the first thirteen weeks for those
under 21. Brennan claimed, that under
this type of system the youth during
their sub-minimum wage period would
be of "apprentice" status. The "appren-
tice" system though not necessarily re-
ferred to as such, has always existed, in
that beginning workers have usually re-
ceived a base pay, with raises and pay
increases based on work performance
and period of employment.
What Brennan's "apprentice" program
would serve to do is hurt the pocket-
books of the younger workers. The aver-
age teenager and young adult having
shown themselves to be avid consumers
(i.e., such items as clothing, records,
cars, and books) definitely have a need
for a fair level of earnings.

"Africa is important to us and the world gen-
erally in economic terms. It offers east resources
and increasing markets."

could see out over the Potomiac, as
well as to the Lincoln and Jef-
ferson Memorials nearby. Inside,
free drinks and a sumptuous re-
past were served - snails, clams,
lox, roast beef, hundreds of tiny
pastries, and the like.
William Porter, former U.S. ne-
gotiator at the Paris peace talks,
was there; so were the assistant
secretaries who had spoken during
the day.
One career officer in the State
Dept., employed for over 30 ye:ars,
noted my press badge and began
talking about Michigan footbill
greats. Tom Harmon was the star
when he attended school here, he
I wandered through the rooms,
lined with Remington paintings,
baroque furniture and Paul 'Vevere
pewter. In the James Monroe
room, a glossy photo of Vice Pres-
ident Agnew stared up at me.
A crowd had gathered around
Marshall Green, who joked about
his trip to China. The Press, o n e
conld see, was enthusiastic. Of-
ficials from the United States In-
formation Agency and the Agency
for International Development min-
gled with the crowd; it was impos-
sible to say w o were officials and
who were reporters.
A black elevator operator soon
took me down once again to ground
level, and by eight o'clock I strolled
by a multinational collection of
flags, by the security guard and
under the blue awning out an to
23rd Street.
Zachary Schiller is a staff writer
for the Daily.


Affairs Marshall Green.
The former speaker, replying to
a question on Taiwan, said that,
"We expect our allies to tak-- care
of their internal problems : h e i-
selves; if they're threatend from
without, we will help." In this
sense, he said we were involved
in Vietnam "to protect an inde-
pendent country fighting for i't s
Green spoke in much the same
terms, adding that "Other coun-
tries should work out their own
problems as long as they're not
going to be utterly repressive.'
Asked a question about the Phil-

ful for Thieu to be in close contact
with the American public."
In the lobby after Green's talk,
one State Dept. officer remarked to
another that, "Without Marshall
you end up with a bad taste in your
mouth." The hundreds of report-
ers, representing as disparate pub-
lications and broadcasting agencies
as the Voice of America, T h e He-
lena World, WGH radio in Naw-
port News, Va., Radio Free Eur-
ope, and The Cincinnati Inquirer,
milled about while waiting to be
transported up to the eighth floor.
There, a reception awaited them.

Letters to The Daily

JT HAS BEEN proposed by some local
economists that a minimum wage
be established immediately at $3.00 an
hour, and that those unemployed and un-
able to find work, be granted an equiva-
lent amount of money by the govern-
ment. Such an option may be imperfect,
but at least it makes it evident that there
are alternatives.
The Nixon administration should and
must take a stronger look at the wage-
price inflation problems in our country
and come up with a better and more ef-
ficient solution. The $1.90-$2.30 minimum
wage plan is only a token gesture, and as
such will not come even close to easing
our economic crisis.

- j

To The Daily:
I NEVER EXPECT very much
from academe and it never fails
me, God bless it. The recent tenure
decisions are a case in point. We
should have known something was
up when Dean Rhodes, in the best
tradition of our Commander in
Chief, promised to upgrade the
quality of teaching. By denying
tenure to some of our best instruc-
tors he has, no doubt, upgraded
dozens of facultiesthroughout t h e
country. The silver dining. There
is nothing very funny about this
sorry mess, but sometimes you
reach a point beyond anger, a point
somewhere on the far edge of dis-
gust. That's the way the cookie
crumbles; that's the way the bur-
eaucracy bumbles.
What many people fail to real-
ize, however, is that the LS&A com-
missars are presiding over a verit-
able purge, and Profs. Mullin and
Raeburn are only two of many.
Among the others is Professor Ro-
bert Willson, Asst. Prof. English.
Anyone who has had Prof. Willson
knows the magnitude of this bur-
eaucratic blunder. He is (if I
may be eulogistic for a moment)
concerned, intelligent, exciting. He
cares about his class and about
his students. He is not only one
of the finest instructors I've had
here, but he is also one of the
finest human . beings I've ever
No institution which cares about
humanizing its production-line ed-
ucation could let Prof. Willson go.
And that, I guess, is the r e a I
sadness. We students are losing.
We always lose, when you come
The Editorial Page of The
Michigan Daily is open to any-
one who w i s h e s to submit
articles. Generally speaking, all
articles should be less than 1,000

right down to it. Dusty men make
dusty decisions based on dusty
journals which, I'll wager, most of
them don't read anyway. A lot of
people will miss Prof. Willson. This
university will miss him, though
the commissars don't know it.
So it goes.
-Neal Gabler
April 10
Rig Tet
To The Daily:
I YESTERDAY read and agr ed
with your editorial on tbook burn-
ing. AMI is surely guilty of a had
choice of tactics. However, t h i3s
morning's Detroit Free Press car-
ried an article listing some o the
statements AMI finds objectionaole
in "Obstetrics andtGynecology"
(whose principal author is U-M
Prof. J. Robert Willson) one of
those tomes slated for the stake,
such as:
A "Every phase of a woman's
life is influenced by narcissism."
9 "She must accept the idea
that she is given things by her
husband and even by herbchild-
ren, rather than assuming an ac-
tive and agressive role in attain-
ing these things for herself. Sex-
ually she must be passive and re-
ceptive to the male."
AMI is certainly justified in its
anger. Its energies, though, are
misdirected. It should not be burn-
ing books. I. should be burning
Dr. Willson.
-Joel Rosenberg '74
April 11
Letters to The Daily should
be mailed to the Editorial Di-
rector or delivered to Mary
Rafferty in the Student Pub-
lications business office in the
Michigan Daily building. Letters
should be typed, double-spaced
and normally should not exceed
250 words. The Editorial Direc-
tors reserve the right to edit
all letters submitted.


OUR roW SA :Z.e, ,.K!_ ,.


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3R T.', M U RD EER . .





________________________ I


O. 14AT+ A RELI.F-. I'p HATE
Ta 11INK T wa" AM E IG1



1Tod( ' ssi ff:
News: Dan Blugerman, Sue Sommer,
Charles Stein, Ted Stein, Ralph Vor- :
Editorial Page: Kathleen Ricke, L i n d a :
Rosenthal, Eric SchochI
Arts Page: Diane Levick, Sara Rimer
Photo Technician: John Upton



Perspective on the OEO: Local

funding strips


Editor's note: This is the third in a series of
overview articles on the Office of Economic Op-
WITH THE DEFEAT of his controversial
Family Assistance Plan, the basic design
of which was a guaranteed annual income,
President Nixon resolved to tighten welfare
and poverty controls. These intentions were
painfully evident when it was announced
that the budget for the fiscal year 1974 pro-
vided no funds for the continuation of OEO.
The trend toward more stringent regulation
was visible even in Nixon's first term of
office. Steps had been taken to reorganize
or de-fund inefficient Community Action
Agencies (CAAs). They had been instruct-
ed to become more financially dependent on
local government and community organiza-
tions. Nevertheless, the Nixon Administra-
tion was dissatisfied with these results,
A federal study reported, however, t h a t
contrary to Administration opinion, the Com-
munity Action Program (CAPS) had been
"highly constructive" in meeting .he Nixon
Administration goals. The results of this
evaluation were repressed until after the re-
lease of the 1974 budget.
The continuing scheme of local funding is
evident in the President's current general
and special revenue sharing plans. Through
the strategy of allocating specific monetary
grants, to states, Nixon hopes to eliminate
some of the bureaucratic red tape associated
with national welfare and service programs.
This was undoubtedly a consideration in his
move to abolish OEO as a federally funded

THE CONCEPT OF returning a greater
share of monetary controls to the local level
has been termed the "New Federalism" by
the President. Specifically, the present ad-
ministration believed that federally funded
and administered service programs were
becoming paralyzed by their own growing
bureaucracy. Daniel Moynihan alludes to
the fact that social workers and middle class
bureaucrats were becoming too entrenched
in their ideas and programs to maintain any
objective viewpoint as to where the pro-
grams were headed. Perhaps most import-
antly, they were too afraid to speak up
for fear that increased attention would lead
to the dismemberment of the OEO bureau-
cracy and the loss of their jobs.
Moynihan poignantly adds that, "the most
devastating attack on any services pro-
gram for the poor begins by asking to whom
do benefits flow first. Almost invariably the
answer is to the middle-class persons hired
to provide the services. The tax money goes
first into their pockets. What happens there-
after is never quite so clear." In addition,
the red tape, inefficiency, and bureaucratic
interference are a hindrance to the federal
aid system.
Local control provides two basic readjust-
ments. First, the federal bureaucacy is eli-
minated. Second, area officials who are sup-
posedly more aware of their -local poverty
conditions are given more power.
THERE ARE SEVERAL problems assoc-
iated with local control, and numerous ques-
tions as to its efficacy. The nrimary concern

is the same, the disadvantaged will suli
National legislation, such as the 1968 Ho
ing Act and the monumental Elementary
Secondary Education Act established nati
wide norms for suitable living conditions
equal, quality education for all.
If special revenue sharing becomes 1,
these national goals will be no more. Wl
it is true that these goals have rarely bf
attained, they were present as ideals to I
sidents and lawmakers. They demonstra
the existence of a federal policy. Speciall
venue sharing, which allows local officials
use money in four categories - educati
urban development, manpower training,

law enforcement - means an end to a na-
tional policy and national goals. The termin-
ation of a nation-wide policy on problems
which are inevitably linked would help des-
troy the unity of nationally coordinated insti-
tutions which serve people and need federal
LOCAL OFFICERS will now have the op-
tion of continuing programs. While it might
be justified to ask if it were better if there
were no national policies and federal re-
quirements to truly satisfy local needs, we
must first find out whether local needs
will be satisfied. Mayors and other local of-
ficials are bound to put the money where

k n . 791 Fi''1 /'-

the most influential local citizens and tax-
payers say it should go. This is the reason
the federal government became involved in
the first place. The most influential citizens
and taxpayers rarely give local poverty
programs very high priority.
The move to disband OEO has not gone
unchallenged. The Legal Services Program, a
service agency which has received wide-
spread support, balked at its proposed cut-
backs. The program provides free counsel
and representation to indigent people. Two
thousand full-time Legal Service attorneys
handle almost a million cases a year involv-
ing legal problems in all areas of the law.
Legal Services lawyers also represent low in-
come individuals and groups in efforts to
reform laws that discriminate against the
While modified funding for Legal Services
continued, attorneys for the program threat-
ened legal action against Acting Director of
OEO, Howard Phillips. Phillips had created
impossible bottlenecks which thwarted con-
tinued operations. His newly issued directives
placed ludicrous restrictions on the mobil-
ity of lawyers involved in cases. In addi-
tion, distribution of funds to each local
agency had to be approved by Phillips him-
These obstacles forbade any commitment to
anyone - courts or individuals - on more
than a day-to-day basis. Theodore R. Tetz-
laff, former Acting Director of Legal Serv-
ices, testifying before the Subcommittee

The CAPS are scheduled to come under
local option in 1974. Until that time, OEO
will follow a phasing out schedule for their
continued federal funding.
A CLASS-ACTION suit has been filed in
federal court on behalf of the Community
9ction Agencies. The plaintiffs charge that,
"defendant Phillips' efforts to abolish Com-
munity Action Programs are in clear vio
lation of his statutory duty and are utterly
without legal authority for two reasons."
First, the 1972 amendments to the Econo-
mic Opportunity Act provide for continu-
ance of the Community Action Programs at
mandatory spending levels, and expressly for-
bid transfer of . that program fron OEO.
Second, Phillips has not abided by the Re-
organization Act of 1949 which states in
part that any reorganization of an Executive
office must be published in the Federal Re-
gister thirty days prior to enactment.
From a constitutional perspective, the case
can be interpreted as an attempt to prevent
the Executive Office from violating "those
clear and specific directives" which Con-
gress enacted. At a hearing on Mauch. 7, U.S.
District Judge William Jones denied a motion
for a temporary restraining order against
In part, the ruling stated that while Con-
gress had authorized funds for appropriation,
the President had not allocated money for
OEO in his budget. Despite the mandate from
Congress that some programs continue
thro-gh fiscal 1975, Jones noted that "an
authorization is a pretty hollow instrument


, 4i




--4 rml~

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