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April 10, 1973 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1973-04-10

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iie Smtiiit aii
Eighty-two years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan
420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mich. News Phone: 764-0552
Book burning: B tactics

Historical perspective of

the OEO

Editor's note: The following is
the first in a series of four ar-
ticles looking at the rise and fall
of the Office of Economic Op-
portunity by Daily staff reporter
David Yalowitz. Today, a short
history and description of the
THE CURRENT controversy sur-
rounding the disbanding of the
Office of Economic Opportunity
(OEO) by the Nixon administration
is the latest addition to the blem-
ished history of anti-poverty legis-
lation in the United States. The
vigorous protests following Presi-
dent Nixon's pronouncements of
budget cutbacks provide sufficient
evidence that the poor and minority
groups who have learned 'about
community ;action are more sophis-
ticated than they were in the Six-
ties, and will not be easily deter-
red by a decision to curtail or end

lowed the precedent established
in the 1930's with the New Deal
programs of the Roosevelt admin-
To execute this proposal, j o b
training and manpower programs
were to be developed. Services for
impoverished communities would
be provided, including legal aid
and health care. In addition, com-
munity action agencies would be
established to serve as a catalyst
for organizing the poor. This fol-
lowed the new principle that the
poor should participate in the vital
decisions that afect their lives.
UNDENIABLY, it was President
Johnson's desire to help the poor.
Of his two options, the guaranteed
income approach was the simplest
and most direct way to fight po-
verty. However, it was also t h e
most expensive, at least initially.
Lacking the money - or the poli-
tical consensus - Johnson chose

THE NAZIS burned books by Jews and
The Russian Communists burned
"counter - revolutionary" books.
The Spanish Inquisition burned "here-
tical" books, as well as heretical people.
Now, in 1973, a campus group has an-
nounced that it will resurrect book burn-
ing, and this time the target will be. two
books that are "sexist."
The group, Advocates for Medical In-
formation, has slated their burn-in for
noon tomorrow on the Diag. Their prime
target will be a medical textbook written
by a University professor of medicine.
4MI COULD HARDLY have chosen a
worse tactic to express their dis-
taste for the book. Apparently they be-
lieve the burning symbolizes the destruc-
tion of the oppression of females in the
book as well as American society as a
whole, especially because the book is
used to teach medical students.
We disagree. We find the act sym-
bolizes the destruction of the right to
freely express ideas, whether people find
those ideas repugnant or not. Burning a
book is an -act of censorship that strikes
to the heart of an academic community
and any society that wishes to call itself
Their protest is wrong morally and
tacticly. Further, it will prove offensive
to by far the majority of people on

For at the center of this University
lies knowledge, and representative of
that knowledge is books.
Agree or disagree with their contents,
but revere these books nonetheless.
SHOULD WE destroy anti-semetic books
because they offend Jews? Or burn
Mark Twain because he calls blacks nig-
gers? We are sure that right wing stu-
dents could justify burning left wing
books, and, left wing students justify the
destruction of right wing literature.
Most romantic novels of the 19th cen-
tury are sexist. Physics textbooks tell
people how to make bombs. Must these
books be burned too?'
When you start burning books it can
be hard to stop.
Thatdis the lesson history has taught
us about this tactic.
EURTHER, WHEN you bufn books you
don't like, you fail to solve anything.
It will hardly be educational to immo-
late books-certainly not as effective a
protest as writing another book attack-
ing the first.
We condemn AMI for using book burn-
ing as a tactic of education. It is highly
inappropriate in this day and age that
we again behave like barbarians to prove
whatever points we have to make.
We urge AMI to reconsider their

"With the recent Nixon cutbacks, the fate of
most OEO related programs remains uncertain.
While money for some programs may presently
exist, future grants from the government are
not forthcoming."
°?'° Wn . . A ,.Pvd".:." 'yi:;j{::{:?}I;{$...ili{ i:r..>.i:" ::.... .... _N Mr:Fvh.

their programs
At the time of OEO's inception in
1964, two schools of thought for
combatting poverty had evolved.
The negative income tax, whose
most outspoken proponent was eco-
nomist Milton Friedman, provided
for a direct redistribution of wealth
in the form of a guaranteed annual
income to every family in the Unit-
ed States. Its underlying assump-
tion being that the best way to
help the poor was to give them
money; direct governmental inter-
vention on their behalf was to be
The striking feature of this ap-
proach was that it introduced in-
centives for the poor to increase
their income beyond the base pro-
vided. The negative income t a x
would be graduated to give less to
the individual as earnings decreas-
ed, but never to the point that wel-
fare payments would be more luc-
rative than job income.
ever, given the limited opportunit-
ies available to the untrained and
unskilled poor person, work incen-
tives were inadequate unless coup-
led with meaningful job oportuni-
ties. Thus a guaranteed annual in-
come alone would not guarantee an
end to the vicious cycle of contin-
ued poverty and repression.
The second basic approach sub-
scribed to the practice of provid-
ing service programs to the poor
separate and in addition to the
formal welfare structure. This fol-

the service approach.hPolitical ex-
pediency may also have been a
factor in his decision to choose
this. path. Johnson counted on an
organized representation of poor
America to be a potent addition to
his Democratic constituency.
On August 20, 1964, the Economic
Opportunity Act was signed into
law. The Act established OEO, as
an independent agency in the Ex-
ecutive Office of the President and
set up a dozen new programs to
help relieve poverty. Some of these
programs were given to OEO to run
directly, others were parceled out
to existing agencies to be run un-
der OEO supervision.
As conceived by the Johnson Ad-
ministration, OEO was not con-
sidered a welfare agency. Under
the Social Security Act of 1935, the
Department of Health, Education
and Welfare (HEW) became direct-
ly in charge of administering wel-
fare programs such as Aid for
Families with Dependent Children
(AFDC) and programs for the aged
and blind.
In contrast, OEO was to be con-
cerned with the testing and develop-
ment of a variety of innovative ur-
ban and rural programs to reduce
poverty along a wide-ranging front-
centering chiefly on economic mea-
sures, education, law reform, and
health care.
FUNDAMENTAL to Congress'
plan to carry out the Economic Op-
portunity Act were the local Com-

munity Action Agencies (CAAS),
which administer the most basic
programs created by the Act.
As defined in the Opportunity
Act, a CAA can be an agency of a
state, a political subdivision of a
state, or a public or private non
profit 'agency formally designated
as a CAA by the state or appro-
priate political subdivisions. Once
it is officially designated, a CAA
becomes the vehicle on the local
level for citizen participation in
policy planning and implementation
of the Community Action Prog am,
(CAP), which Congress has recog-
nized to be "the heart of the OE(O
anti-poverty program."
To remain a part of the anti-pov-
erty machinery, OEO has had to
shift its emphasis. Beginning in
1969, a greater portion of its bud-
get was directed toward job-train-
ing programs. The Nixon admin-
istration influence was obvious as
OEO became more of a work-trin-
ing agency.
With the recent Nixon cutbacks,
the fate of most CAA and related
OEO programs remains uncertain.
While money for some programs
may presently exist, future grants
from the government are not forth-
coming. Despite perpetually insuf-
ficient funds OEO has implemented
several important programs which
may not exist in the future:
* Approximately 10 million Amer-
icans aged 55 and over live on in-
comes below the poverty level.
Through programs for the aged,
CAAs seek employment opportuni-
ties for poor elderly citizens.
* Rural programs are directed
at the 11 million poor living on
farms and small towns. Through
CAAs, these programs provide low
income, rural people with employ-
ment opportunities, education,
health care, and housing as alter-
natives to migration to the cities.
* Milions of poor Americans
do not receive adequate health
care. In an effort to meet some
of these needs, the OEO Conpre-
hensive Health Services program
operates more than 60 Neighbor-
hood Health Centers in poor com-
* To combat hunger and malnu-
trition among the poor, the OEO
Health Services developed an Em-
ergency Food and Medical Services
program. Funds are male avail-
able through Community Action
Agencies to aid the poor not reach-
ed by other agencies. This program
has reached nearly 1.5 million of
the very poorest people with food
stamps and medical attention that
they otherwise would not have re-
* A number of OEO-developed
programs have been delegated to
other federal agencies for admin-
istration. Head Start, which pro-
vides education, and medical and
dental' care for pre-schoolers is now
administered by HEW Job Corps

P r e s i (I c it tJohnson outlining the
Great Society in a speech at the Uni-


The loss of a master

THE GREATEST artist of our time, Pab-
lo Picasso, died Sunday. Lovers of great
art and those who value artistic inter-
pretations of our society will miss him.
No other artist in modern times had
such skill in all forms of art, be it oil or
water colors, lithography, sculpture, or
stage settings. His incredible talent mas-
tered all forms of art in his seventy-five
year career.
Along with his friend Georges Braque,
Picasso was credited with the "inven-
tion" of cubism, and thus broke the
Editorial Staff
Co-Editors in Chief
ROBERT BARKIN ...........Feature Editor
DIANE LEVICK ... . . ....Associate Arts Editor
DAVID MARGOLICK ....Chief Photographer
MARTIN PORTER .. ...Magazine Editor
KATHY RTCKE ...........Editorial Director
ERIC SCHOCH . Editorial Director
GLORIA SMITH .............Arts Editor
CHARLES STEIN ............ City Editor
TED STEIN.......................Executive Editor
MARTIN STERN..................Editorik Director
ED SUROVELL........ ............ ... Books Editor
ROLFE TESSEM....................Picture Editor
Photography Staff
DAVID MARGOLICK,.........,. Chief Photographer
ROLFE TESSEM .................. Picture Editor
KEN FINK Staff Photographer
THOMAS GOTTLIEB ...... . Staff Photographer
STUART HOLLANDER............Staff Photographer
STEVE KAGAN ..................Staff Photographer
KAREN KASMAUSKI .......... Staff Photographer
JOHN UPTON................ . Staff Photographe.-

ground for the various forms of so-called
"modern" art that has both awed some
viewers and confused others.
Picasso had much to do with the pop-
ularization and belated recognition, of
African art. As he freely admitted, he
borrowed greatly from African art, espe-
cially in his later periods.
PICASSO WAS also strongly committed
to pacifism and through his art demon-
strated the absurdity of war and the des-
perate need for peace in the world.
'The most famous of his anti-war works
was "Guernica," painted after the sense-
less German bombing of a Spanishatown
during the Spanish Civil War. The agon-
ized faces depict a horror and meaning
that mere words or photographs would
be hard pressed to match.
As journalists we marvel at the power
of great artists to express in shapes and
colors those things that we cannot ex-
press in words. Picasso's ability to
achieve this was unmatched in modern
We shall long treasure the numerous
and spectacular achievements of his life-
Today's staff.
News: Amy Hannert, Josephine Marcotty,
Marilyn Riley, David Stoll
Editorial Page: Eric Schoch, Martin Stern,
David Yalowitz
Arts Page: Gloria Jane Smith
Photo Technicians: Ken Fink, Da v i d

and Neighborhood Youth Corps fur-
nish work training for tsadvant-
aged young people. These two
programs are now run by the De-
partment of Labor.
* In addition, family planingz, al-
coholic recovery, and drug addic-
tion programs are administered
through OEO. The crucial Legal
Services Program has been instri-
mental in defending the rights of
the poor.
The local offices of the CAA are
funded by the Office of Operations
which works through ten regional
offices to provide resour,:es and
guidance to more than 900 urban
and rural CAAs throughout t h e
country. Each of the ten regional
offices works directly with t h e
CAAs within its region, procesing

grant applications and monitoring
the use of federal funds. Effective
April 29, however, Acting Director
of OEO Howard Phillips had an-
nounced that he would close down
all ten regional offices.
OEO was conceived as an experi-
mental organization and failure of
certain programs was expected.
The spirit of OEO was best typified
by former Director R. Sargent
Shriver's feelings. In response to
criticisms regarding program de-
ployment, Shriver stated that OEO
could spend years analyzing what
methods to use and in the interim
nothing would be done for the poor.
It was better, he felt, to try some-
thing and fail than to try nothing
at all.

To The Daily:
have the right to free speech too?
If you think symbolic book burn-
ing is "boorish and disgusting", try
reading the book. The following
quotes are from U. of M.'s Dr. J.
Robt. Willson's Obstetrics and Gy-
necology (1971); C. T. Beecham,
M.D. and E. R.' Carrington, M.D.
This book is used to teach our
medical students about women.
What is a 10-page description of
"women's minds" doing in a medi-
cal text? Rather than DESCRIB-
ING the feminine personality, it is
in fact PRESCRIBING, it. If you
substitute "black" for "woman"
following would never be permit-
ted to be taught in this university:
"The traits that compose the
core of the female personality are
feminine narcissism, masochism
and passivity."
"The idea of suffering is an es-
sential part of every woman's
"Every aspect of a woman's life
is colored by her ability to accept
the masochism that is part of her
feminine role." "Too much femin-
ine narcissism without masochism
produces a self-centered woman. ."
"The normal sexual act . . . en-
tails a masochistic surrender to
the man . . . there is always an ele-
ment of rape."
"The very act of coming to the
physician puts the patient in. a
parent-child relationship."
(The normal woman) "sacrific-
es her own personality to build up
that of her husband."
"She is likely to feel thattshe
is 'animal-like' . . . or "to think
of the vagina as a 'dirty cavity'
"The physician notices whether
the patient is reacting to the inter-
view in a feminine way or whe-
ther she is domineering, demand-
ing, masculine, aggressive ...
(If you ask too many questions
about the side effects of your IUD,
you just might be abnormally de-
"It is a common belief of black
patients (that the source of sexual
desires) is in the uterus; white
patients think that it is in the

Supporting the

and aggressive striving for the re-
wards involved in identification
with her family . . ." (Is this to
say that women students are AB-
"Certainly the patient . . . should
be allowed to keep her own confi-
dences, but this response in itself
indicates to the physician that an
emotional problem exists."
"By the patient's dress, walk,
makeup and attitude . . . a judg-
ment of her personality begins."
Later Willson says that if a woman
is not "relaxed" (how can she be?)
during this "personality" examina-
tion, perhaps she should be refer-
red to a psychiatrist.
.. . sexual implications t h a t
are influencing her anxiety (during
a pelvic examination) are not im-
portant at the moment." What
about the sexual feelings that DOC-
TORS have made known to their
patients during pelvic examina-
A quote from the only other book
that we are burning "World of
a Gynecologist" is one that black
people will be able to identify
with since it reeks of Manifest Des-
tiny: "(The gynecologist) is made
in the image of the Almighty .. .
his kindness and concern for his pa-
tient may provide her with a
glimpse of God's image."
-Kay Weiss
Advocates for Medical
April 9
To The Daily:
IN 1969 WHEN a group of law
books in the Law Quad, The Daily
applauded the event as a just pro-
test against irrelevant academic
inquiry and course mraterial. In 1973
when Advocate for Medical In-
formation sponsors a protest
against University use of INCOR-
RECT medical and psychological
information in its gynecology texts
The Daily likens it to Hitler. Per-
haps The Daily ought to reexamine
its priorities and reserve opinions
for the editorial page.
-Linda Hallman
and 15 others
April 9

incident by representatives of the
Nixon Administration. More absurd
and extremely suspicious is the
manner in which the student-elec-
tion fraud is being handled. Four
obvious questions in this regard
require immediate response from
1. Is anything being done to de-
termine exactly who committed the
fraud and will the persons involved
be permitted to run in the new
2. Why are the candidates being
3. Who is paying for these reim-
bursements and the new election?
4. Why are the fraudulent ballots
not simply discounted if they can
be identified?
We are outraged at SGC's gloss-
ing over of what appears to be a
serious instance of corruption and
misuse of student funds.
--Dale Colling
Ed Hoffman
Betsy Lamb
Nancy Maurer
Bridget O'Donnell
April 4
IRP very much alive
To The Daily:
alysis of Monday's City Council
election (Daily, April 3) represents
once again the type of misunder-
standing of HRP which reinforces
the theory which the Democrats
so love that "HRP is dead." But
before Miller, Councilperson Fab-
er, and the great HRP-killer Don
Coster (sic) (also known as the
radical village idiot) go araund
dancing on HRP's grave, they'd
best make sure HRP is in it first.
To say that HRP's failure to
win a seat signals its death is ab-
surd. It ignores the fact that IIR!,,
unlike the Democrats and Re-
publicans, is more than an elec-
toral party; its members support
workers struggles - on the picket
lines (for example, the United
Farm Workers' picket line at the
Eastern Michigan Union at 5.30
a.m. every day last week) is v ,ll
as on council; they work in the
prisons to help prisoners organize;
they work to help high school ',:u-

book b
reveals growth in the non-student
areas of the first and fourth warJs,
areas in which future grow:h can
come as a result of further year-
round hard work.
Finally, Miller and others idiot-
ically parrot the whimperin;, Demo-
crats' line that if HRP people had
voted for Mogdis, he wouLid have
won. But if Modgis's people had
voted for HRP, HRP would have
won. Absurd? Of course, but so
is the first idea. People, aware
of the possible consequences, made
up their own minds to vote for
IIRP. Most of them would't have
voted for Modgis anyway.
If you want someone on wi111
to blame the lack of a Democratic
mayor, try the Democratic Part-.,
a party which hasn't done any-
thing to deserve a victory.
-Richard Levy
April 5
Review protests
To The Daily;
IT IS WITH a great deal of re-
luctance and a creeping' growing
sense of futility that I write this
letter, to protest Alvin Charles
Katz' review of the R.C. Players
Production of "The Three Sisters".'
Admittedly as an R.C. student,
my biases are evident, neverthe-
less I write this as an individual
who is disquieted -'by the cavalier
treatment of a fine dramatic pre-
sentation by a Daily reviewer.
Feeble attempts at pacification
i.e., "uncut diamond" notwithstand-
ing, the review of "The T h r e e
Sisters" was unfair. The dismis-
sal of Burr Anderson's perform-
ance as mere caricature and the
reduction of Pamela Seamon's per-
formance to that of a woman with
"a splitting headache' smacks of
amateurism and reeks of an utter
and callous disregard for the time
and effort put into the production.
I, and countless others like iue,
who appreciated the production are
waiting with bated breath tin d
hearts all a-twitter o learn by
what criteria Mr. Katz judges a
performance, and we all are amraz-
ed by Mr. Katz's uncanny and
awesome ability to 'iscertain Ptt e
absence of Doug Sprig 's direcuio .

another supercilious review. It is
undeniably true that not all thea-
tre in Ann Arbor is of Broadway
caliber, yet it should've been glar-
ingly evident to any reasonable per-
ceptive and sensitive person that
"The Three Sisters" was a finely
directed and acted show.
If the Daily reviewers are trying
to establish their credentials as dis-
criminating individuals in pursuit
of good theatre, then they are do-
ing precious little to convey their
anoreciation of theatre to the un-
enlirhtened and blissfully ignorant
mosses who, despite their abysmal
ignorance recognize excellence
wl-n they see it.
This letter will undoubtedly go
unheeded by Mr. Katz and his -el-
low critics; dwelling as they do
in Olympian realms of wisdom in-
accesible to the rest of us mortals.
Yet, nevertheless in my despicable
ignorance and incurable naivete I
will end this letter hoping upon
hone that one day a Daily reviewer
will come ont and give an honest
and perceptive review instead of
the unadulterated garbage we've
been receiving.
-Wendell Jones '74
April 6
To The Daily:
AFTER READING Mr. Katz's re-
view of Three Sisters I'm appalled
that he could watch the play and
miss so much. It is obvious that
his knowledge of Chekhov is quite
nil. His comment that the charact-
ers go through quick changes in
emotional level is indicative of this
type of knowledge. If anyone has
any sensitivity to what is discussed
in Chekhov's plays they will be-
come aware that this type of action
is trevalent. It tells of the Russian
ability to both laugh and cry at
the same time.
I'm fed tip with the attitude of
most reviewers, both here aid pro-
fessionally. They think of them-
$lxves as an elite. Maybe a better
system wo-ld be for them to state
their cr-dentials relative to the
plv at the beginning of the ar-
ticle. If Mr. Katz objected to
certain points in the play (as to
how it was done or directed) may-
be it would be better for him to
suggest an alternative approach.

___i 77F FliX i9


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