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February 27, 1974 - Image 6

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Michigan Daily, 1974-02-27

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we ndsday, Februdry 27, 1974












Continued from page 5

anvenient familiarity, easy in-
terchangeability, and potential
flexibility. Somewhat reluctantly,
the Commission embraced the cred-
it-hour system after all.
Unanimously, however, t h e
itembers of the Commission
agreed that the intensity of a
student's engagement is far more
important to the quality of educa-
tio than the number of courses
taken; we believe that the basic
pattern for undergraduates in this
College should be four courses a
tern instead of five. (8) Applying
the credit-hour system to this
change offers some additional ad-
vantages. Basically, the in a j o r
formal courses should carry four
credit'hurs; and the fourteen ad
ditionial hours of class time per
ter thereby added should be a
serious supplement rarely used for
an~ther lecture and not necessar-
ily held i the usual classroom but
rather a regular occasion which
might be used in some courses to
gie students individual guidance
or for =the criticism of written
wrk; in some for informal coun-
seling, tutoral sessions, and dis-
cyissions; in others for special
field trips or demonstrations or re-
viw sessions. Used seriously,
these additional sessions could go
far to establish richer and more
informal facultystudent relation-
ships and to give each course its
particular quality and emphasis.
Thwoughout the College the ten-
d&ncy is toward assigning m o r e
writjng 4ed research, encoraging
mre exploration and lss mem-
oization, stressing e s s a y s and
e$rfiments more than the final
e, ariation. This charge in peda-
gogy demands more faculty time
like counseling and informal
d #sussIon$ should be treated not
ea vague, unspecifie4 additional
wvrk but as an integral part of
teaching and of courses t h e m
In addition, there s h ou 14 be
two-hour courses quite different in
nature in which a faculty member
niglt treat intenpivly an impor-
tant but spe ialized topic (in the
style of lectures at Oford and
Ca brldge) or students and fac-
ulty together might discursively
follw some general theme. Two-
hour courses Inght meet for half a
term (preferably in the first half),
inteusively for a month (perhaps
inv itng a small team resrch
project), be added to a four credit
hour course to make an intensive
terni or be stretched as an in-
formal seminar across two terms.
The course for two credit-hours,
freed of responsibility for the ful-
ler coverage of the four credit-hour
course, wguld thus add to curric-.
ulr flexibilty as well as to a!
variety in seheduling that would
accomro4te the exigencies of
special projects or off-campus
study. The contrast in the style of
the two kinds of courses should,
however, be maintained. Clarity of
purpose can be better sustained
and fallacious precision avoided
by generally eliminating courses
for three and five credit-hours. (9)
Evep w i t h the adition of
courses for two credit-hours there
shoud be an overall reduction in
the number of courses taken and'
therefore in the n u m b e r of
Courses offered. The reduction in1
the amount of formal classroom
teahig demanded of the faculty'
would in turn release considerable
time and energy for interdiscipli-
nary atferings, counseling, and in-
dividual instruction. Such change
would have the further, if pain-
ful, benefit of requiring a thorugh
re-examination of curricular of-
ferings in each department and in
the College at large. (10) Some
courses now regularly given would
be dropped, many offered in alter-
nate years; some will be be ex-
panded to four credit-hours, oth-
ers contracted to two.

This College also needs a sys-
tematic mechanism for encourag-
ing, supervising, and evaluating
projects of indiv dual study. The
University of Mliian eath 'year
admits morO WOWS4 t SWith~ ad
Vanaed pleoett credit thA Any
university it the na ton; this fac
ulty his voted to permit credit
by naination for Up to one-half
of the degree requirements, y e t
curricular arrangements have so
far ta) en little note of these 4e-
velopments. (1) Students a n 4
alumni have expressed overwhelm'
ing interest in plans for work-study
programs or individually designed
semesters in which a student
might design a coherent program

unusual initiative to design pro-
grams of learning not available
through regular courses, and they
would grant credit and a grade
not simply for worthwhile exper-
ience but for the intellectual and
academic use made of it. The Uni-
versity after all need hardly pre-
scribe that learning take place
in the classroom in order to main-
tain its own standards for the
educated use of information. Sim-
ilar Boards were established at the
University of Chicago in 1931 to
separate evaluation from teach-
ing; our intention is the reverse.
At Michigan these Boards should
guide and assist the student as
well as certify the work done.
Membership on a Board should be
considered a teaching assignment.
We believe it would be a mistake
to define in advance the exper-
ience which might lead to the
granting of degree credit. Rather
the Board and the student should
in each case establish the addi-
tional exercises necessary to give
non-academic experience (for aca-
demic activity outside the class.
room) the quality of formal learn-
By appointing a three-member
faculty committee to supervise
each student's proposal, the Board
assures that the academic require-
ments set are appropriate to the
student's interests and needs, that
students know to whom they c a n
turn for guidance and to whom
they are responsible, that consis-
tent academic standards will be
maintained (since normally at
least two members of the com-:
mittee are from the Board), that
a faculty member expert in the
area of the student is involved in
approving the student's project
and assessing the workbdone (the
third, "outside", member of t h ie
committee), and that most of the
faculty time involved i supervi-
sion is recognized as regularly com-
pensated teaching. If this device
proves effective and students in,
terest considerable, then individ-
ual departments may choose to es
tablish boards of their own; and
the College's Board of Study would
pick members of ad hoc co-
mittees from these boards as well
as from its ownmembers. Thus
gradually more and more mem-
bers of the faculty would gain
experience in this form of teach-
ing Mnd in the College's w i d e
standards of acceptable perfor-
mance. Initially, h a w e v e r, the
Board of Study may wish to limit
the number of ad hoc committees it
will appoint or the number of stu-
dent petitions for such credit that
it will consider. Because this kind
of teaching and learning is rath-
er new to us, we propose to
begin slowly and with caution.
We recommend that:
I1. 1. Courses in the College!
of Literature, Science, and t h e
Arts normally carry either four,
or two credit-hours with courses1
awarding other amounts of credit
being permitted only exceptionally
by the Curriculum Committee and
upon petition. This need not ap-
ply, however, to courses of inde-
pendet study or directed research
or to credit approved by Boards of
1II. 2. The current policies of
granting advanced placement cred-
it by examination should be con-
Although the changes here ad-
vocated may somewhat reduce the
need for some of them,
1IT. 3. Course Mart, Pilot, and
Mini-courses should continue to be
offered under the close review of
the Curriculum Committee.
I11.4. For en experimental pe-
riod of three years at the end of
which the faculty should review
the entire program, the College
may grant a maximum of 16 cred-
its to any one student for an ap-

proved analytic study of exper-
lence outside listed courses when
that experience is deemed to have:
educational significance. A stu-;
dent seeking such credit will a)
petition the Board of Study in
writing, describing in detail the
activities Involved, the body of
knowledge to which it is related,
and the mode of analysis the ex-
perience invites; b) if the Board
of Study rejects his petition no;
entry need be made on the stu-
dent's record; if it believes the
petition to have prima facie valid-
ity, it will name an ad hoc commit-
tee of three faculty members
(normally, one or more may be
members of the Board of Study);
the ad hoc Committee and the stu-

given up to a maximum of 8 credit. Non-resident credits are further J could reflect previous study else- I
hours permitted for each petition limited as follows: where:
and establish the method of eval- 60 credits by examination a n d Proposal B (amend the t h i r d
uation to be used; d) if the ad advanced placement, h f
hoc C o m m i t t e e subsequently 30 credits from University of'Inaghe thi .a2)R
awards the project a passing Michigan extension and corre- commendationd V. 2 delete t he
grade, credit may apply either to spondence courses.-1 phrase "and off-campus independ-'
distribution or concentration re- 15 credits from other extension I ent study"'so the paragraph would:
quirements. In the latter case, two c o u r s e s and correspondence read:
members of the ad hoc Committee courses. No more than 64 credit-hours
should be from the student's de- Obviously, the question of trans- may be earned by advanced place-
partinent of concentration or the ferring credit arises only for stu- ment, credit by examinationex-
department m u s t otherwise give dents whose outstanding record tension and i o r r e s p a n de n c e
its approval, has earned them admission; and tensios and crar frs oe
courses, and transfer from other
II. . Initiall, the Colleges since in every case the actual LSA institutions, except that 96 credits'
Board of Study shall consist of five credit awarded is based on the may be transferred from other
members of the faculty represent- careful assessment of each course colleges of The University of Mich-
ing different areas of learning and taken elsewhere and granted only igan.
named by the Dean and the Execu- if an equivalent course is offered Paragraphs one and two would,
five ytte n ntation: here, such restrictions category remain unchanged.
with the Curriculum Committee by category seem unnecessary. Some members of the majority
and the departments. The duties The Commission was unanimous in argued, however, that Recom-
of the Board of Study shall be- wishing to abolish them and would 'mendation IV. 2 should in fact
a) those outlined in the proposal leave to the Administrative Board be made more stringent. Noting
above; b) general supervision of its present right to make excep- ; that up to 64 credit hours of
the awarding of credit by exam- +tions in individual cases. Having !1e x t e n s i o n and correspondence
ination; and c) the presentation of added this flexibility and having courses could now be counted, they
an annual report to the faculty. }permitted the earning of off-cam-: favored defining residency not in
The Board is expected to perform pus credit through the Boards of terms of credit supervised by The
as a teaching body, and each term Study, a slim majority of the Com- University of Michigan faculty butE
of service on the Board shall be mission believed it imperative to 'in terms of credit earned on the'
considered the equivalent of ap. require that one-half the credits Ann Arbor campus in regular
proximately one-half a normal toward the degree must be earned ! courses:
teaching assignment. If student In-!as Michigan credit under the su-
terest arra nt . dep tent are pervision of Michigan faculty. Proposal C (amend the f i r s t
teswarrants, departments are ofMicparagraph of IV. 2)
invited toestablish two, or three' In the first paragraph of Rec-
member Boards of Study of their The Majority ommendation IV. 2 delete every-
own (which might often substitute thing after "courses taken on the
for ad hoc boards) as they think Recomnmendation: inafe"cusstknoth
advisable. Such departmental Vs aAnn Arbor campus" so that it will
dm IV. 2. At least one-half of the read:
Boards should be one of the reg- credits required for thte B.A., B.S. At least one-half of the credits
ular departmental teaching as rdt, eurdfrtheBABS tlat n-afo h rdt
signments.g or B.G.S. degrees (64 credit-hours) required for the B.A., B.S., or
must be earned in residence. Resi- B.G.S. degrees (64 credit-hours)
dence credit is granted only f a r i must be earned in residence. Res-
courses taken on the Ann Arbor idence credit is granted only for
campus, courses taken at off- courses taken on the Ann A r b o r
campus sites but directed by Uni- campus.
Ivr. DEGREE rsity of Michigan faculty pre- Paragraphs two and three would
UIREMENT sent on the site, and up to 16 ;remain unchanged.'
REQUIREMENTS eredit-hours of work supervised by IV. 3. The Curriculum Commit-!
Michigan faculty through Boards tee is asked to review and to rec-F
Degree requirements gave t h e of Study and summer independent, ommend reductions in the pre-
Commission some of its greatest work. sent restrictions against granting!

The written plan or distribution
consists of two parts. In the first,
the student adopts one of the three'
patterns listed below as a basic
definition of distribution and in-t
dicates what parts of it, if any,
the student believes, he or she has:
already fulfilled by the equivalent
of work at the college level (e.g,
poems published or employment in
a laboratory). Students certain of
the area in which their field of
concentration will fall should indi-
cate this. On the basis of this as-
sessment of previous experienceI
and probable future emphasis, the'
student indicates those areas in
which courses should be taken to
fulfill distribution. In the second
part of the written plan the stu-!
dent lists eight courses (alternate
courses can also be listed) that
when combined with the student's'
previous accomplishments will ful-
fill the intent of the chosen pattern#
of distribution. Students who wish.
to may include a brief statement
setting forth the educational ra-

ginners or that enthusiasm must
be postponed seems pedagogically
Although the content is both
laudable and clear, present restric-
tions on the number of courses
within a single department that
may be counted toward gradua-
tion should be broadened. In fact,
a course may often be more differ-;
ent from others in the same de-
partment than similar courses of-
fered in neighboring departments;
regulations that ignore such ob-
vious facts are in practice hard to
justify. Furthermore, an under-
graduate who wishes in the 'senior
year to change direction within a
discipline or to explore different
aspects of it should generally have
that chance.

jects and may, on its recommedda-
tion, be counted as substitutes for
the required course in composi-
IV. 10. The English Composition
Board, named by the Dean and the
Executive Committee, shall be
chaired by a member of the De-
partment of English with experi-
ence in teaching English composi-
tion, and should consist of two or
three additional faculty members
at least one of whom is also from
the Department of English and at
least one of whom is from another
department. The Board should se-
lect and regularly meet with a
group of teaching fellows assigned
to it and whose number will be de-
termined by the Dean. For full-
time members of the faculty,
membership on the Board should
be considered the equivalent of
teaching one course.
Language Requirement



IV. S. Students may enroll in a
program of concentration at any1
time they can meet a department's
prerequisites by submitting a Con-
centration Plan signed by a depart.
rnata o iin bif dntc l by

tionale far these choices.-.thementadL iofthesr fouL te UAs expected, this proved a divi-
t sthe end of their fourth term. sive issue. Nearly all agreed that,
A student may, with the approval IV. 6. Departmental concentra- intellectually, the experience of
of the Counseling Office, change tion programs shall require at learning to read, speak, and think
his plan at any time provided the least 24 and not more than 32jin another set of symbols was an
change does not unduly extend the credit - hours of departmental important one and that learning a
length of time required to earn the courses and not more than 16 second language would greatly fa-
degree. credit-hours of cognate courses ap. cilitate learning any others later
Patterns of Distribution (13) proved by the department. Not on. Culturally, all agreed, the edu-
more than 64 credit-hours of cated person should know well at
(The departments listed a f t e r courses taken in one department or least a second language and ideally
each category are merely illustra- listed as cognates for concentra- several others. Knowing A foreign
tive; except for Pattern D, the tion may be counted toward grad- language can thus be considered
student may select any courses uation. both part of the quality of being
provided a satisfactory case can deducated and a valuable tool. The
be made that the course selected IV. 7. Departments should estab- Commission was also concerned
meets the intention of the individ- lish concentration programs that about the effect any change in the
ual dual category within the pat- provide some breadth within the College's requirements might have
tern as a whole and the student's discipline, have some inherent se- on the teaching of languages in
particular needs). quence, provide opportunities for high school, where, everyone
independent and seminar work, agreed, the learning of foreign Ian-
Pattern A. By disciplinary con- and integrate work in related dis- guages should be emphasized. Ior
tent ciplines. A department may per- a narrow majority of the Commis-
social science (sociology, anthro- mit concentrators to satisfy all or sion these considerations and
pology, history, political science, part of the concentration require- others were sufficient to justity re
peconomics, etc.) c mets outside the classroom by tention of the present language re-
demootrtioiofompteny.a quirement (even in the face of a
natural science (botany, zoology, defined by the department and ad-, contrary national trend) (16) but
physics, astronomy, chemistry, ministered by a departmental with the understanding that special
geology, etc.) 'Board of Study. efforts would be made to teach ele-
mentary language in more varied
humanities (language, literature, - and effective ways and that the de-
history of art, classical studies, English Composition an ti ayan that the de-
booksetc.}cision to maintain the language re-
great books, etc.) Requirements quirement should be reviewed by
creative expression (music, dra- the faculty within three years to
ma, art, etc.) There is absolute agreement determine whether those changes
among alumni, students, and fac- , have been sufficiently effective.
mathematics and philosophy ulty as to the importance of being (17).
(statistics, computer science, math- able to express oneself in English, -

difficulties, not over the question
of whether any requirements a r e,
warranted (although that issue'
was discussed) but of how to de-
sign requirements that will have
the effect intended and not im-
pede the education of some stu-
dents. We are broadly agreed on
the proposals that follow on the
English Composition and distribu-
tion requirements, but many of
the Commission's members har-

At least 32 credit-hours of resi-
dency must be earned in the last
two years of study.
No more than 64 credit-hours
may be earned by advanced place-
ment, c r e 4 i t by examination,
e x t e n s I on and correspondence
courses, transfer from other in-
stitutions, and off-campus indepen-
dent study, except that 96 credits
may be transferred from other
colleges of The University of,

credit for courses in the: creative
arts taken in other colleges of the
The Commission is convinced'
that some broad and varied intel-
lectual experience is essential to
a liberal education, but distribu-'
-i~t.6MYYA47 --nnn-- F ~n

bor doubtsA bout toe proposals for i ton regareens o ce crrc-xderail1te"ous i--g S of
the residencyandforeignIan-Michiganequxteniemonofte-conec ix- ematics, philosophy, etc.) and certainly the course in Englis o eethe
guge requirements adopted by the: ulum all students shared - have composition is the least objected sin suggested that the existene
gugereuiemnt aopedbyth ve Pro oaasls u ofl stdttsshreh-hae at B a .ahe t t o aydeghrreeie curasnd te .Gt.here Id h iooi
majority. We have said rather become a prefabricated list of kPattern B. By approaches to to of any of the required courses.o the tde andhe loic
less about the concentration re- Because it remained seriously courses of embarrassing inconsis- knowledge (5). Yet all agree that few st- unerly ing the u age r
quirement, believing both that de- divided on this question, the Coin- tency. Students often feel forced in analytical (mathematicssyntax, ri l nd i by asking that all students either
taili shuldproerllvaypbroepeirioybevevsythtytedfculytteenmeafmdstrbutoniostkeinalyicao(mtheatiskyntx, ioi serousyecnsidredretrnignbsasingthd alrstdensnethe
tishudpreryvybyd-mission believes that the faculty Ih aeo itrbto otk philosophy, etc.)' to the two-term requirement in take a three hundred level course
partment and that, currently, con- should also consider the following courses in which they have little' etc.)pto t tt retuirem e in a foreign language orlgive evi-
centration programs are among proposals as a substitute for Rec- interest, to repeat work already empirical (social and n a t u r a I composition. that obtained a fewt en a or anguage oge eri-
years ago. There were also strong 'dence of having made some serious
the educationally most effective of ommendation IV. 2. A sizable mi- done in high school, and to select sciences - see above) advocates of a compulsory second tellectual use of a foreign Ian-
the College's requirements. nority of the Commission insisted courses in an "area" that have m ( s yosstesofEa stmp uldcon guge.
that it was a mistake to reduce little relationship to each o t h e mrl(hlspyreigossu emo nlshta ol o-ga Concerned, however, by
Some of the proposed require- theamot os ransfe tred e bteon rtihbic in e ch they dies, classical studies) centrate on oral exnression, but ul- the difficulty and expense of ad-
ments are in a sense stiffer the amount of transfer credit per beyond the rubric whichtheym istering such a requirmnt,
those in effectnat senstfburthawe mitted and thereby to make it are listed. Those with advanced esthetic (history of art, music, jtimatelyio a majority of the Coin- mistrn suhaeuie n,
min effect at present but, we ore d for n akiti aemtd. the oth hand art; literature drama etc.) mission was not persuaded that a the Commission reached the fol-
bivmstikyto aheemore difficult for non-traditibnal placement, on the other hand, ,,'totr eurmn ol aeloving compromise but believes
believe, most likely to achieve sdt ms oal oe t meet many distribution require- twoterm requirement wold make Ilwn opoiebtblee
their purpose and to encourage m tedents, ost notably women stadg ments mony e trigthivrin Bysg enough difference to justify its the faculty ahould consider one al-
stdnst ln neuainldents, to count toward a Michigan mnents upon entering the University ;pattern C. By synthetic orgamza- ot.Rte ecos "i ternative proposal as well
students to plan an educational cost.. Rather we choose again ate tvepOiaIswl:
program well adapted to their degree or hat m necessar and re thus perialg exempthfrom tion system of Boards that would have The Commission proposes that:
needs. Thus we broaden the pre- v enf-d systematic study of ideas (phi- the advantage of carryg the con-
sentrequremnt tat esidncytaking this view preferred to keep one measure of a college educa- sytmtcsuyo1da pi h
sent requirement that residency s presenthree term residence ton Insaddition, the custom of losophy, history of ideas, litera- cern for writing more deeply into TV. 11. The present requirement
mut npre tesento tar sktoe all courses and of concentrating f- for the B.A. and .S: epge of
students to design their own dis- requirement but in somewhat sm ;meein distribution requiremenL~turs'fr!nsuet woeaaei orhsmetrpol~~yI
tribution programs, encourage putfie form: in e irstrs on is enstudy of western,thought, institu- performance was being hindered foreign language should be main-
to mean that their purpose is less1 tions, and society in time (western by their ineffectiveness in written tained with the understanding that
them to begint their concentration Proposal A (Substitute for TV. 2)seiuanmoelmntrthn aec)
when they find it most exciting, At least 48 of the credits re- ser and o telmrythan man, etc.) . expression. Thus a course instru- this decision will be reviewed
and seek to have co rnforngTheCo i quired for the B.A, B.S. or B.G.S. The Commission believes the man in society and problems of; tar might recommend a particular within three years. Students should
tost ssndo diere su es o power (political science, sociology, student to the English Cornposi- be encouraged by their advisors to
guages as part of courses through- dence. Residence credit is granted thought and diverse subjects so etc.) :tion Board for special helm or continue work i a foreign Ian-
out the College. only for courses taken on the Ann important that is should be the physical nature of life (phys- might ask the Board to assist in guage beyond this level.
VA d BG.S off campus, courses taken at purpose of at least one quarter of ics, chemistry, geology) improving the writing of many or For a large minority on the
V, 1 The B.A., B.S., and .G .S. off-cam pus sites but M c ig directed c yby e e y u d r r du t ' o r eall Fft e s u e t n ol d m t e C m son arge m in rt the r -
degrees require the satisfactoryi University ofMihgn fcly every undergraduate's course phsiallaur of the studntsenrlle insrco' the Ctdet
completiono 128re thosfy of ywork. But a serious search s f physical nature of the world or instructor's course. The Board, de- mmsoor the importance of for-
ioh U8 credit-hours chpresent on the site, and up to 16 breadth also requires that students universe (astronomy, philosophy, termining the method within its en forgthe impr-
work at versiy o credit-hours of work supervised by assess their own intellectual needs cosmology) means most appropriate to the sive, were not sufficiently teing te
gar orits equivalent. !'Michigan faculty through Boards Iaseneeds of the cus, ih assign svwr o ufcetytligt
or s in terms of their previous exper- study of non-western culture course, might ssg justify a special requirement. To
of Study and summer independent ce and future plans. The value (Chinese, Russian studies etc.) oneof its teaching fellows to criti-
Reiec eurm nswork.fnepas h aleI(hnsRssa tdeec) cie some of the written work done them the symbols of mathemlatics
Resitetry Requirements e ur fs of such a search is more likely tos e ttkor computer languages and other
At least 32 redithqurs of res-be understood and its challenge an effort at interdisciplinary for the course, to hold special ses- i cut ere d oer
We believe the education f o r dency must be earned in the last met by those responsible for plan- synthesis through work on a single sions, or even to establish a formal kinds of cultural experienoe are
which a Michigan degree is award- two years of study. ning their own path. The Commis- theme in course or by independent section i which the techniqueS of uat this important and
ed must include some substantial No more than 80 credit-hours sion urges that an effort to define ! study. writing would be stressed. The useful learning be required of all
experience of the University's may be earned by advanced place- ( liberal breadth and to plan a path'Dn Commission also believes that undergraduates. This ominoit thus
special environment and that some ment, c r e y examinaton, to it should in itself be part of preferred, and the Commission be-
extesin and correspondenc every undergraduate experience. to file a Distribution Plan must courses sometmes can provide
redey reirmentis cleaxy' courses, transfer from other in Despite the apparent complexity of nevertheless take eight courses (32 further systematic training writ- consider:
proper. Yet other campuses exist courseios, tans ferfroampuoter In-et;omleito credit-hours) outside his field of 1ug.
that are comparably stiulating ttutions and off-campus study, the following proposal, the Counsel-:g.
and studentsften have tcopeltin except that 96 credits may be ingOffice believes, as do we, that concentration, at least two of W rcdt .Prposal D (substitute for rt-
reasons for transferring frQM one transferred from other colleges of it can be adequately monitored; in cmwhich must clearly fall ineach of -mendation TV. 11)
university to another. The current The University of Michigan. fact it should stimulate useful the following three broad areas: rnIV8.Eery enterin Creshman'
requirements, however, are so Itecomm entn tVat2aloshcr d u ationabetween ostnt s i d Natural Sciences b V.requEeryttaenengremIn ICandidates for the $.A and I.S.
complex that their rationale is Reco mledation IV 2 alto gusccred cussions between students an d Social Sciences English composition unless, upon degrees must either a) der on-
hard to understand: it awarded through Boards of, their advisors. Humanities presentation of at portfolio of origi- ! trate furth-Semester proficiency
Study for summer independent t Hevo:)(Chin- nl writings, the student is excused in a foreign language or b) esatis-
120 credits required for the de- work to count as residence credit, IV. 4. Candidates for the B.A. by the English Composition Board.' factorily complete a sequence of
gree, of which the last 24 must be it also includes "off-camnpus inde- and B.S. degrees fulfill the dis- .1four courses in mathematics, corn-
earned in residence, 30 for those pendent study" among the types of j tribution requirement by taking at Concentratiot 'IV. 9. Any student in the College puter science, or symblie logic, or
whose first 90 credit-hours did not credit limited to a total of 64 least eight courses of 32 credit- Requirements may turn to the English Compo-' c) satisfactorily complete a four-
include 30 credithours in LSA. credit-hours. This means that each ' hours outside their field of concen- 'sition Board for additional help in term sequence in the study of a
90 credits may be transferred credit-hour of off-campus inde- tration according to a contract of The Commission believes that learning to write effectively, and foreign culture.
from other Colleges in The Univer-1 pendent study is subtracted from their own design or the pattern just as distribution can gain in ' any member of the faculty may All agreed, however, that:
sity of Michigan, 1 the 64 credit-hours of permissible listed under "D" below: seriousness by being considered' call upon the Board to assist some


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