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March 16, 1972 - Image 7

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The Michigan Daily, 1972-03-16

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Thursday, March 16, 1972


Page Seven

Thurday Marh 1, 192 TE MIHIGN DALY age eve



S and




Continued from Page 6 -
Organizing activities at the reported K-12 membership is visions could be made a matter of
other 8 four-year institutions about 15,000, of which 11,000 are contract between the faculty and
seem to be most lively at Michigan in Detroit. Thus far AFT has been the Board of Regents whether or
State University, where faculty selected as bargaining agent for not collective bargaining is en-
are being asked to sign cards au- some 30 community and four-year tered into. In every case so far,
thorizing an election. (See p. 5 colleges, including 4 of 26 organiz- either dues or service charges
above.) ed community colleges in Michi- ("agency shop" fees for those un-
' According to figures gathered gan (Henry Ford, Highland Park, willing to pay dues) have been re-
by MEA, as of December 30, 1970 Lake Michigan, and Wayne Coun- quired of all bargaining unit mem-
there were an estimated 2,908 ty). bers. In some cases the institution
faculty in Michigan's 29 two-year AFT operates on the pattern of has continued to provide funds for
public institutions, of which all other aspects of faculty partici-
but 3 have organized. MEA count-i an industrial union. It regards col- paiiothr eronaculyatii
hdlective bargaining as a way by pation in governance.
ed 12,673 total faculty in the 13 which employees can gain advan- + Some may wish to hold that no
four-year institutions, including wagempoyes an dvwr- member of the faculty should have
3,282 at the University of Michi-tag inWages, hours, and work- have an his right to participate in univer-
gan. This latter figure (2,767 in assured voice in institutional af- sity life and governance - by
265 in Dearborn, and fairs. Strictly educational matters presenting limself as a candidate
250 in Flint) included 486 more would ordinarily fall outside the for faculty positions, by joining in
people than were counted in the scope of bargaining but policies the selection of representatives, or
the current total of 2796 UM adopted by statewide or local se- byotherwise enjoying the per-
Faculty Senate members (ap- ates could be included. AFT un- quisites of faculty - abrogated
proximately 2 620 in Ann Arbor, qualifiedly supports use of the by virtue of his unwillingness to
69 in Dearborn, 60 in Flint, and strike as the union's ultimate pay dues or fees. It is doubtful,
47 on the "U.S. mailing list") weapon. It offers the strengths of however, that this presumed right
Other paragraphs in part I.B. of the labor movement, including would be upheld by the courts.
this report supply additional in- outside supportive sanctions from The classic faculty senate has
formation about collective, bar- AFL - C0o where needed. Thre recently been characterized as a
gaining in Michigan colleges and is as yet no sign of AFT prime example of "institutional-
universities. interest in the University of ized irresponsibility." [M y r o n,
4 0. The Four Major Agencies Michigan. Lieberman. "Faculty Senates: In-
Three national organizations stitutionalized Irresponsibility,"
re competing for recognition as CNEA Phi Delta Kappa 51, no. 1 (Sept.
exclusive bargaining agents in the The National Education Associ- 1969), 16-20.1 Unquestionably,
colleges and universities: AAUP, atioil (NEA) was founded in 1857 faculty senates that have not de-
AFT, and NEA. In some places lo- as a strictly professional associa- veloped representative and exec-
cal associations have assumed this tion concerned with educational utive organs such as exist at the
role in varying degrees of attach- standards in the public schools. University of Michigan are caught
ment to the faculty senate. The NEA has over 1,100,000 mem- in an extremely weak position
(a) AAUP bers, '75,000 of them in Michigan. compared with well-organized,
The American Association of As of May, 1970 an additional well-financed unions. Even in the
University Professors (AAUP) 630,000 teachers and administra- University of Michigan situation,
was formed in 1915. primarily to tors were affiliated with state as- however, the promise of senate or-
protect the- academic freedom of sociations in states where units gans seems to lie not in the di-
faculty. Nationally and through its may join the state association rection of collective bargaining
local chapters it has established without joining the national. (In but in that of providing alterna-
professional standards fbr institu- Michigan all locals must join both tive solutions. These will be de-
tions of higher education and a the state and the national asso- tailed in section I.C. and in Part
system of censure for non-compli- ciation.) Nationwide it has become II below.
ance, particularly ion matters of. increasing aggressive over the 7. Some Basic Concerns about
academic freedom and tenure. past ten years, partly in defense Collective Margaining
Each year since 1955 it has pub- against vigorous recruitment of (a) In many colleges and uni-
lished statistical charts indicat- teachers by the AFT. It now rep- versities the administration has
ing average and minimum com- resents most K-12 units in collec- been at odds with faculty over
pensation rates. The organization tive bargaining, along with at wages, hours, and working con-
has been rapidly shiftingyits posi- least 48 community and four-year ditions - the three basic inter-
tion over the fast four years in colleges with several thousands of ests served by industrial unions.
the face of campus organizing by faculty members. In Michigan as Therefore at some of these insti-
AFT and NEA. While it is still op- of February, 1971 MEA was agent tutions faculty have been moving
posed in principle to several fea- for 523 of the total 549 K-12 and into collective bargaining to re-
tures of collective bargaining, Intermediate bargaining . units, dress their grievances. At the
since 1968 it has gradually placed leaving 15 districts presumed not University of Michigan, faculty,
itself in a competing position and to be bargaining under the Pub- agencies and the administration
has already become the bargain- lic Employment Relations Act, have ordinarily cooperated on
ing agent in at least nine four- Sixteen Michigan community col- these matters and the administra-
year institutions, including Oak- leges have the affiliate Michigan tion has given the faculty strong
land University, where the fac- Education Association (MEA) as support before the Legislature.
ulty struck in 1971. bargaining agent, this through its Therefore, while less advantaged
Nationally AAUP has about special division the i Michigan As- members of the UM faculty feel
100,000 members and a staff of sociation for Higher Education that' their situation has not been
about 20 persons. Deus are scaled (MAHE). Central Michigan Uni- attended to, and while others ob-
from $15 to $25 per year depend- versity has also organized with serve that the economic status of
ing on salary bracket. In Ann MEA. the UM faculty has deteriorated
Arbor there are about 600 nation- Current state dues run $107 in recent years, many faculty also
al and about 200 local members. ($82 state, $25 national) per year fears that collective bargaining
(Apparently some faculty do not in Michigan, plus local dues. would bring about a damaging ad-
realize that there are local dues.1 The traditional emphasis has versary relationship with the ad-
currently in the amount of $5 per been on what its advocates call ministration. In the university
year.) "professional negotiation" rather setting bargaining and collegiality
AAUP is on record (i) prefer- than industrial - style collective may not be incompatible, but defi-
ring improved activity of faculty bargaining. The NEA favors this nite restrictions on faculty auton-

functions, and democratic proce- compensation for full-time Assist- Both professional standards and ionally a committee met weekly for report to SACUA once each year
dure in academic affairs. It is dif- ant Professors was $14 411 for a faculty duthority can be expected a period of months. Assuming an in person, and it has become pol-
ficult to determine from the con- AA rating from AAUP, while Pro- to lessen as faculty take on a more average of 15 two-hour meetings icy to ask each Vice President to
tent and brief history of present fessors' average compensation of restricted employee status. of 10 members for each committee appear before the Senate Assem-
contracts how many of these con- $22,227 received only a B rating. (b) From an academic "profes- as a conservative estimate, a n d bly once each year to offer ob-
cerns can be met with industrial Compared with the other "Big sional standpoint, the preferred making other adjustments for servations and to respond to ques-
style collective bargaining and Ten" universities UM Assistant model for relations between fa- short-term committees and the tions.
how many are likely to suffer. It Professors ranked a close third in culty and administrators compris- like, the total man-hours would SACUA spent considerable time
is also difficult to perceive how mean salaries but were last in es a collegial rather than a strict- come to about 5,000 for these last year looking at the whole
academic bargaining could mark- proportionate increase over the ly hierarchical or adversary re- committees. Add to that an esti- I matter of student participation in
edly differ from industrial bar- past five years. UM Instructors lation - one of shared respon- mated 1500 man-hours for Senate I decision-making. One major result
gaining where state law makes no also have an AA rating, whereas sibility and authority rather than Assembly and 1200 man-hours for has been the Office of Student
distinction between faculty and Lecturers are compensated at a one requiring competition, c o n- SACUA, and there would be a tot-|Services Policy Board; which is
other employee groups, as in the higher average but are not rated. frontation, or coercive sanctions as al of nearly 8,000 man-hours instudent controlled but on which
State of Michigan, or whether the Unless the "market" is to be re- under the usual industrial rela- committee meetings alone. Other faculty play a prominent role. The
different situation would produce garded the prime determinant of tions model. Professional stand- time spent cannot be estimated. Committee on Communications
markedly different outcomes. salaries, it is highly questionable ards of performance should be set If it were only a conservative was also developed from SACUA
(e) Attacks on tenure may whether the statistical ratings of 1by faculties, not by bargaining double of this total, the overall recommendations. In 1971, SACUA
make some faculty consider col- AAUP provide adequate standards. compromises or by decisions of noncompensated investment would spent much time with University
lective bargaining a bulwark of i Such comparative standards have state labor relations boards. be equivalent to 12 full-time staff Council people and with the Re-
defense. On the other hand, ten- nonetheless been the chief refer- (c) Participation of both faculty members, involving the gifts of vents over the proposed new rules
nure could also be abolished ence point for many years. and administrators in the govern-I some 170 individual faculty. covering disruptive conduct by
through collective bargaining, as a At the University of Wisconsin ance of the University should be What did this faculty invest- all members of the University
trade-off for other things. Aca- the Teaching Assistants Associa- so organized that the possibility ment bring about? The study re- community.
demic freedom of faculty is a 'high tion was able to achieve substan- of making decisions based on self- ported in section II.C and other At the request of SACUA the
traditional value. Tenure policies tial gains in wages and working interest, on poor judgment, on; summaries in II.B will detail some Regents have agreed to set aside
have helped to secure its acknowl- conditions through collective bar- lack of relevant information and of the story over the past ten a given period during each meet-
edgment. Tenure could be wiped gaining in 1970-this as a sepa- values, or on flimsy planning is years. The following paragraphs ing to hear any segment of h e
out with or without collective bar- rate group, not as part of the rul- held to a minimum. To avoid fa- indicate something of the scope University that wishes to address
gaining, or modifications could be ing faculty., Assistant Professors culty errors of this kind, the ad-|and effectiveness of various groups it. The Regents have become in-
made in tenure policy to assure would not be able to organize sep- ministration should be accordedduring 1970-71 and of SACUA creasingly willing to hear directly
high level performance among arately. A change either in their powers of overall leadership, co-|over the past two years. from faculty representatives. The
tenured faculty. Whether such relative position or in promotion ordination, planning and innova-| 3. Senate Assembly SACUA chairman attends parts of
changes will be made seems rather policy is likely to depend more on tion, quality control, and business Senate Assembly gave close at- the closed sessions each month. On
to depend on changes in economic an altered perspective within the management, also serving as a tention to the proposed Univer- some occasions the entire commit-
conditions, in legislative decisions, faculty as a whole than on col- buffer bNween faculty and t h e sity Judiciary, University Council tee has attended sessions. There
and in professional values. lective bargaining as such. Whe- Board of Regents (as the Amer- rules, Classified Research policy, have been times, however, w h e n
(f) Excellence in faculty per- there or not a collective bargain- ican Association of Higher Edu- and a pay policy for striking fa- faculty could not get a requested
formance may be discouraged in ing situation will be needed to cation's 1967 Task Force on Fa- culty in 1970-71. The channeling hearing.
the process of gaining equitable bring this about remains to be culty Participation in Academic of faculty criticism and endorse- SACUA regularly nominates
treatment for all faculty mem- seen. Governance recommended). To ments through the Assembly was members to the various Senate
bers and of using quantitative cri- Iv i Those who now receive the avoid administrative errors, facul- essential to the final adoption of Assembly committees and to corn-
teria for advancement. On the lower salaries at all ranks are ty should have wide powers of a Judiciary plan by the Regents. :nittees reporting to the Board of
other hand, merit increases could likely to be affected most by self-determination in professional A similar procedure was followed Regents, such as the Board in
be provided for in the contract changes in policy concerning pro- and academic matters, an informal on the other three items. All were Control of Intercollegiate Athlet-
and general 'excellence fostered motion and merit increases. Again, advisory role in all areas of ad- on the agenda several times. In ics. Upon its request, President
both by having policies more defi- there is no clear evidence as to ministrative responsibility, and a May, 1970 an Ad Hoc Committee Fleming has agreed to consult with
nite and equitable and by assur- whether or not gains would be share in making basic decisions on Political Activity was formed in SACUA regarding appropriate pro-
ing economic security to a larger made in this area through collec- that affect budget allocations, the aftermath of Kent State and :edures for selecting acting deans
number. The degree to which such tive bargaining, even though this University development, and long- the Cambodia incursion, resolu- and vice presidents.
goals could be achieved without is where the greatest pressure may range planning. tions were adopted at the J u n e Starting in ;1970 SACUA h a s
collective bargaining is not known. be felt among the less privileged 2, Alternative Structure for reeting, and plans were made for also instituted a policy of confer-
(g> Through collective bargain- faculty. Faculty Participation in Economic student involvement in the No- ring with the local State Repre-
ing faculty status could conceiv- (jI If salary differentials are Decision-Making vember elections. sentative and State Senator.
ably be improved in several areas: leveled off and freedom to respond Between the two extremes - an Apart from the numerous rou- At the request of SACUA, a
in compensation and fringe bene- to the market lost, the capacity of informal advisory faculty relation- tine commitee appointments and research team from the School of
reotsteAsmbydalpih Education made a study of execu-
asnd class-szesin facitiedsa schoolstoensa com e frequal ship to administrative decision-
and class-sizes, in facilities and schools to compete for quality making on total salary and fringe it also heard Vice Presidents Ra- tive committees in the various
services for frulty. in clarifica- faculty may be diminished. Ex- allocations (as at present) a n d Idock and Fauri, after much discus- schools and colleges. Their No-
tion of tenure and promotion cellence within the institution collective bargaining through a sion took affirmative positions on vember 1969 report was reviewed
routes, in nondiscriminatory em- largely depends on their maintain- certified bargaining representative the proposed Sports Building and oy SACUA and Senate Assembly
ployment policy. in grievance pro- ' u this capacity. However. the e an alternative is possible' the North Campus apartment and then distributed to the schools
cedures, in sabbatical and other value of market response must be (a) The Senate Assembly could housing, endorsed formation of a and colleges as a tool for evaluat-
leave provisions, in policy regard- weighed in relation to the value reconstruct the present Commit- medical clinic for street people and ng and restructuring the work of
ing use of adjunct faculty, in se- of achieving greater equity in tee on the Economic Status of the of a faculty club, adopted a revis- their executive committees.
lection of deans and executive of- I compensation. I t s importance Faculty (CESF) as a professional ed policy on nepotism, provided for SACUA has had a valuable role
ficers, in support of professional partly rests on what policies other consultative negotiating team, re- addition of student members to to play in crisis situations. This
travel, and in retirement policy. comparable institutions adopt and ' the committees on Academic - Af- will be reviewed in section II.B.1
th eresponsible for formulating specific fisadUiest eainadIblw
On the other hand, the consider- on the degree to which the Uni- requests regarding salaries a n d fairs and University Relations, and below.
able control faculty already have,( versity of Michigan choses to be fringe benefits for academic staff formed the Faculty RIghts and Since its interaction with Sen-
over these matters could conceiv- a leader or a follower in changing (b) The CESF could be charged Responsibilities Committee. It ate Assembly, the committees, and
ably be increased and the situa- compensation policies. One thing with gathering information a n d went on record opposing the Gov- idministration officials is so con
tion of less privileged faculty im-.1 is clear: collective bargaining then conferring with administra- t ernor's recommendation that UM tinuous and close, SACUA mem-
proved through structures now agencies are not likely to weigh tion officials. The results of this payments to the City of Ann Ar- bers have had an influence in
available at the University of market value more highly than initial pIoces would then be em- bor for police and fire protection many other matters, some of them
Michigan. equity. bodied in specific proposals from .halted. onfidential. On subjects brought
(h) In collective bargaining, (k) In the budget squeeze situ- the commttee, coupled with spec-t Committee reports to the Facul- to it by the administration some-
the majority rules. Therefore wide ation, where few incremental dol~ ific replies from the administra- ty Senate on April 5, 1971 includ- times SACUA has said "yes," some-
salary differentials that work to lars are available, collective bar- tion. These proposals would have ed the following additional high- times "no." When AFSCME, a
the detriment of hardworking, gaining might at first succeed in to be made sufficiently early in onights: (i) From the Committee union of maintenance and other
productive faculty in fields not getting salary improvement at the the year so that negotiations could n the Proper Role of the Univer- personnel, struck the University
competing with the outside mar- I expense only of non faculty bud- be taken into account within the st of Michigan in the Education- in January, 1971. SACUA w a
ket for personnel could be les- { getary items. The time could rap- budgeting process. al System of the State came a approached for information and
sened or removed. Women and idly approcach, however, when (C) If a substantial agreement is caxtnson SresnedultyEdn deidedn.hatthibeatns
other faculty at the lower rungs the funds are drawn from else- reached between CESF and th Extension Services and Adult Ed- decided that this was not an is-
of the promotion ladder could be where in the faculty domain by administration, the policies o n ucation, a note that a position sue for faculty involvement and
protected against discrimination reducing the numbers of faculty-~ ained therein could be embodied paper on State relations will soon carefully kept away from it. This.
by "peer" evaluations. So far the fewer persons at higher pay, as In in specific faculty-administration be forthcoming, an indication that action was apparently not what
record is mixed on this score. On the public schools and elsewhere recommendatons to the Board of no agency is providing guidelines the administration then expected
some campuses a standard scale under collective bargaining - or Regents, together with any reac- for University long-range planing or hoped for.
has been adopted through collec- by resorting to various forms of tions or suggestions that may is- and an expressed intention to de- B. Background
tive bargaining, in others not. On c productivity bargaining. sue from Senate Assembl vise ways of doing this. (ii) A 41- 1. Senate Assembly and SACUA
some campuses the differentials (1) No clear evidence has been (d After trying to seek agree- page report from the Economic 1960-71
may have been reduced through found to show that any form of ment with administration offic- Status of the Faculty Committee , (a) Membershiprs
collective bargaining. A recentu union organization will either help ials, the committee could have surveyed the AAUP standings, pre (i) A total of 73 professors have
study shows that in 11 represen- or hurt the faculty with the Leg- the right of consulting on these sented salary tables, pointed out served on SACUA during the elev-
tative Michigan community col- islature. Nor does it appear that matters directly with the Board the especially low status of the an year period from 1960-61 to
leges they have been increased. At the lobbying position of the Uni- of Regents. Library staff, reported on increas- 1970-71. All but about 15 served
I CUNY, on the other hand, they versity of Michigan would be (e) In the event that agreement ed frnge benefits in health insur- more than one year. The usual
have been significantly decreased, I harmed, even if all or most of the is not reached, the committe e and the disability pnan, out- term was three years. From its in
largely through a faster increease state's other college and univer- could then report to Senate As-lined present problems mnfinanc- ception in 964-65 to 1970-71, 213
at the ower ranks. sity faculties were under contract sembly the areas of disagreement ig the Periodic Health Appraisal professors have served in Senate
() What could younger faculty to a single agency, such as MEA. land the respective positions there- program, and compared changes i Assembly.
gain or lose through collective It is highly plausible to suppose tothe General Fund, State app- (ii) Of the 73 total SACUA
bargaining? This would depend that because of MEA's additional (f) The Senate Assembly would piations, and "real income" by members, 22 were L.S.A. faculty,
on several factors: (1) present commitment to employees at the then have a number of options, in- ank sm e 1939-40. No specific re- 11 Engineering, 7 Medical, 4 Lae
rank and professional standing. K-12 levels, employees in higher Iluding but not limited to (1) ac- ommendationsoon salaries were I Education, and 3 each cam,
(ii) the market for new faculty at education would get comparative- cepting the report of the com- made, but resolutions askin the Detm Sness Administrations,
the lower ranks, (iii) whether the ly less strenuous advocacy in Lan- mittee without comment, (2) in- continued improvements a the Dental School, Natural Resources,
bargaining agreement is likely to sing. The actual state of affairs istruting the committee to return frmge beefit area were adopted. and Music. The remaining 8 were
bring across-the-board percentage now appears almost surely to be tructi homitte oreun(iii) The Civil Liberties Board not- spread over 6 units.
I brng cros-te-bardperentgeC to negotiations with a modified set a it omjaem0reiifcmaaiv ieo a

gains or to lessen differentials, one in which all three competing of proposals, or (3) directing an cearfutermatn re- iiulty or twe teole
ofdclay edfurtfermiatnped- ,lt.roe i)I olmartiwee ste olef
(iv) what salary schedule stand- agencies-AAUP, AFT. MEA - appeal to the Board of Regents. yr
ards are used, and (v) promotion will have contracts with one or In the event that agreement still I ures when a school or college does criterion of membership, L.S.A. has
more institutions of higher edu- cannot be reached, Senate Assem- not abide by the recommendations 'een underrepresented, and t h e
and merit increase policies, antb eced eaeAsm of the Advisory Review Commit- Engineering and Medical U n I t s
(i) Rank and professional cation and in which legislators bly could request that the matter jfte AvsTrycReicommit-egeengvrnd steda cUl-
standing are purely individual will continue to be approached go to fact-finding or advisory ar- tee. (iv) The Academic Affairs have been overrepresented. Facul-
from a variety of directions. bitration, or it could register its Committee reported that "only oe- ty from the lower ranks have;been
(ii) This year younger faculty (m) There are varying policies dissatisfaction by adopting a n d iasionally was it consulted on mat- missing almost entirely, nor have
are in a buyer's market in most concerning strikes among t h e publicizing a resolution of ensure. ters of policy by the office of the women been included until t h e
fields. If professional predictions major bargaining agencies. All Vice President for Academic Af- spring, 1971 election. With rare
of markedly lower recruitment support the use of strikes in some fairs. In the absence both of con- exceptions, some of them notable,
'ates over the next few years hold situations. If faculty bargaining II. FACULTY PARTICIPATION tinuing informal relations with the similar patterns of representation
up, their situation is not likely to should lead to a strike. the people IN UNIVERSITY GOVERNANCE staff of that office and of an have been consistently present
improve in this respect. If the of the state might well react: let A. Overview of Recent Activi- independent staff of its own," the both in SACUA and in Senate As-
average age of faculty goes up, as them close down! Many influential report continued, it is difficult sembly and its committees. (See
aveageageoffacltygossu asthmtcosedowamanyinfuetialanie
is also predicted, then there will people around the state who are Since the spring of 1967. when for a committee such as this one the reports on the Campus Plan-
be a proportionately greater I not much interested in supporting the new form of Senate Assembly even to be aware of, much less to ning and Development and Aca-
claim for compensation at the the way University of Michigan came into being, general faculty influence, the development of aca- emic Affairs committees below.)
higher ranks and there will be affairs are being conducted now a ito in I demic poliices and programs in (b) Procedures
* highe ranksand threowil be f irs enedfning codutd o participation in Univer'sity govern-I the University." (v) All the ad- (i) There has been a certain
fewer Assistant Professors to pay., would be Insensed at finding fa- ance appears to have been increas-
Of course, somewhere along the culty using the techniques of the ing. President Fleming has openly visory committees reported t h i s reluctance among SACUA mem-
line the question may be raised as labor movement, and continually welcomed this de- year numerous instances where bers and among the faculty gen
to whether salaries for younger (n) In some universities collec- velopment. Experienced faculty comment had been made to the erally to initiate action for re-
faculty should be largely deter- tive bargaining has thus far been leaders have expressed serious dis- Vice Presidents on matters of pol- orm. This no doubt derives part-
mined by the market. What any a means of stimulating faculty in- satisfaction on several points but icy, program, and finance. Little ly from a desire to avoid confron-
effort to deal rWth this question terest in the affairs of academic also the feeling that much-needed attention was given in these re- tation and conflict, partly from a
could yield, inside or outside col- governance and of bringing facultyi improvement can still be made if ports to the overall effectiveness ;ommitment to rational discourse
lective bargaining, is impossible to leaders and administrators intoi faculty have the will. During 1970- of such comment or whether alter- md to achievement of comprom-
forsee at this point. unaccustomed close contact. In f'71 and at the start of 1971-72, ed procedures are called for, apart ise. Therefore faculty-initiated re-
(iii The third factor is uncer- such situations collective bargain- the administration has cooperat- from those already mentioned. An sponse to challenge from student
ain on the basis of present data. ing may actualy be necessary be- ed in establishing a closer working exception was the Committee on activists or others has often been
A decrease in salary differentials, fore any significant change in relationship in several areas. Campus Planing and Development unprepared and reactive.
however, cannot be counted on. faculty participation can be 1. Scheme of Organization which listed 14 areas of effective!(ii The general pattern fol-
(i) Comparative salary stand- achieved. At the University of The present organizational effort. lowed in committees has been a
ards are also difficult to predict. Michigan, on ' the other hand, structure begins with the Faculty 4. SACUA :onsensual one. Votes are seldom
Compared with Assistant Profes- where faculty have had greater Senate and Board of Regents. It The rapidly broadening involve- taken. SACUA and committee
sors at CUNY and in other facul- opportunity to exert influence, ef- centers on Senate Assembly and ments of SACUA cannot be ade- members have often felt pressed


senates to collective bargalning concept in order to indicate the
wherever feasible. (ii) opposing democratically elected representa-
inclusion of non-faculty in the tive system used within the or-
bargaining unit, and (iii) advising j ganization and the aim of advane-
that both agency and union shops ing professional relationships be-
be avoided if possible. ' It also tween employee and employer in
recommends to its local chapters the college setting. Officially it
(iv) protection of tenure and oth- prefers "professional sanctions"
er "rights" of professional stand- to strikes but has also supported
ing and of participation in gov- use of the strike tactic.
ernance articulated in AAUP Mr. Charles Belknap, a MAHE
standards and (v) internal resolu- staff person located in Ann Arbor,
tion of grievances and a limited has/ emphasized two additional
scope of arbitration as opposed to items: (i) the ready availability of
formal mediation through outside full-time experienced staff $6,-
agents. (yi) In principles AAUP 000,000 budget in Michigan, $25,-
holds faculty strikes in disfavor 000,000 nationally> and (ii) the
but considers them appropriate interest in political action, espe-
u n d e r extraordinary circum- cially lobbying for education leg-
stances and as a last resort. (vii) islation in Washington and Lan-
It offers sanctions appropriate. to sing, and the attendant advan-
a prestigious nationwide profes- tage of numbers.
sional association interested ex- MAHE staff have been actively
clusively in. the status of college recruiting at Northern Michigan,
and university faculty. (viii) At EMU, and Wayne this year. In the
present its.staff resources are re- spring of 1971, MSU had a MEA-
latively meager compared with ;affiliated faculty association of
those of the MEA. Representatives some 25-30 members and was or-
argue that sufficient legal and ganizing with the ihelp of an
other relevant resources could be MEA staff person. By September
made available through national MSU appeared very close to ful-
and local dues under collective filling the 30 percent requirement
bargaining, resources tailored to for an election. By that time or-
the specific situation of higher ed- ganizing had also begun irf Ann
ucation and resting on the many Arbor, with a similar arrange-
years of AAUP experience in this ment. At the invitation of a small
area. They contend that dues committee in the Electrical En-
would be lower than under AFT or gineering Department, William A.
MEA. The Michigan Conference Porter, chairman, Mr. Belknap has
of AAUP has engaged'an attorney responded to a set of questions
to serve all chapters in Michigan I about collective bargaining in a
engaged in collective bargaining. paper to be distributed to all fac-
This past year the local chapter ulty in the early fall along with a
has held meetings on collective similar paper prepared by Dr. Al-
bargaining and has gathered in- fred D. Sumberg, Associate Secre-
formation, principally through the tary in the AAUP national office.
efforts of the Ad Hoc Committee The printing was paid for by
for Information on Collective Bar- MAHE.

omy and on the faculty's capacity
to share in the process of forming
University policy are bound to ac-
company negotiated agreements
on faculty compensation.
(b) In industry the typical col-
lective bargaining model says:
We'll take our part, you do what
you want with the rest. Recently
a number of UM faculty havel
been asking for a greater faculty!
role in University budgeting and
allocation of funds, in the belief
that the academic concerns of fac-
ulty are affected by virtually the
entire budget, not by salaries
alone, and that the faculty has a
responsibility to share in setting
University goals and priorities. If
such proposals are deemed im-
portant, then another model willI
have to be found. The new model
would be one which at the same
time enables the faculty, both in-
dividuals and corporate, to press
their claims on matters of com-I
pensation and allows them ef-
fective participation in University
(c) B a r g a i n i n g agreements
could include provisions intended
to secure designated f a c u l t y
rights. However, successive con-
tracts could also get into many
areas besides wages, hours, and;
I working conditions - into areas
now generally thought to be the
primary responsibility of faculty
government or of the administra-
tion. "Rights" themselves would
then be subject to bargaining.
Some informed observers have ar-
gued that once, collective bargain-{
ing has settled in, the rights andj
influence of faculty would be re-
stricted primarily to internal af-
fairs of the schools and colleges,
i.e. to such as are not already
covered in the negotiated con-
tract. Successful efforts over the
past five years to strengthen fac-
ulty influence on general Univer-
sity policy through Senate As-j
sembly, SACUA, and the various,
Assembly committees could be lost.
Valued UM traditions of decen-
tralized decision - making on in-
ternal budgeting, recruitment,j
promotions, scheduling, productiv-
ity, and course offerings within
the schools and colleges could bej
thwarted. Although the situation
of disadvantaged faculty m'ght
greatly improve - and this is by
no means certain - overall salary
increases could be more than off-
set by diminishnent of faculty

gaining and of Prof. Wilfred Kap-
lan, 1970-71 p r e s i d e n t. Ini-
tial finding have already been'
reported in the University Record
and will be followed up with a
mailing to all faculty in the early
'fall bringing these findings up to
(b) AFT
The American Federation of
Teachers (AFT) was organized inI
1916. In 1919 it received a char-
ter from the American Federation
4 of Labor and has since operated as
an affliate of the AFL-CIO. Dur-
ing the 1930's it expanded its ef-
forts among public school teachers
to include teachers in higher edu-
cation. Efforts to orga nize on the

(d The Faculty Senate a Bar-
gaining Agency?
Could the Faculty Senate or a
designated organ of the Senate be
a collective bargaining agent? To
date 11 of 130 colleges known to
have organized chose local inde-
pendent agents, including 6 Mich-
igan community colleges. At onet
of them, St. John's University, the
Faculty Association joined ivith
the local AAUP chapter to form
the bargaining agency. Thus far,
administrative agency decisions in
the State of Michigan suggest that
a university-funded senate, in-
cluding one that has administra-
tors in its membership, would


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