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November 28, 1979 - Image 8

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1979-11-28

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Page 8-Wednesday, November 28, 1979-The Michigan Daily
Determinants of salarie

(Continued from Page 1)
ference exists in the nature of the ac-
tivity between teaching and the real
world: Law professors take some cut
(in salary) because they have
privileges as professors (such as the
opportunity to do research) that they
would not have if they were practicing
law. Doctors, however, would do the
same thing in the University or in
(private) practice, so they must be paid
more to keep them at the University,"
Sandalow said.
THE SALARIES of professors in
clinical areas of the medical school are
generally the highest at the University.
The majority of these salaries do not

come from state or tuition money, but
are paid through University hospital
patient fee income.
Gronvall said that the state generally
pays for the teaching done by a mem-
ber of the medical school faculty, while
the patients support the care they
The system under which patient fees
are distributed among the medical
school faculty is called the Medical
Service Plan, or practice plan. Accor-
ding to Gronvall, each medical school
department sets up a clinical group.
Salary guarantees are made to each
faculty member for the coming year.
Revenues from patient bills are pooled

among the group and the amount
promised clinical faculty is paid to
them. Additional patient care fees are
then turned over to the hospital's
general budget.
TO CITE ONE example, Dr. Paul
Lichter, chairman of the Opthalmology
Department, receives $110,000 -
$17,000 of which comes from the general
fund, while Chairman of General
Surgery Dr. Jeremiah Turcotte
receives $102,060 - $72,810 of which
comes from the general fund. Lichter,
however, spends substantially more
time practicing opthalmology than
Turcotte practices surgery. Mean-
while, Turcotte supervises a con-

Iranian armed forces on alert*

s vary
siderably larger staff and spec
time teaching and thus is grant
cent of his salary from state ar
fees - while Lichter takes on
cent of his salary from this fun(
Most University instructors
primarily researchers receiv
stantial portion of their salar
research grants. The National
Foundation, for example, will s
professor doing biological
research for approximately on
his or her.salary, so more tim
spent on laboratory research.
these grants, though, are temp(
Institute for Social Researc
researchers generally receive
dent funding through researc
for that fraction of their time;
research activities. For exa
sociology professor who spend
cent of his or her time at l
generally receive one-half of h
salary from the foundation
ISR's budget, and the rest fr(
appropriations and tuition fees.
PORTIONS OF A professor'
not designated as part of the
tment rate often come from4
sation for administrative duti(
mer salary, independent r
grant salary, employment i
organizations, writing and put
lecturing, and consulting.
Because the University's s
budget is independent of the a
year budget, appointments, s
and research money earned th(
considered part of the regular
tment rate.
Summer salary, additior
ministrative salaries, and oth
plemental income is not include
academic year budget becau
earned separately, and on an ir

nds more DEPARTMENT HEADS, for exam- with a full-time appointment in
ted 70 per ple, receive money for their ad- department, and a professor with f
nd tuition ministrative duties. According to In- tions of appointments in several de
ly 15 per terim University President Allan tments or units. A professor on le
d. Smith, that figure is usually around without absenceis listed with al
who are $2,500, and reaches $3,000 in larger ticular appointment rate, but is li
e a sub- departments. as not currently receiving that salar
ies from Associate deans and museum direc- Other information which must
l Science tors who also teach, receive a stipend considered on the salary list is the ti
support a for their administrative work. of each individual's appointment. N
genetic When faculty members are promoted University administrators and s
ie-half of to deans, their salaries are receive salaries on a 12-month ba
e -can be systematically adjusted to cover those Most professors-with the exceptio
Most of administrative responsibilities. medical and dental school insti
orary. WHILE TIME commitments to the tors-are appointed on a nine-m
ch (ISR) University are based on several fac- term. This appointment does not
indepen- tors, some professors prefer to work clude summer appointments which
h grants less as faculty members in order to free given over and above a regular app
spent on themselves foroutside consultingop- tmentT
imple, a portunities with private firms and STATE APPROPRIATIONS
is 50 per government agencies. tuition revenues, which make up 92
ISR will The prevalence of outside consulting cent of the general fund, pay forc
is or her is impossible to estimate, and is not in, some jobs. All professors, instruct
z-funded eluded in the salary disclosure and lecturers are paid at least parti
om state document. But many faculty members through this money.
agree that less than half the faculty on Non instructional staff, workin
s salary campus consult. Generally, a areas such as financial aid, admiss
appoin- professor's field is the greatest deter- counseling, library, and housing,
compen- minant of his or her opportunities to receive the major portion oft
es, sum- work outside the University. salaries from the general fund. Sal
esearch ACCORDING TO Smith, many ar- of departmental- employees sue]
n other chitecture and urban planning and secretaries and administra
blishing, engineering professors have an 80 per assistants are also drawn from<
cent appointment commitment to the and tuition revenues. An fexcef
summer University, so they can spend an might be a secretary who tempor
cademic average of one day a week or so con- takes a portion of his or her salaryf
alaries, sulting a research grant received by an
en is not Non-University work can add ployer.
appoin- handsomely to a professor's salary, The budgets of several Unive
faculty members say. According to units such as the athletic departm
eal ad- LSA Dean Billy Frye, professors the alumni association, the Unive
ter sup- working full-time for the University Hospital, ISR, and student publica
ed in the may be able to earn up to 20 per cent of are distinct from the Univers
se it is their University salary from outside budget, and therefore employee
regular consulting. these areas do not receive salaries f
Possibilities include the professor the general fund.

(Continued from Page 1)
Paratroopers -were seen at Tehran's
Mehrabad Airport flying off in U.S.-
made transports to unknown
destinations. Local newspapers said the
Iranian navy "started defensive
operations" in the Persian Gulf, and the
airspace had been closed over Qum,
Khomeini's headquarters city 120 miles
south of Tehran.I
Khomeini's revolutionary guards and
the student militants distributed
weapon training pamphlets to demon-
strators outside the U.S. Embassy
IN THE FIRST Security Council
meeting on the crisis, U.N. Secretary
General Kurt Waldheim appealed to the
United States and Iran yesterday "to
avoid any action which would inflame"
the crisis between the two countries.

Only Waldheim and Council
President Sergio Palacios de Vizzio of
Bolivia addressed the Council, which
met for 16 minutes under a compromise
agreement before adjourning until
Palacios de Vizzio repeated an appeal
to Iran he had made in the Council's
behalf Nov. 9, asking for the release of
49 American hostages held in the U.S.
Embassy in Tehran.
HE THEN adjourned the meeting un-
til 9 p.m. EST Saturday, when Iran's
acting Foreign Minister Abolhassan
Bani Sadr is expected to be in New York
to join in the resumed debate.
Iran had sought a week's delay, while
the United States pressed for a public
meeting to call again for the release of'
the hostages.
The compromise meant a post-
ponement of any public debate and
decisive action until the weekend.

As the security Council prepared for
its debate on the U.S.-Iranian standoff,
Carter told Democratic congressional
leaders yesterday morning that the
release of American hostages by Iran
will not "wipe the slate clean" between
the two nations.
Powell said the president did not in-
tend his remarks at a breakfast for
congressional leaders to be interpreted
as a threat of retaliation against the
Iranians for the seizure of the U.S. Em-
bassy in Tehran where 49 Americans
are still held hostage.
But Sen. Bennett Johnston (D-La.),
who attended the White House meeting,
told reporters he believes Carter will
take some action after the hostages are
"He did not suggest what further ac-
tion might be taken, but I think all of us
feel, including the president, that he
will do something else after the
hostages are released," Johnston said.

n of
ng in
!h as
s in

'U' ponders controversial tenure system

(Continued from Page 1)
University department, the tenure
review process would go basically as
" At the end of six years, three or
more of John's colleagues - at least
one of his own choosing - review his
research, teaching, and service. The

We can't
afford to
waste it.



"service" can be membership in a
national organization of members of
John's field, editorship of a publication,
or work for a community organization
or University committee, among
" John's case then goes to the depar-
tment's executive committee. If that
body (usually five members) thinks he
has what it takes, John will (in most
cases), be reviewed by the depar-
tment's tenured faculty.
* If the tenured faculty recommend
that tenure be granted, the question
goes to the executive committee of the
* The vice-president for academic af-
fairs is the next person in line to con-
sider the tenure recommendation, if the
school or college has agreed with the
department's determination that John
should be tenured.
" After approval from the vice-
president, John is scrutinized by the
Regents. Approval at this level is most
often automatic. John is then welcomed
as the newest member of the tenured
WHAT DOES tenure have to offer
that makes so many endure this long
process? Tenure virtually guarantees a
professor a position at the University
until retirement or death. It allows him
and his family to establish roots in the
His work will not be censored regar-
dless of its political implications. He
can be innovative in his teaching,
research, and beliefs without fear of
losing his job. He can undertake long-
term projects and research on which he
is not always assured a certain result,
or, for that matter, any result at all.
According to Frye, a tenured
professor can theoretically be
dismissed in only two cases: For ex-,
treme incompetence or unacceptable
moral behavior; or when economic
exigency keeps the University forum
living up to the tenure contract.
No tenured professor has ever been
fired from the University, according to
administration officials.
ALMOST NO other profession offers
such extraordinary guarantees. Those
guarantees make the tenure selection
process one of the most sensitive and
highly-charged issues at the Univer-
The system's critics point to a num-

ber of basic flaws that either stem from
the selection process or are part of the
process itself. These include the
politicization of the tenure process, an
overemphasis on a faculty member's
research when discussing his tenure
chances, lack of a student role in selec-
tion, and the tendency of tenure to
result in complacent, unproductive
As in any subjective process in-
volving people, personalities and
politics can become a factor in deciding
if a professor should be granted tenure.
But when the decision could affect an
individual's entire future, the stakes in-
crease dramatically.
"IF SOMEONE is going to point out
affirmative action and be a thorn in the
department's side, that jeopardizes the
ability to get tenure," says Bob
Stechuk, former LSA-Student Gover-
nment president who has been active in
the unsuccessful effort to get tenure for
former political science Asst. Prof. Joel
History Professor John Broomfield
agrees: "Those who play the 'white
male smoking-club' " game are most
likely to be looked on favorably when
tenure judgments come around.
"If you'll play the game by the rules
of the game. . . and you don't say it's
the structure that's the problem,"
colleagues will tend to overlook other
criticism a faculty-member might
make, Broomfield said.
LIVERMORE, NOW head of the
Senate Advisory Review Committee
(SARC), which reviews faculty tenure
cases in an advisory role, said he felt
that personality and politics play too
large a role in the tenure process. But
he said he hopes that because the entire
tenured faculty of a department often
decides a professor's fate, partisanship
by one or two members will be of little
But political Science Prof. J. David
Singer says it is not political disputes
that keep the outspoken professor from
getting tenure. Singer claims it only
appears that way "because there's a
high correlation between the militant
prodder and the low-producer." Singer
does agree, however, that personal
friendships among members of the
same department do influence the out-
come of the tenure review.
Depending on the source, the em-

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phasis placed on research in deciding a
professor's tenure is great or not so
great. Dean Frye says that research
credentials count for slightly more than
teaching evaluations when the tenure
judgment is made. But because be
believes "basically, intelligent resear-
ch and teaching are highly complemen-
tary to one another," that situation is a
"MANY OF the traits that make for a
good researcher make for a good
teacher," Frye said. But he and others
agree that there are times when the two
can come into conflict.
There's a problem in Frye's opinion
"if the teaching load is such that you're
going to get the professor feeling, 'I've
got to slam my door on the next
student,' because of his research." He
said it's up to the faculty and depar-
tment heads to keep research and
teaching in balance.
Frye's hypothetical scenario bothers
Stechuk. "You do not, earn national
distinction by being a good teacher of
English Comp. or Poli. Sci. You earn
distinction by writing a lot." As a
result, teaching is of secondary impor-
tance to many professors, Stechuk
BUT THAT research bias, which he
calls "overwhelming," is justifiable
according to Livermore.
"In the case of conflict, I guess I have
to come down to what can justify the
granting of tenure," he said. And only
the protection of the search for
knowledge - not job security -
justifies the extraordinary system of
tenure, Livermore added.
Livermore emphasizes the need for a
high-quality education for University
students, noting that "the primary for-
ce that operates to produce the good
teachers we do have is self-respect.
"BUT BECAUSE the University is
primarily research-oriented, with "a
constituency that goes far beyond the
students. . . if you want somebody to
care about you and spend a lot of time
with you and talk things over, don't
come to a place like the University of
Michigan," he says.
Critics also worry that the tenure
system may 'create "dead wood" in
University departments. Once tenured,
and thus given an almost lifetime
guarantee of employment, the tenured
professor may rest on his laurels,
publish little and merely go through the
motions of teaching, critics say.
Frank Casa, chairman of the roman-
ce languages department, and Saul
Hymans, chairman of the economics
department, both conceded that depar-
tments can make mistakes in giving
certain individuals tenure. After per-
forming well during the first few years
as an assistant professor, "sometimes
(a tenured faculty member) decides to
quit working hard," admits Bidlack of
the library science school.
BUT THOSE interviewed agree that
the number of University professors

who do that is very small.
Giving many people tenure during
the University's rapid growth stage of
the 1950's and 1960's has now created
problems for the University, according
to Frederick Geerings, chairman of the
mathematics department. "The depar-
tment becomes stagnant. We get a con-
centrated age group, when we should
have people coming in evenly," he
That can create lother problems.
Hymans says that sometimes a field of
specialty does not grow as anticipated.
Two tenured professors may be
specialists in one field, but too few
students are interested in that specialty
to warrant retaining both instructors,
he explained.
ANOTHER problem can occur when
a department is phased out, as was the
language program of the School of
Engineering. The department's
tenured professors who do not seek em-
ployment elsewhere must be absorbed
into another University department. In
this case, the professors assumed
positions in the LSA language depar-
tments, making that department's ratio
of tenured to non-tenured professors
even higher.
Departments that already have most
of their positions tenured have dif-
ficulty when an especially bright and
productive assistant professor comes
along. On occasion assistant professors
are snatched away by a tenure offer
from another institution when the
University cannot afford to do the
same, said M. J. Sinnot of the
engineering school.
"SOMETIMES WE have to let good
young people go so as not to get over-
tenured," School of Architecture Dean
Robert Metcalf saiu. "It is the school's
responsibility to provide a variety in
education and in age group
Norma Marshall, assistant dean of
the nursing school, said tenure limits a
department's flexibility in assigning
faculty and re-allocating tight resour-
Students claim one of the biggest
flaws in the tenure system is their lack
of influence over it. Outside of the
student evaluations of a professor's
teaching ability that some departments
collect, students play a small role in the
tenure decision, and in most depar-
tments do not vote on tenure decisions.
But most faculty members inter-
viewed say the system is a good one.
Several mentioned the impermanence
of student representation, while others
felt students are not qualified to judge
faculty research.
Broomfield said he would'open the
tenure review to the widest group
possible, including department
secretaries, graduate students, and
other members of the University com-
TOMORROW: Tenure, minorities,
and women.

In her first Ann Arbor appearance this remarkable
top flight Russian-born violinist will perform:

Communication 500 (Section 080, 3 credits)

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