Page 4-Wednesday, October 11, 1978-The Michigan Daily
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Eighty-Nine Years of Editorial Freedom
Vol. LIX, No.30 News Phone: 764-0552
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan
Lebanon for the Lebanese
THERE WAS A TIME when Leba- justice and it proved to be the seeds of
non was the jewel of the Arab its decline.
world. Advanced in commerce,
education, justice - it was the most
progressive of all nations in the Arab F INALLY THERE is the question of
world. I Palestinian human rights and
Its capitol Beirut was the most their right for a state of their own.
cosmopolitan of all Middle Eastern Until September of 1971 the question of
cities, a place where the trade Palestinian rights was not an
crossroads of Asia, Europe, and Africa immediate concern of the Lebanese
i n t e r s e t e d. Westerners people. In that month King Hussein of
chauvinistically referred to Beirut as Jordan drove the Palestinian refugees
the Paris of the Middle East. out of his country across the border
This condition of prosperity and into Lebanon. The Palestinians sought
progressivism was shattered in 1974. to promote their just struggle by
Fbur years later Lebanon cries out in allying themselves with the Muslims in
aiguish. Beirut is a battleground, its their struggle for just representtion.
beautiful buildings which once housed The only way the plight of the
trsnsnational corporate offices have Palestinians can be alleviated is by
been .reduced to rubble. Her people resolving their justified claim to. a
roam the streets scrounging for food. state. We believe there is room in
For them 1974 must seem like Palestine for a Palestinian state. It
another world. should include land in their presently
Lebanon has become the stage for disputed border between Jordan ,
acting out one of the great struggles Israel and Lebanon. This step must be
anid conflicts of the Mideast. Every taken before any hope for peace in the
antagonism, every rivalry, every Mideast can be realized.
conflict - whether between Arab or The major fault of the tenuous
Jew or Arab and Arab - now meet Camp David agreements is that they
h ad on in Lebanon. failed to address the problems in
(he time is long past when the people Lebanon substantively. Jordan, Saudi
a id governments of the world, Arabia, and Syria still reject the
especially the United States, must settlement because it does not go far
decide that Lebanon should be relieved enough in guaranteeing Palestinian
ofits awesome pain. rights to a state. The Camp David
T'he armed forces of five great accords have further agitated the
peoples are using the terrain of problems in lebanon. Those who
Lebanon to settle differences that have suggest the accords have lessened the
blen brewing for most of the 20th chance for full scale war in the
cAntury. Mideast, are playing a game of
(I'wo of the armed forces in the sematics. While there may well be less
euntry at this time, have business chance of a 1967-scale war, how will
b ing there. Syria moved her armies that provide a lasting Mideast peace if
imo Lebanon at the request of a portion skimishes such as those in Lebanon
of the Lebanese leadership for the last week, and terrorist attacks in
purpose of keeping the peace after civil Israel flourish?
w r broke out in Lebanon. There was a war in the Mideast last
Since that time Syria has acted week. Syria, the Muslims, and the
irresponsibly. The armies of that Palestinian refugees fought the
rezjectionist power, supported by the Christians and Israel. How can anyone
Soviet Union, have allied with the suggest that chances for another war
Lebanese Muslims and the in the Mideast have been decreased
Palestinians to make war against the when the Lebanese Christians and
Lebanese Christians. Muslims and Palestinians are
From the beginning of the Syrian struggling for survival and Syria and
presence in Lebanon it was apparent Israel seek to protect strategic
that a belligerent stange on their part military positions. Camp David
would force an Israeli response, and supplied the much needed momentum
the Israelis did respond. Israel for peace in the area. But peace will
supported the Lebanese Christians not come merely by settling the
against the Muslims and the differences between Egypt and Israel.
Palestinians covertly at first and then That settlement merely removes the
overtly. It is clear that the Syrian largest army from the Arab arsenal.
forces are not keepers of the peace but But that army was also the least
belligerents. dedicated to the cause of Palestinian
As the first step towards peace in sovereignty.
Lebanon, Syria must be coerced by All of these things must be
international and United Nations accomplished before peace can come
pressure to withdraw from Lebanon, It to the Mideast conflict which is now
is: only logical that a peacekeeping being fought in Lebanon. Syria must
force must consist of nations with a withdraw. The nations of the world
neutral outlook towards the rivalries in must realize that contrary to her
the Middle East. The peacekeeping claims of being a peacekeeping force
force must be large and active in order she is agitating for a wider war. Israel
to: drive a wedge between the warring must be forced to end its involvement
Christian minority on one hand and the in the conflict. The power vacuum
Palestinians and the Moslems on the created by the Syrian withdrawal must
other hand. be filled by a large active
Israel is the second nation with no peacekeeping force of neutral nations.
business in Lebanon. its activity would They should be charged with keeping
presumably be curtailed by the Syrian the peace between the Christians and
withdrawal. But Israel must also be the Muslim and 'Palestinian factions
warned that if it continues to bombard while negotiations are convened to iron
Lebanon and agitate the Christians out , Muslim claims to just
after the Syrians withdraw, Israel will representation in Lebanese affairs and
lobe face in the global community. The Palestinian statehood.
Ujpited States should sternly warn When President Carter travels to
Isael that Camp David means nothing Egypt tomorrow to take an active role
if-it continues to escalate her role in in settling a portion of the Middle East
Lebanon. dispute he must vigorously address the
The three other groups with a vested solution to the rest of the dispute if he is
interest and the right to military truely dedicated to peace in the
presence in Lebanon are the Lebanese Mideast. If he refuses to speak to the
Oiristians, Muslims and Palestinians. problems in Lebanon the war in the
The Christians and the Muslims are at Mideast will continue.
war partially because of an archaic
governmental system with ( .
r resentation based on religious sect ItU
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Zambia's copper: A source
of strength and weakness
By Mark Brewer
LUSAKA, Zambia - Chingola emerges
from the rough forests and red sandy soil of
north central Zambia as a sunny, bucolic
town. Broad streets are lined with thick trees
half painted white. Poinsettia and hibiscus
trees flash brilliantly red amid lush hedges
and banana palms. Homes, even the little
stucco "company houses," are surprisingly
superior by African standards.
On first sight, it is not possible this is a
mining town. Only a slight blur of smoke
marring the northern sky reveals that
Chingola is the home of the largest open-pit
copper mines in the world.
Tucked against the Zaire border, it and a
half dozen nearby communities -
Chililabombwe, Mufulira, Kitwe, Luanshya,
Ndola - form the Copper Belt of Zambia.
It is the financial center of the country.
Indeed, it is the basis of Zambia's economy.
But now it is in the grip of a serious economic
crisis. With the price of copper at a 20-year
low,sthe mines are losing money. Trade is
hampered by surrounding unrest in Angola,
Zaire and Rhodesia and mine employees
suffer the country's shortages despite wages
that are among the best in Africa. As Luke
Mwananshiku, governor of the Bank of
Zambia, putkit, "We are living on a hand-to-
Once the symbol of Zambia's stability, the
mines now represent the country's struggle to
control its economic destiny and transform
itself froma "copper republic" to a viable
nation. The copper Belt also embodies a
paradoxical situation known to many
African countries: the political imperative of
escaping European or white expatriate
control, yet the practical inability to exist
IN THE YEARS following Zambia's
independence from Britain in 1964, when
world copper prices were high, the mining
industry was the country's strength. The
mines produced a seemingly inexhaustible
flow of revenue and paid the bills for a long
list of imported foodstuffs, manufactured
goods and luxury items that Zambians came
to depend on.
The stable wealth gave President Kenneth
Kaunda the freedom to consolidate 'a one-
debts and government services have become
burdens that have dragged Zambia into deep
Mine managesin the Copper Belt indicate
that it costs about $1,710 to produce a ton of
copper that currently sells for about $1,463.
Since copper earnings are virtually the only
source of foreign currency revenues, the
result has been shortages, serious arrears to
foreign suppliers and stiffening currency
restrictions. Foreign investors are staying
away, the nation's foreign reserves are
leeched dry and expatriates in key positions
are departing and not being replaced.
The singularity of Zambia's economic
strength has become its undoing. As theonly
real source of foreign currency, there is little
choice but to maintain production - even at a
loss. Furthermore, to lay off mineworkers
might. be a serious liability for President
Kauna, who is facing an election in October.
Shortages in such staples as milk, sugar,
meat and mealie meal affect miners despite
their good salaries - from about $80 to $520
per month. In addition, hard times have
brought robberies, burglaries and more than
a few grisly murders to the Copper Belt,
Once the symbol of Zambia's stability, the mines now
represent the country's struggle to control its economic
destiny and transform itself from a "copper repuiblic" to a
problem with Zambianization is education. At
the time of independence in 1964, there were
551 secondary school graduates; this year
there will be almost 8,000. However,
according to the Mining Industry Manpower
Services Unit (MIMSU), an agency that plans
and facilitates Zambianization, very few
graduates have the background in physics,
engineering and metallurgy required for
mining courses. As a result, the University of
Zambia cannot yet produce a sufficient flow,
of graduates for the top-level jobs.
Hillary Currey, MIMSU manager, said the
new mining school at the university is "as
good a school as there is ... There is no
evidence atral that the British are any better
than those from here."
BUT THERE are only 60 students
beginning courses at the mining school. Of 251
universiy graduates this year, onlye92 are in
the technical fields in which the mining,-
industry could use 1,500 to 1,800. There are 95
jobs available for geologists, but this year the
univesity will produce only one graduate.
"That's how far we are behind," Currey
said. "The education system is far and away
the main constraint."
It's a "homemade problem," according to
Mweemba of the Zambianization Committee.
"Some divisions of the mines have not taken
Zambianization seriously, and now they don't
have enough people as they need." For this
reason, Mweemba said, companies rather'
than individuals have been made responsible
for training in higher-level jobs.
Until total Zambianization is achieved, the
companies are seeking replacements for
departing expatriates outside the country.
But, because the salaries and amenities (once
50 per cent higher than in Britain) are not'
sufficiently attractive, the companies have
virtually given up trying to recruit in Europe.
Recently, they have turned to the Philippines
and South Korea, but it has become difficult
there, too. :
Now Zambia is dependent upon massive
foreign loans, chiefly $300 million from the
International Monetary Fund, to pay off debts
to import suppliers, cover overdrafts of the
commercial banks and counteract the foreign
exchange deficit. Other loans are coming'
from the United States and Britain, and still
others are being sought from Japan and Arab:
countries in hopes of belatedly developing a
broader economic base.
Economists believe this might inspire
foreign confidence and stimulatesre-
investment in the ecomony. It is widely
agreed that Zambia possesses vast potential,
if agriculture can be developed and the
copper-dominated ecomony diversified. The
resulting self-sufficiency would make the':'
country far less dependent on far-flung
foreign marlets and suppliers and less'
vulnerable to the effects of continuing conflict
-in neighboring countries. And, as optimists
say, the price of copper has to go back up
Mark Brewer is currently traveling in
southern Africasreporting on nationalist
movements and conflicts in the area. This
article was written for Pacific News
party government without economic
complications. Moreover, copper bankrolled
Kaunda's national policy of "humanism,"
which extended roads and social services to
undeveloped regions, vastly expanded the
country's schools and instituted free medical
treatment and free education.
In Lusaka, Elias Chipima, managing
director of the Standard Bank of Zambia,
Ltd., said, "We had to speand to create a
government that could be seen and felt by the
people - to create a nation."
The mining industry became a model of
Africans taking control of vital foreign-owned
businesses that had grown rich and powerful
under colonial rule. The state acquired
effective control by compensation acceptable
to the private companies; business flourished
and the Zambians even streamlined-some
aspects of the industry.
But a prime concern was to localize or
"Zambianize"bthe labor force, thus replacing
expatriate labor. In the next few years,
Zambians took over the less-skilled jobs and
non-technical administrative positions. By
1970 expatriate labor had been reduced from
7,816 to 4,714, and Africans had increased
from 41,000 to 46,314.
THE GOVERNMENT was pleased, if not
satisfied, with the progress. The industry
continued to prosper and the new Zambian
state advanced in admirable fashion, fueled
by copper revenues that no one thought would
It has ended, however, as a result of
steadily decreasing copper prices on the
world market in the last several years. Now
copper is produced at a loss, and the import
which to some has become the "Crime Belt."
One of the most crucial results is the exodus
of expatriates. The turnover has been about
25 per cent and is only slightly more now, but
those who leave cannot presently be replaced.
The effect is not to advance Zambianization,
but to impair it, since the preparation of
Africans for higher skilled jobs is dependent
upon training by expatriates.
ALTHOUGH ZAMBIANIZATION is more
than 96 per cent complete, the top jobs of
foremen, engineers and metallurgists, which
require education and much experience, are
still held by foreigners. Most Zambians
accept .that it may be some years before
Zambians fill the higher positions in the
highly technical and dangerous industry.
Joseph Mweembe, minister of state for
labor and social services and chairman of the
Zambianization Committee, said he is fairly
pleased with the progress and feels that it
must notgotoo fast. It must be determined,
he said, that "it is in the benefit of the nation
just to put a black face on the job."
J. D. Sichone, secretary general of the
Mineworkers Union of Zambia, one of the
largest and strongest unions in Africa, said
his union is no longer concerned, about
Zambianization in the mines since all jobs
available to the union are held by Zambians.
"The union is not interested in
Zambianization for the sake of
Zambianization," he said, "because the
economy would suffer and so would we. We
must be convinced beyond a doubt that a man
has the necessary qualifications."
DESPITE IMPRESSIVE advances, the
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