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December 13, 1959 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1959-12-13

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Seventieth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OP THE UNIVERSITY Of MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD TN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
en Opinions Are Fres
*ruth iinPrevail STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
ditorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. T his must be noted in all reprints.

Unrest

The Natives Seem To Be Restless

lmerica

AY, DECEMBER 13, 1959

NIGHT EDITOR: KATHLEEN MOORE

'Poor Relatives' Revolt

LATIN AMERICA is mad.
Much to the dismay of a perplexed State
epartment, our fellow Americans belov the
order have taken a dim view of United States
oreign policy.
Fidel Castro's Cuba continues to bombard
he United States with accusations of "Yankee
nperialism" and "friend to dictators." Unrest
rntlnues in Panama as irate students and state
aders alike protest the methods her nothern
eighbors are using to operate the Canal Zone.
Our reply has been a baffled look of astonish-
ent (exemplified by President Eisenhower at
recent press conference) and hesitant steps
i setting up a special six-man National Ad-
.sory Committee on Inter-American Affairs,
he United States has acted .. ,but, as usual,
o little and too late to solve any basic prob-
;ms.
Our attitude toward Latin America is best
immed up by a statement Sen. George A.
nathers made, ironically enough, just before
ice-President Nixon's enlightening tour of
st year. "The United States' ti'eatnent of.
atin America can be compared to a rich uncle
lling a poor relative how and when to act,"
e Senator quipped. When these "poor rela.
ves" began throwing stones at Nixon, the slow-
.oving State Department mumbled something
bout "emmotional Latins" and the whole affair
as shuttled into the background of Washing-
n's foreign policy priorities.
Cha.nge.
"'THIS HAS ceased to be a legislative
body," said Representative Louis
Crampton (R-Lapeer), speaking about the
stormy Thursday tax session at the State
House of Representatives.
So what else is new?
P. P.

LATIN AMERICA is tired of this "poor rela-
tive" attitude of the United States .. . lov-
ing care when needed and not even a glance
when of no strategic value. The current East-
West conflict has captured the attention of the
American public . . . and at the same time
United States' economic policies and favoritism.
There was a day when Washington felt dif-
ferently about her southern neighbors. World
War II brought demands for strategic raw ma-
terials. Latin American economies boomed and
a feeling of "togetherness" blossomed on the
continent. The end of the war brought an end
to these demands and a shift of focus from
winning friends in Latin America to influ-
encing the underdeveloped states swaying be-
tween American and Russian loyalties.
The result has been a feeling of neglect on
the part of the 20 sovereign republics below the
border.
Traditionally a supplier of raw materials,
Latin American economies have risen and fallen
with the fluctuating demands of the world
market. The United States-has been content
to milk away these valuable materials and for-
get about reinvesting profits for national in-
dustrialization.
INTERNAL GROWTH, not passionate Fidel
Castros or perennial revolutions, is what is
most desired. Latin Americans want to shed
themselves of being dependent "poor relatives"
to the United States by diversifying their eco-
nomies and strengthening their industrial base.
They want technologists and machinery ..
not just money.
Latin America is desperately looking for a
means of individual economic independence.
The United States so far, has failed to give them
the leadership they want. Until Washington
does, the "norteamericano" will continue to be
just a "gringo" in the more outspoken coun-
tries to the south.
--BARTON HUTHWAITE
Features Editor

Panama
Gives Facts
(EDITOR'S NOTE: .The following
letter, addressed to President Hatch-
er and sent to The Daily as well, is
signed by 15 prominent Panaman-
San alumni of the U n i v e r s i t y.
Among them are the Minister of
Agriculture, Commerce and Indus-
tries and several other government
officials.)
To President Harlan Hatcher,
the professors and students of The
University of Michigan:
T HE UNDERSIGNED, graduates
of The University of Michigan,
who have participated with you
in our higher studies, the refined
culture and the authentic feelings
of the American people with their
profound sense of respect for hu-
man dignity, the rights of others
and the love for a true democracy
and freedom of opinion, and re-
membering our college days, we
hereby wish to present to you the
"Panamanian Cause," and request
of you your valuable adherence
thereto.
In making this report we are
convinced that yours is the most
advanced country in the field of
human relations; but we are also
convinced, unfortunately, that
your State Department does not
tell you all of the truth, and that
on many matters it acts with dis-
regard to the principles of human
dignity for which the North Amer-
ican youth gave up their lives in
two world wars.
*
IN EFFECT, a group of Pana-
manian patriots, composed in its
majority by students, professors
and teachers, tried to march with
our flag through the Canal Zone-
a piece of land which, according
┬░to the 1903 Treaty and amend-
ments, was leased to the United
States of America only for the
purpose of constructing, maintain-
ing, sanitating and defending a
Canal.
Onasaid occasion, and by order
of the Governor of the Canal Zne,
General William G. Potter, the
students and populace accompany-
ing them were received with fire
hoses, tear gas, bullets and bayon-
ets, leaving a casualty list of 62
* * *
FOR THE SAKE of offering an
idea of how our international
policy, which is guided by feelings
of fraternity and justice, contrasts
with that of Canal Zone authori-
tines, which is always guided by
an indifference toward our human
sentiments and civic spirit, we will
offer two examples:
1) On the 10th of November,
Judge John E. Deming, of the
Balboa Magistrate's Court, Canal
Zone, imposed a fine of $100 and
30 days on the 16-year-old stu-
dent, Ezequiel Gonzale Nunez,
for the crime of trying to display
the national flag in the Canal
Zone. The Judge called this "dis-
orderly conduct," which has no
foundation legally since the dis-
order was created when our flag
was desecrated.
The attitude of Judge Dem'ing is
in contrast with that-of the Na-
tional Guard of Panama when the
latter caught, in fraganti, Richard
Todd and Robert Fortune, 15-
year-old American boys, residing
at Albrook, at the time they were
burning a national flag. These
children were merely given a
warning and returned to their
parents.
2) The 4th of July, day of your
independence, is celebrated in the
entire territory of the Republic
and the flag of the United States
is flown at many places, with all

the respect due to your symbols.
The 3-4 of November, day of our
independence, the Panamanian
flag is desecrated by the Canal
Zone authorities with absolute dis-
regard to our patriotism.
* * *
OUlT CAUSE, for which we re
quest your valuable adherence, is
the following:
FAITHFUL COMPLIANCE AND
RESPECT FOR TREATIES AND
CONVENTIONS EXISTING BE-
TWEEN THE UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA AND THE REPUB-
LIC OF PANAMA AND WHICH
REGULATE THE RELATIONS
BETWEEN THESE TWO COUN-
TRIES.
The United States Government,
on holding to a unilateral inter-
pretation of the clauses of the
treaties, by right of force, is vio-
lating an elemental principle of
International Law.
By governing the Canal Zone
with only a commercial criterion,
allowing commercial transactions
which violate the convention of
1955, to the detriment of the in-
terests of the Republic of Panama,
the United States is constituting
itself in an obstacle for our eco-
nomic development, in open viola-
tion to principles contained in in-
ternational treaties which tend to

--Daily--James Richman
Good Fences Don't Make Good Neighbors
onfires F icker in Panama

TWICE last month Panaman-
ian demonstrators, bearing
their national flag, which is
forbidden to fly inside the Can-
al Zone, have surged towards
the zone's frontier as "a sym-
bolic act of reaffirmation of
sovereignty." In the first, and
more serious, riots on Panama's
independence day, November 3,
some 80 people were inijured in
the free-for-all against Ameri-
can troops and their own Na-
tional Guard; later in the day
the American embassy had its
windows broken and its flag
torn down and burnt.
In the second iincident, on
November 29th, the soldiers
were better prepared and pro-
tected themselves with sandbags
and tear gas without opening
fire, and the rioters contented
themselves with burning two
effigies of Uncle Sam just out-
side the zone's entrance. Diplo-
mats on both the American and
Panamanian sides have tried to
handle these incidents as deli-
cately as they can, but the bor-
der is now heavily guarded and
American residents hesitate to
go outside the zone.
* * *
IN RECENT YEARS, the
United States government has
made a genuine effort to im-
prove relations with the small
republic that lies across one of
the world's most importan-t
trade routes. Four years ago
the rent paid for the Canal
Zone was increased from $430,-
000 to $1.9 million a year.
At the same time the invidious
distinction between the wages
paid to American citizens and
to Panamanians (the "gold"
and "silver" standard) was of-
ficially abolished. The Ameri-
.'an ambassador and the gener-
al who administers the zone
have been meticulously careful

about protocol and the way
they wield their immense influ-
ence in the affairs of the re-
public.
* * *
BUT D ISCONTENT still
grows. Almost all of the high-
er salaried positions in the zone
are still held by Americans; and
there is an unofficial but ef-
fective color bar that is highly
irritating to the overwhelming
majority of Negro, Indian, or
mestizo blood.
A decline in tourism and the
reductions in American naval
appropriations have caused
considerable unemployment in
Panama City, where one-quar-
ter of the nation's million in-
habitants are concentrated.
Above all, Panamanians would
like a larger share of the Can-
al's $90 million revenue from'
shipping tolls.
These grievances are shrewd-
ly exploited by Panama's prin-
cipa opposition party, the.
Third Nationalist party (TPN)
led by the former president
Senor Arnulfo Arias. Panama
has had ten presidents in the
past ten years and since 1936
no elected president has man-
aged to last out his term.
* * *
SENOR ERNESTO de la
Guardia, the present holder of
the office, is a hard-working
and cautious friend of the
TTnted States. His administra-
tion, through handicapped by
a deficit of about $8 million a
year, has encouraged foreign
investment and begun a pro-
gramme of well-drilling and
road-building in the hinterland.
He has kept the balboa, the
hardest currency in Latin
America, at par with the
American dollar. Already this
year ne has survived transport
strikes, student riots, an at-

tempted assassination, and two
abortive inivasions. He will now
probably last out his term un-
til next May, and his National
Patriotic Coalition (CPN) has
nominated another moderate,
Senor Ricardo Arias, the am-
bassador to the United States,
to succeed him.
THE OPPOSITION, which is
divided between eight splinter
parties, is not likely to confine
itself to peaceful electioneering.
The TPN has started a move-
ment to restore the civil rights
of Senor Arnulfo Arias, which.
were taken away after he was
deposed by a revolution in 1951,
so that he may once again be
a candidate.
Another opposition leader,
Senor. Roberto Arias, Dame
Margot Fonteyn's husband, is in
exile in London after the fail-
ure of his invasion in May. The
youngest and most anti-Ameri-
an candidate is the TPN con-
gressman, Senor Anquilino
Boyd, who calls for the nation-
alisation of the Canal.
Unless these opposition groups
are able to concentrate upon
Unless these opposition groups
are able to concentrate on one
candidate, the government is
likely to win again, and to con-
tinue its friendly policy towards
the United States. The pros-
pects of a Panamanian Nasser
are exceedingly remote. But
political and economic unrest
within Panama, disturbed con-
ditions elsewhere in the Carib-
bean, and the need to satisfy
suspicious public o p in i o n
throughout Latin America are
likely to give the United States
many mor eanxious moments
about its strategic waterway.
-THE ECONOMIST

Questions
About Cuba
(EDITO'S NOTE: The following
questions and answers on revolu-
tionary Cuba were prepared by a
Cuban student studying in this
country, and submitted to The
Daily to make points the writer
feels have not been considered ade-
quately in the United States press.)
QUESTION: Is Fidel Castro a
Commnist?
Castro has frequently been ac-
cused of Communist tendencies
by the American press; but before
we accept such opinions let us ex-
amine the policies of Dr. Castro,
for herein is the real test that
must reveal whether or not he is
a Communist.
Khrushchev and Stalin are the
most representative Communists.
Both instituted harsh dictator-
ships over their territories and
have bestowed the police with un-
limited and arbitrary powers. Cas-
tro, quite to the contrary, de-
stroyed the dictatorship in Cuba
and has curbed the power of the
formerly almighty police to that
of the police in countries like the
United States.
Under Stalin the land of the
peasants was confiscated and
made the property of the state.
The present government of Cuba,
largely inspired and directed by
Castro, is freeing the peasants
from their former status of servi-
tude and endowing them with the
proprietorship of their own land.
QUESTION: What does the new
government hope to achieve?
ANSWER: The present govern
ment of Cuba. is the only Cuban
government which has actively
striven to make the nation eco-
nomically self sufficient and its
citizens economically independent.
It is realizing this first objective
by inviting foreign investment in
varied industries and by providing
public funds for national develop-
ment.
The best example of action tak-
en to make the people economical-
ly independent is the.Land Re-
form Program. This will free four
and a half of Cuba's six and a half
million citizens not only econom-
ically but also politically.
Tax reforms have forced the
wealthier corporations to shoul-
der a greater portion of the costs
of government, leaving the small-
er businesses a relatively greater
share of their income for growth
and expansion.
QUESTION: What is the purpose
of the controversial land reform in
Cuba?
ANSWER: Until the Land Re-
form Program was initiated 80
per cent of the arable land in
Cuba was the property of a small
minority of rich and powerful
landowners. For all practical pur-
pose Cuba, before the revolution,
was a feudal domain. Cuba's ag-
ricultural population was com-
pletely dominated by these few
thousand landowners and was,
for the most part, reduced to the
subhuman existence that accom-
panies extreme poverty and po-
litical subjugation, These condi-
tions were comparable to those
of the serfs of the Middle Ages.
One of the cruelest excesses of
the landowners was the practice
of designating huge tracts of land
to be unplanted in order to bol-
ster the price of sugar, leaving
the peasants without work, with-
out any income,dooed to slow
starvation.
The purpose of the Land Re-
form is to give the peasant the
land on which his family has lived
for centuries, to give him an op-
portunity to earn a decent living.
Actual policies of land reform
are simple. The .landlord is per-

mitted to retain in his possession
a maximum acreage depending
upon the type of cultivation to
which the land lends itself. Any-
thing above this maximum acre-
age is divided among the farmers
over which they assume full own-
ership.
QUESTION: Why has Castro
been making accusations against
the United States?
ANSWER: All arguments have a
history of misunderstanding be-
hind them. The present Cuban
government has undoubtedly
made some mistakes, but much of
the criticism and "cold shoulder"
treatment it has received are. a
result of misunderstanding of the
Cuban position.
Just as certain Cuban policies
have been harshly criticized and
misunderstood by segments of the
American press, certain American
policies are difficult for the Cu-
ban government to understand.
At a time when Cuba could. be
helped immeasurably by reestab-
lishing safe tourist conditions, the
exiled Batista and his close col-
league, Dictator Trujillo of the
Dominican "Republic," have been
supporting terrorist raids to dis-
rupt the tourist trade and hurt
the Cuban economy. While the.
United States has curtailed all
armaments bound for Cuba and

f.

r1

LX LERNER:
Reception in India

x

NEW DELHI:Nothing like it has ever hap-
pened to President Eisenhower and I doubt
rhether anything like it has ever happened to
dew Delhi. The people crowded around him
verywhere he went.
He came in from Kabul a half-hour late,
scorted by nine Indian air force planes. Along
rith President Prasad and Prime : Minister
[ehru he mounted a narrow raised platforim
n the field, and while Prasad plunged on
brough his speech of welcome the Prime Min-
ster seemed to squirm and fidget and all but
Ld a little jig.
President Eisenhower's brief remarks lacked
acility and felicity (which he usually lacks),
ut he made up for it by warmth and earnest-
ess. By the time he left the field the sun had
et.
FTER a sluggish, rainy start at Rome, the
Presidenta's welcoming crowds at Ankara,
:arachi and Kabul have been a politician's as
fell as a reporter's dream. But the New Delhi
eception made the others introductory. A
Zillion people turned out to see him, coming
y car, bus, scooter, truck, bullock cart and
amel. Everything that could move on wheels
r legs was conscripted for transport-every-
ling except garbage trucks.
At Connaught Circle the massed crowd had
een waiting for three hours. The shopkeepers
ad spread over the street a carpet of marigold
etals which the people scooped up in handfuls,
'ady for the encounter.
TALKED with a number of people who had
watched the reception accorded Bulganin and
hrushchev four years ago and there was little
uestion that President Eisenhower was met
ot only by a bigger crowd but by a more spon-
neous warmth. The Calcutta reception of the

his coming wth an unparalleled friendliness
toward him and America-a friendliness which
may unconsciously be an answer to the official
policy of noncommitment in the world struggle.
There is a deep anxiety among the Indian
people about Chinese aggressiveness and what
it portends for the nation. When President
Eisenhower began one of his sentences "The
United States stands with India." there was a
burst of applause only to have the sentence end
with the unerring platitude "... in our common
quest for peace."'
NO ONE expects the President to utter more
than platitudes on this trip. As the crowds
turn out to get a glimpse of him one comes to
see that his appeal to them rests not on any-
thing he says or fails to say but on the simple
fact that he has come a long way, and is an
elderly man spending himself in the process of
doing honor to their government and country.
We are in danger of forgetting that the new
countries of Asia have not only underdeveloped
economies but that they also want their ex-
istence recognized. This is clearly a big plus
symbol on the balance sheet of his trip. If I
have failed to do it justice it is not because I
undervalue it but because I think Asia is ripe
for 'more than his elementary bolstering c'f a
national ego hunger. It is ripe for an effort of
collective greatness within the frame of emerg-
ing democracies and with the vigorous help of
the world's most committed democracy.
IN ONE OF MY own encounters with the
traffic glacier I had a chance for several
hours to study the faces of the people as they
streamed past on their way back from seeing
President Eisenhower. They were simple men
and women but even the simplest people have
somewhere in them a hunger for greatness.
There were whole families, the father nushing

4

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Delinquency Blamed on Capitalism

I

To the Editor:
RECENT PRESS reports carried
articles in which President
Harlan Hatcher was reported to
have "urged an attack upon the
evils creating juvenile delinquen-
cy." He called for broadened re-
search into the causes and condi-
tions of delinquency. According to
the report, President Hatcher then
listed exposure to media which
feature violent aggression and
anti-social behavior as the evils
which are creating juvenile delin-
quency.
The most thorough investiga-
tion of anti-social behavior in

conditions which promote juvenile
delinquency will remain. If Presi-
dent Hatcher follows research to
the root of anti-social hebaviour,
he will discover that capitalism
must be abolished and socialism
established if the conditions for
good behaviour are to be created.
-Ralph W. Muncy
Commitment . .
To the Editor:
I woke up this morning with a
melody: He is the King of
Glory-in my mind only and not
perfectly committed to my voice or

want to hear the Allelujah chorus
every year?
** *
MR. JOB, we are ever respon-
sible for criticisms of technique,
but we are responsible too for the
effect of that technique and some-
times for the purpose of it. Your
review dealing with but one part
of the Messiah performance does
not understand the three - fold
presence : purpose, execution,
meaningful response.
This was a mistake. The criti-
cism of the Messiah on the one ba-
sis that you chose simply failed to
communicate the real experience
that was there. It failed to conm-

''.t

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