regal Aspect of Television Quiz 'Fixes 'Exp
T(EDITOR'S NOTE: BertSugar, a senior in law school, won $8,500 on
TcTac Dough's afternoon edition, to be come the second highest money
winner on daytime television at that time. In addition, he interviewed for
"21" and "The $64,000 Question.")
By BERT R. SUGAR
Charles Revson, president of the Revlon Cosmetic Company, has
written certain memos to his advertising agency, Batten, Barton,
Durstine and Osborn, instructing them to take certain contestants
off of the "$64,000 Question," and to keep others on the program.
These memoranda are now within the files of the House sub-
committee investigating quiz shows, and open many avenues of
Initially, it must be asked, "Who fixes quiz shows?" If the above
example is the standard operating 'procedure of sponsors, then those
searching for a scapegoat upon whom they can heap the blame have
found their quarry. However, the advertising agencies behind both
"Tic-Tac-Dough" and "Twenty-One" have publicly disavowed any
knowledge of the supposed rigging of these shows, and the sponsors1
have loudly denied their own implications.
Perchance, then, we could turn the accusing, finger in the direc-
tion of the networks. One executive said that they had "suspected"
a possible fix on the shows, but "like the husband of an infidel wife,
had refused to believe that it could possibly be." Therefore, if we
accept silence as condonation, the networks must remain highly sus-
pect, for their indiscretion of failing to clean house sooner. But, this
might not apply to each and every television quiz show, for some, in
the eyes of the network officials, were as far from reproach as Caesar's
The producers seem, as a corps to be implicated in some manner.
Already Howard Felscher, producer of both daytime and nightime
"'Tic-Tac-Dough" programs has testified that 75 per cent of the
nighttime shows were "rigged," and that most of the shows after
1958 were produced with promotional tongue in cheek. Howard Fried-
man, producer of "Twenty-One," came back from Mexico to testify
that his program has also seen the blight of the rig. No longer safe
behind a veil of silence, lest he be branded a "Fifth-Amendment Quiz
show rigger," Dan Enright came forth and volunteered his testimony
to the committee, stating that he had coached contestants on all of
his shows, save "Concentration," and that the things he did not
necessarily do on his own, he condoned as the acts of his assistants.
Shows Called 'Rigged'
Now, with the evidence before us, there can remain no doubt that
the quiz shows were "rigged," and we can even, like Joseph R. Mc-
Carthy, name names. But, with all of this information, and the
further testimony that Oren Harris' subcommittee will elicit from both
willing and unwilling witnesses, a second question presents itself:
"What can be done about it?"
If, as in the opening example of Charles Revson, controlling,
conducting and cajoling those in charge of the show and the show
itself, serves as an indicator of the practices of the industry and the
species named "quiz shows," then we could call the practice simply a
new method of advertising. For advertising as defined by most text-
books is "Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion
of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor."
Proceeding along this trend of thinking then, we arrive at the
conclusion that not just the five minutes of commercials throughout
the show, but the entire show itself was an advertisement, paid for
by the sponsor for the stimulation of sales. Seemingly, then, the
problem of restraint and control lies with those in the advertising
field and not necessarily those in the communications field.
FCC Currently Concerned
The Federal Communications Commission has been the govern-
mental agency most concerned with the present investigations. Cur-
rently no FCC regulation has been breached and the investigations
are now being pursued for the primary reason of inquiring into the
possibility of establishing new regulations to make just such "shenani-
gans" illegal in the future, and whether new laws are needed to crack
down on fixed shows. However, the networks must appear, periodically,
before the FCC to apply for a renewal of their licenses; and if the
FCC were led to believe that any network has actively participated in
the "fixing" of quiz shows in an effort to maintain the high Neilson
and Trendex ratings, then their application for a renewal of their
license could justifiably be denied. But, this does not go to the question
of whether any acts thus far perpetrated on the public have been of
an illegal nature, nor to the point of personal criminal liability, other
than making the networks suffer the burden of government ire for the
wrongs of others.
Chairman Earl W. Kintner of the Federal.Trade Commission has
issued a statement warning the television industry that the FTC in
the future might police quiz shows, if internal controls are not
brought to bear. He, however, maintains that the FTC now lacks
authority to move in on quiz shows.
Returning, once again, to the premise that the entire show is an
advertisement, paid for by "an identified sponsor," then it could easily
come within the province of FTC regulation. This especially applies
to Revlon, or any other cosmetic or "drug or food manufacturer as
defined in Section 15 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, and
coming within the area called "false advertising." False advertising,
as defined by the Act, includes, "An advertisement, other than label-
ing, which is misleading in a material respect; and in determining
whether any advertisement is misleading, there shall be taken into
account . . . the extent to which the advertisement fails to reveal
facts material in the light of such representations."
See THE RESPONSIBILITIES, Page 4
.+... .. r. r
'U' SHOULD ATTACK
See Page 4
Seventieth Year of Editorial Freedom
Chance of light rain;
Winds north to northwest.
VOL. LXX No.26 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 21, 1959 FIVE CENTS
t ( , -
To Pay.'U' Salaries
If Others Also Met
. Brown Comments State Cash Crisis
Much More Serious Thain Last Year
By PHILIP SHERMAN
As long as other state payrolls are being met, so will thea
University's, State Treasurer Sanford A. Brown said yesterday.
Brown made the comment after a. meeting of the State
Administrative Board which allocated no funds to any of the
Vice-President for Business and Finance Wilbur K. Pier-
pont went further than Brown; the University, he asserted,
- will meet its payroll and other
s - obligations "this month, next
S Uite d . run month and each succeeding
* But the promises were made
Reports Gain against the background of a "cash
crisis" that Brown characterized
as being worse than last year's.
The Ann Arbor area, United Cites Deficit
Fund campaign: was reportedCieDfct
reacing closeton35perentof Brown pointed to the present
reaching close to 35 per cent of$96 million deficit and compared
its $377,916 goal yesterday. it to last year's of $21 million as
Robert Kirschbaum, director of evidence the situation was much
the United Fund, said that the re-eigeniw
sults of the first report meeting tighter now.
held Monday.. show that the in- Sate Controller James W. Mil-
dustrial division of the campaign ler said $70 million is owed to v
a eachd60perce sadors, local governments and school
the utilities division has already debt might reach $100 million.
contributed 90 per cent of its goal, Public schools are owed $30 mil-
and the special gifts division re- lion for this year plus $24 milion
Port "substantal amofrom last year, State Superinten-
per cent of its goal. dn fShosLn .Brlt
"The other divisions are Just dent of Schools Lynn M. Bartlett
getting started," he said. added.
"Many of our solicitors are be- The administrative board did,
"May o ou soiciorsarebe-however, allocate $41/'2 mllion, to
ginning this week,"'Prof. Adam A. meet Thursday's state payroll in
Christman, of the biological chem- addition to ovre $11/2 million for
istry department and chairman other purposes, emptying the gen-
of the University division of the
United Fund, said. eral fund treasury.
The. University is expected, to Needed Soon
contributemore than$95,000,25 Brown said the universities had
per cent of the total campaign told him that they would not need
funds until Oct. 28; he added he
Prof. Christman reports "a nice hoped there would be enough cash
start" with more than $5,500nal in the State Treasury at the time,
ready pledged by members of the but declined to make a flat pre-
Unversty. ddiction that there would.
University. Sales and use tax collections
paign beresdentia div n cam- should build up fast next week,
1,000 women volunteers will con- and we are very hopeful we can
luct a door-to-door canvass of pay the universities, he continued.
the'Ann Arbor area. At the moment, :the- University
is operating with money from
fees, but the usual policy is to
Council Sets budget from the state allocation
. and then fill the balance with
Examination these monies.
A State Supreme Court ruling
f Il le B ook on the validity of the use tax
would not affect income for Oc-
tober, he said, since returns for
The final section of the Regula- the month had to be mailed by
ions Booklet will be discussed by October 15.
Student Government Council at To Meet Tuesday
its meeting at 7:30 p.m. today. The Administrative Board will
The discussion will cover the meet again next Tuesday, and by
concluding sections of the booklet then, a definite answer will be
which are concerned with the rec., available, Brown added.
>gnition of sororities and frater- If there is enough cash, the
ilties and with disciplinary ac- universities will get their alloca-
UNITED NATIONtS, N.Y. (A) -
The United States y e s t e r d a y
charged that the Communists
were using strong words in an at-
tempt to frighten the United Na-
tions out of discussing the Tibetan
United States Ambassador Hen-
ry Cabot Lodge made the accusa-
tion in the 82-nation General As-
sembly after the Soviet Union had
declared UN consideration of the
issue was a shameful farce that
would only aggravate the cold
"We have been asked to believe
that it is all right for Chinese
Communists to kill Tibetans, but
that it is a provocation for us .to
talk about it," he declared.
"This argument seems to us un-
worthy of discussion.
Vasily V. Kuznetsov, Soviet
Deputy Foreign Minister, had de-
clared the Assembly was being
used to fan enmity and hatred for
By KATHLEEN MOORE
The use of high-speed computers
may become a regular part of
both graduate andundergraduate
engineering instruction here, if a
Ford Foundation - financed ex-
periment proves successful.
The Foundation announced yes-
terday it had awarded a $1,175,-
000 grant to the University's en-
gineering college, one of the first
it has given for science and en-
Of this sum, $900,000 will be
used for the computer-education
experiment with the remaining
$275,000 going toward recruitment
and maintenance of promising
To Advance Quality
Dean Stephen S. Atwood, of the
engineering college, said in ac-
cepting the grant that it will "en-
able us to advance the quality of
engineering education, both locally
and in cooperating institutions.
"Certain features of the grant,"
he continued, "will attract more
young engineers into teaching and
speed up their acquisition of doc-
Financial support, under the
terms of the grant, will be made
available to outstanding doctoral
candidates planning to teach and
to outside study projects and ex-
change programs for present fac-
"The grant also introduces stu-
dents early in their training to the
use of electronic computers, which
will permit them to study and
solve more complex problems than
in the past, and to introduce com-
puter techniques upon graduation
into many industrial operations,"
Dean Attwood explained.
The goal of the computer edu-
cation program, according to its
director, Prof. Donald Katz, chair-
man of the chemical and metal-
lurgical engineering department
and chairman of the computer
committee, is that "shortly all en-
gineering graduates will have a
minimum knowledge on the use of
computers." The University may
attain this goal by next year, he
An IBM 704 at the University
Computing Center, under the ju-
risdiction of Vice-President for Re-
search. Ralph A. Sawyer, will be
the main instrument utilized by
the program. Smaller, lower-cost
computers will be purchased, how-
ever, "to see what use they may
have," he added.
The experiment will be manned
by University faculty members
and some from other institutions
who will be teaching part-time and
working in pairs to determine the
best educational and problem-
solving methods with the com-
Over the two-year demonstra-
tion period, about 50 faculty mem-
bers will be brought to :the Uni-
versity for a semester's study each.
The demand of industry for
graduates with some knowledge of
how a computer works and what
it does is growing, Prof. Katz
noted. Most of the current en-
gineering work in industry in-
volves tedious, repetetive compu-
tations that can be done cheaper,
better and quicker by computer, he
U' To Mark
The University's Law School be-
gins its 100th anniversary celebra-
tion tomorrow with an expected
attendance of more than 500
alumni and visiting dignitaries.
Highlighting the three-day cele-
bration will be addresses by dis-
tinguished members of the bar.
Prof. Marcus Plant, chairman of
the Centennial Committee, com-
menting on the development of
the Law School, said the "fine fac-
ulty and excellent student body"'
has been responsible for the
growth of the Law School into
one of the best in the country.
The Law School has expanded
from a small beginning of three
professors and ninety-two stu-
dents in 1859 to its present size of
over 25 professors and 1,100 stu-
Among the distinguished per-
sonages speaking durn gthe Cen-'
tennial celebration will be Asso-
ciate Justice of the United States
Supreme Court John M. Harlan.
Mr. Justice Harlan will discuss the
role of the lawyer as a leader in
' RECEIVES GRANT:
Computer Training To Grow
'Wesleyan Sigma Chi
Withdraws A ffiliation
By JOHN FISCHER
Members of the University's chapter of Sigma Chi fraternity
thought it "unfortunate" that their Wesleyan (Conn.) chapter had
dropped out, but they felt no ill will toward them.
Wesleyan's chapter (Gamma Mu) was one of two Wesleyan
fraternity groups withwdrawing from their national organizations
as a result of disputes over discriminatory clauses.
Bill Swaney, '60 Sigma Chi president here, said the delegate from
the Gamma Mu chapter announced their quitting at the national]
Grand Chapter meeting last sum- "
mer in, Kansas, City.SL M T E SE
The announcement followed the SELIM STRESSES
Grand Chapter's failure to pass a
constitutional amendment drop-
ping discriminatory restrictions. asic A r
Although a majority of the dele-
gates voted for elimination of the By JEAN HARTWIG
discriminatory clause, they did not Although the United Nations
muster a three-fourths majority has had "dramatic effect" on the
necessary to pass the amendment, modern world, it has yet to solve
Swaney said. the three basic problems facing
Gamma Mu's going local reduces the Arab nations.
the membership of undergraduate -
chapter of Sigma Chi to 130.
The members of the chapter
here report they are not informed
of all the circumstances of the
drop-out. In addition to com-
plaints about the discriminatory
clause, many members of Gamma
Mu were dissatisfied with the
national's - methods of pledge
training and ritual.
Gamma Mu's vice-president,
MARSHALL'S BODY LIES IN STATE-Military men of the
various services stood guard over the flag-draped body of Gen.
George C. Marshall in Washington National Cathedral until his
funeral. He was buried yesterday in Arlington National Cemetery
with simple last rites.
TO PRECEDE SUMMIT
ReportsSay IKe ,Urges
Western Power Meeting
WASHINGTON M)-President Dwight D. Eisenhower was re-
ported last night to be urging a Western heads -'of -government
meeting early next month to clear the way for a December summit
conference with Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev.
Such a Western strategy session, probably in Paris, would seek
to set a firm date for an East-West parley as well as identify the
issues to be discussed with the Soviet Union.
Informants who reported this said final allied approval of the
plan awaits a go-ahead from France's President Charles de Gaulle.
De Gaulle is said to be insisting the Western powers move cau-
tiously toward top level talks with the Soviet lest any new Berlin
agreement weaken existing West-
ab Crisis Faces UN
Speaking last night on "Arak
Problems Before the United Na-
tions General Assembly," Prof.
Hussein Kamel Selim, a native
Egyptian who is director of the
'Arab Information Center in
Washington, stressed three princi-
pal issues: Algerian freedom, Arab
refugees from Israel and Israel'sl
use of the Suez Canal.,
He said the Algerian problem
has more political significance
than any other because it is "an-
achronistic that in the free world
there should be a bitter, long warI
of people who want freedom and
are prevented from it."
Sees Algerian Dilemma
DeGaulle, according to Prof. Se-
lim, is fighting against the Alger-
In his discussion on the prob-
,lem of the million Arab refugees
Iexiled from Israel, which has con-
fronted the United Nations since
1948, he took a dim view of the
solution submitted by Secretary
General Dag Hammerskjold which
will be considered Oct. 29. He not-
ed that the Arab countries have
already rejected the proposal for
absorption of the refugees-by de-
velopment of the entire Middle
"Any suggestion that Arab refu-
gees can be settled anywhere but
in their home countries may
sound beautiful, but isn't practi-
cal," he explained.
Prof. Selim regards the problem
ern rights in the divided city.
Eisenhower, with British back-
ing, is understood to have sug-
gested a Big Four summit meeting
including Khrushchev should begin
during the first 10 days of Decem-
The President is understood to
have made known his views in a
series of confidentialhmessages to
de Gaulle, British Prime Minister
Macmillan and West German
Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.
The White House and State De-
partment refused today to confirm
any such correspondence.
White House Press Secretary
James C. Hagerty said "no com-
ment" when asked whether Eisen-
hower had sent three such mes-
sages to de Gaulle in the past1
month without any reply from the2
The main purpose of the West,
ern summit meeting would -be to.
make sure Western leaders' see.
eye to eye before they confrontc
Khrushchev to discuss Berlin andI
By ROBERT FARRELL
Last night a special meeti
sponsored by Inter-House Couv
and Assembly Association, d
cussed orientation procedures.
John Ross, '61, Union Univers
Affairs Committee chairman, s
the meeting succeeded in clear
up many miscqnceptions of
two sides in the dispute by p.
senting the other side's views a
pointed up many faults in eit
party's proposed system as s4
from the other party's side.
In order to work out the det
of a revamped fall orientation p
gram, a meeting of the orientat
chairmen of the League, Uni
IHC and Assembly will be h
soon, he added.-