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May 17, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-05-17

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Seventieth Year

Vic tory


Summit Ruins?


when Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

.Y, MAY 17, 1960


Negro Participation
A Stride Toward Integration

TODAY IS THE SIXTH anniversary of the
United States Supreme Court's decision
which ordered school integration.
This is a good time to look at not only the
progress made in the southern schools but the
advancements made in this University.
Segregation in student activities has recently
been made illegal by SGC. Yet is there really
integration? No one knows.
NOT ENOUGH Negroes have joined student
activities to make a true estimate of the
relationship between the white and Negro stu-
dents on campus.
Negroes give various reasons for this low
rate of participation. Greater 'interest in se-'
curing civil rights is the chief reason they don't
devote more time to activities. Fear of humili-
ation in the event of not being accepted is
another reason.
Yet participation is the only real way to
achieve both interaction between members
of the two races and a feeling of enjoyment

and ease which comes with the recognition of
one another as individuals.
THE GOAL of participation in activities is
and should remain service to the com-
munity. This means, that Negroes not only
have the duty of furthering the acceptance of
members of their race as individuals; they
must demonstrate their acceptance of the
responsibilities as participants as well.
The University provides the opportunity to
apply- the knowledge they have gained and to
acquire experience in community leadership
which will hopefully extend to their activities
in later community life.
White students for their part should encour-
age Negroes to participate, for integration is as
much if not more a responsibility of the white
This is the kind of participation which the
newly formed University chapter of the NAACP
should take the lead in encouraging.

Associate Editorial Director
Daily Guest Writer
PREMIER Nikita Khrushchev's
abrupt "about face" at the
summit conference yesterday has
left diplomatic observers in a
Khrushchev, the man of reason,
suddenly has become a man of
non-reason appealing to God and
destroying the supposedly well-
planned Soviet peace offensive of
recent months.
The summit conference was an
idealtool in the hands of the
Russians. The U2 spying incident'
bolstered Soviet claims that the
United States was actually the
aggressor in the Cold War. Ameri-
ca's lofty moral stand in the cur-
rent propaganda battle for the
support of the uncommitted states
was righteously denounced by
# *
statement that the spy flights
were part of a planned United
States intelligence program shat-
tered the impression of America's
hesitancey to act in. an immoral
manner. ,
The United States was entirely
at the mercy of the Soviet propa-
gandists at the summit confer-
ence. But suddenly Premier Khru-
shchev abandoned this advantage
to return to the old Soviet "hard"
President Eisenhower then
pledged no more spy missions over
Russia and offered a conciliatory
parry to Khrushchev's "hard"
It seems the usually rational
Soviet leader has thrown a ripe
propaganda plum into the laps of
the State Department. What the
State Department does with this
unexpected and undeserved propa-
ganda opportunity is still to be
will undoubtedly look to the basic
reasons for Khrushchev's sudden
Prior to the U2 incident, the
Soviets had taken a very "soft"
approach to the problem of East-
West cooperation. Then, suddenly,
an American plane is downed over
Russian territory and their peace
offensive undergoes a radical
It would be naive for anyone to

"It's Not Quite tIe Way We Visualized It, But-"

think Khrushchev and his advis-
ors did not know of the intelli-
gence flights. The United States
had been conducting them for
some ten years and the highly
efficient Russian secret service
certainly had some information
about them.
* * *

is: who didn't know about the
flights? The Soviet people were
probably unaware their sovereign
air space was being violated. And'
Russia's allies were probably not
fully informed as to the extent of
her vulnerability.
The Kremlin would certainly be
hesitant to inform her allies of
her military weakness, fearing a

rift in the supposedly strong So-
viet Bloc.
And here is probably the reason
for Khrushchev's irrational be-
havior of yesterday morning. The
Soviet premier, according to dip-
lomatic sources, has been under
fire from several "foes" during
recent weeks for his overly con-
ciliatory attitude.

BUT JUST WHO these "foe
of Khrushchev are is uncertain.
Red China may feel that Russia's
dependence on a moral cover is
not going-to hide the inadequacies
of her military defense. The recent
U2 incident may*'have proved to
Red China that the Russians do
not have the military capabilities
to down even a United States
flight across her own territory, let
alone the Red Chinese mainland.
The conflicting data on the
downing of the U2 implies that
perhaps the airplane might not
have been shot down by the So=
viets after all. The "wonderful new
weapon" of Khrushchev's may not
IfKhrushchev has submitted to
pressure outside the Kremlin, cer-
tain preconceptions as. to the
strength of the Kremlin within
the Soviet bloc need to be seriously
re-examined. Perhaps the Krem-
lin isn't as secure as previously
Or was the Premier's shatter-
ing outburst merely a symptom of
early morning indigestion?
THE SEEMINGLY irrational
move of the Soviets holds serious
implications. The threat of total
nuclear war has largely been re-
duced due to the assumption that
the Russians have acted rationally
and will continue to act rationally
in the conduct of. their foreign
aff airs.
The spectre of an unstable, ir-
rational, unpredictable enemy may
again haunt the State Depart-
These are the problems the
United States will have to wrestle
with in the coming days. One
thing is certain. The breakdown
of ithe summit conference has un-
tied the propaganda hands of the
United States.
From the debacle of the summit
conference, the State Department
may yet salvage a diplomatic vic-
tory and regain some of the pres-
tige lost with the capture of the
It certainly needs a diplomatic
success badly.

ROTC Ques tions Persist

THE ROTC issue refuses to die. From the efficiency of mt
number of letters we receive each day it cannot be force
would seem evident that the typical MSU stu- see an institut
dent hasn't given up his plea for the abolish- benefits. This s
ment of the compulsory aspect of the program. known in our p
Add to this the recent censure given Presi- 3. Why is c
dent Hannah by local AAUP chapters and the emphasized at
MSU Teachers Union and you have a good intelligent thou
sample of the discontent prevalent on some grow to its full
parts of this campus. incongruity?
4. Why were
WE OURSELVES can never be reconciled to not educators,
the Board of Trustees' decision until they which, by itss v
have satisfactorily answered the following that it is in the
1. Why has the Board stubbornly continued TRUE, the St
to cloud the issue by stating that the com- Board the le
pulsory program is essential to our defense? sity. But doesn
Figures have proved that the small decrease a responsible ri
in officers that would result from a voluntary sions to the pr(
program is not sufficient to warrant the atten- case, the facult3
tion the Board has seen fit to heap upon it. 5. Why has
2. Why have they refused to recognize the
low morale that is evidenced in MSU's present creep into the
basic compulsory plan. largest universit
All these que.
SURELY, they must realize that by eliminat- before we evers
ing the "deadwood" a voluntary program- pulsory ROTC.
Would evolve that would realize a much greater
Indi Explosion

anpower and. endeavor. Morale
ed upon an individual. He must
ion's worth to realize its full
ort of realization is almost un-
resent basic program.
ompulsory ROTC's "discipline"
a supposed haven for free and
ught? How can our university
est intellectually amid such an
six men, who admit they are
allowed to decide this matter;
ery existence attests to the fact
realm of academic affairs?
ate Constitution has given the
egal right to govern, the univer-
't this legal right also include
ight to delegate academic deci-
oper academic persons-in this
y? ,
the Board allowed politics to
running of the nation's eighth
stions will have to be answered
swallow this bitter pill of com-



Deerfield Attacks Civil Rights Effort,


,. , .. .k . . , i.:.: r....

NEW DELHI-The population explosion pre-
sents a different picture in New Delhi from
the one it presents in New York. Since the birth
control problem flared up as a political issue in
America in relation to foreign aid and Catholic
dogma, I can report that in India it is not a
political nor religious problem but one of tech-
nology, administration, and communication.
'his is a fancy way of saying that India is
wrestling with the questions of what methods
of control to use, how to organize their spread,
and how to get the people-especially the
village people-to know about them.
WHEN MARGARET Sanger wrote in a New
York Times letter that, "Six times the In-
dian government officials suggested to our
country that aid from us would be most wel-
come" in their birth control program, I put
the factual question directly here in New Delhi.
The American Embassy denies it flatly and so
does the Indian Ministry of Health.
What makes one further skeptical of Miss
Sanger's statement is the fact that the Indian
hurdle on population control is not one of
fun~ds. The Indian government is generous
enough in its budget allotment for family plan-
ning. There are more funds now than can be
used in the present scope of government action
and the allocation in the third five year plan
will be even higher.
What the Indian government could use
now is not funds but technical help. We send
over technicians in every other field-agricul-
ture, steel production, hydroelectric dams, small
business, town planning-but we don't dare
send advisers to help the Indian government
surmount the huge technical and organiza-
tional problems of population control.
This kind of aid, rather than direct funds,
is what I take to be the intent of the now
famous recommendation in the Draper Report
for birth control aid when requested. When
Senator Kennedy says he would meet the prob-
lem by increasing our other economic aid to
India it is a neat end-run but fails to meet
the issue of the taboo on this form of official

Kaur, who never had her heart in the urgency
of the task and even now as an MP sees no
"tangible results" for generations. In the past
two years the director of family planning in
the new ministry, Colonel B. L. Raina, has
shown commitment to his task.
Yet the actual results in checking the birth
rate are thus far non-existent.
What blocks the effort? There are three
major hurdles in any program of population
control-motivation, valid knowledge, and the
presence of feasible and available methods.
THE LEAST, SERIOUS of these three in
India is the problem of motivation. I have
read summaries of the studies made in India-
15 thus far-on the attitudes of the Indian
people toward family planning. There is wide
agreement among them that most Indians,
women and men alike, react favorably to fam-
ily limitation. There are few blocks on religion,
dogma or caste that stand insurmountably in
the way. True, sons are highly valued and
parents will go on having children until they
get sons. True also, there is a difference of
attitude between educated and uneducated and
between city and village folk. But that is a
matter of knowledge, not motivation.
On the question of feasible methods, Indians
like other people are waiting for "the pill."
The officials are unwilling to risk any large-
scale use of the oral pills in the Pincus ex-
periment in- Puerto Rico because of the fear
of secondary effects. Even a safer pill would be
prohibitive in cost on a mass scale until the
government learned to set up its own labora-
tories to produce them.
THERE REMAINS the problem of valid
knowledge. The studies show that the vast
majority of Indian villagers have either not
heard offamily planning or have never learned
what can be used to achieve it. The problem
in short is how to get to them-the problem of
communication. That is why the new research
project sponsored by the Ford Foundation in
India but administered by the Ministry of

Daily staff writer
ideal of complete racial inte-
gration-Negro ghettos-is being
attacked by a group, of builders
who believe in the right of all
people to have equal housing op-
And in Deerfield, Illinois the
effort of these builders to con-
struct 51 homes in the $30,000
price range and to sell ten or
twelve of them to Negro families
is being attacked by a group of
residents who believe in brother-
hood until it moves next door.
Most of Deerfield's residents are
the families of junior executives
who commute to Chicago. The
average take-home income is $9,-
000 a year; their houses average
$23,000. The growing suburb's
population is 10,500.
* * *
velopers headed by builder Morris
Milgram, a veteran of four suc-
cessful integrated housing projects
in Pennsylvania and New Jersey,
purchased 22 acres of land in the
new North Shore suburb last year
as the site of their next experi-
ment in racial equality.
As news of the builders' inten-
tions leaked out, the alarmed com-
munity formed an action com-
mittee to block the proposed in-
tegrated project, believing that
they "are setting an example for
other communities throughout the
North and rendering a great serv-
ice to those of us who are determ-
ined to prevent the amalgamation
of the {white and Negro races."
themselves the North Shore Resi-
dent's Association, is headed by
Harold C. Lewis, vice-president of
a Chicago investment company
and composed of ten members of
"top Chicago law firms," accord-
ing to Lewis. The association in-
cludes members from the sub-
urbs Highland Park, Northfield,
Northbrook, Lincolnshire and
Two days after a local minister
announced to the Deerfield Village
Board that he had learned the new
development would sell homes to
Negroes, the building commission-
er ordered work on the model
homes stopped. Two days 'later,
the builders confirmed the rumor.
The Deerfield Park Board, pre-

members of the Residents' Assoc-
iation and the local ministers,
meeting at a home, discussed the
high crime' rate among Negroes,
venereal disease and lawlessness
in Chicago's ghettos.
Some citizens hinted at a com-
munist, influence and suggested
that everyone associated with the
developers should be asked to
take a loyalty oath. Speaking to
a group at a private home, Eliza-
beth Dilling handed out material
entitled "The Red Hand Over
There was some vandalism at
the two model houses under con-
struction. A partially-burned cross
appeared on the lawn of a sym-
patheticdDeerfield citizen, and of-
fensive ananymous letters were
sent to several of the citizens who
favored the project.
In a record turn-out of voters,
Deerfield decided 2,635 to 1,207 in
favor of acquiring the land for
parks. The developers sought a
Federal injunction to restrain the
park board from condemning the.
land, and asked damages for de-
lays and violation of their civil
rights. The builders have appealed
the decision of a Federal judge
who dismissed the suit and ruled
that the park board had a right
to institute condemnation pro-
The case is expected to come
up again toward the end of this
* * *
citizens continue to analyze, ra-
tionalize and "emotionalize" their
situation. Underlying the furor,
perhaps more deeply than racism,
is an economic fear,
Residential transience is char-
acteristic of this community. As
one resident puts it, "although
we've got most of our money tied
up in our homes, we don't expect
to live in them real'ly very long.
Some of the junior executives ex-
pect to become seniors and move
a few miles east to the real North
Shore, and a lot of us will be
transferred all over the United
States. When this happens, we
want to be sure our homes have
resale value."
* * *
IN A NUMBER of cases, then,
the prevailing attitude is that
"We just can't afford to be demo-
Deerfield residents seem to be

try of non-whites into previously
all-white neighborhoods was much
mqre often associated with price
improvement or stability than
price weakening."
Where panic selling decreased
property values, he found that the
values rebound to previous levels.
Perhaps Deerfield residents will
be persuaded to view from a more
scientific viewpoint their "eco-
nomic peril" as more communities
integrate with economic stability
maintained by the previous sim-
ilar projects of the Modern Com-
munity Developers.
It would seem that the real
"economic peril" in such an un-
dertaking would accrue to the
builder who much sell $30,000 to
$40,000 houses in an inter-racial
development to 40 white families..
MILGRAM, though, has already
proved that his projectg are "not
only good democracy, but good
A Deerfield citizen answers his
community's economic reserva-
tions by observing that this coun-
try is founded on freedom of re-
ligion and it is certainly "within
everyone's right to worship as he
sees fit.
He continued that it is evident
what, Deerfield residents worship,
and recommends that "the local
bank be opened on Sunday morn-
ing in order that these people be
allowed to worship in 'an atmos-
phere that is close to their God."
A current folk-saying exempli-

"fies the moral attitude of many
residents. "In the South, white
people don't mind how close a
Negro gets to them as long as he
doesn't rise too high (economic-
allytor socially), while inmthe
North, white people don't. mind
how high a Negro rises as long as
he doesn't, get too close."
. * * *
A CITIZEN WHO upholds the
project remarked, - "It's interest-
ing to note that our struggle has
been solely within the white com-
munity - a conflict in our .own
"You see, once a Negro moves
into Deerfield he has to receive
equal treatment-attend the same
schools, use the same parks. There
is no separate set of facilities, 'as
in the South. We have no way of
letting a Negro in and yet keep-
ing him out at the same time."
* * *r
AT ANY RATE, the impending
court decision will, perhaps, de-
termine whether the children of
these Deerfield residents will en-
joy 22 acres of parks in which to
learn, with/ their all-white play-
mates, that white people are su-
verior to Negroes, and that eco-
nomic considerations take prece-
dence over moral considerations.
And as they get older, perhaps
they will follow their parents' ex-
ample of teaching, preaching and
refusing to practice racial inte-

Looks at, TV
SOME tough Senate cross-ex-
amination of FCC Commis-
sioner Robert J. Lee for failing to
police the radio-TV networks
gave warning that Congress in-
tends to be tougher With the ra-
-io-TV industry in the future.
Senators were especially con-
cerned that radio-TV stations
went all-out for advertising reve-
nue, paid little attention to pub-
lic service.
Sen. Mike Monrohey (D-Okla.)
"I, had occasion Ito try and find
the public.service requirements
that these stations, accept when
they take a license for television
or radio. I think it was on about
Page 20 in agate type.,it said
service duties will be found in
document "so and so" of the Fed-
eral Communications Comnis-
"I STARTED to search for that.
I was told it was out. of print. I
asked the Congressional refer-
ence library if it did inot have
one, and finally the .goodvLibrary
of Congress, that has everything,
did 'come up with a copy of this
document. It referred almost ex-
clusively to radio because it had
not been revised since radio days
to include television.
"Yet this is the basic document
on which public service now is be-
ing granted to TV stations get-
ting franchises that are worth
from two to three to 'five million
dollars. The public service require-
ments have never been updated
or revised.
"I think the requirements ought
to be put in neon lights on page
one, in about 10 point type, at
least, so the public will know what
to demand and expect."
(Copyright 1960, by the Bell Syndicate)



The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
TUESDAY, MAY 17, 1960
VOL. LXX, No. 169
General Notices
Recommendations for Departmental
Honors: Teaching departments wishing
to recommend tentative June graduates
from the College of Literature, science,
and the Arts, and the School of Edu-
cation for departmental honors (or high

Session of 1959 and of February and
June, 1960. Those eligible to partici-
pate : If exercise must be held indoors,
Graduates of Summer Session of 1959
and of June 1960.
For Yost Field House: Two to each
prospective graduate, to be distributed.
from "Tues., May 31, to 12:00 noon on
Sat., June 11, at Cashier's Office, first
floor, Ad. Building.
For Stadium: No tickets necessary.
Children not admitted unless accom-
panied by adults.
Academic Costume: Can be rented at
Moe Sport Shop, N. University Ave.;
Ann Arbor.
Assembly for Graduates: at 4:30 p.m.
in area east of Stadium. Marshals will
direct graduates to proper stations. If
siren indicates (at intervals from 4:00
to 4:15 p.m.) that exercises are to be
held in Yost Field House, graduates
should go, directly there and be seated

mas for all graduates except the School
of Dentistry, the Medical School, and
Flint College,willnbe distributed from
designated stations under' the east
stand of the Stadium, immediately
after the exercises. The diploma distri-
bution stations are on the level abovo
the tunnel entrance.
If the exercises are held in the Yost
Field House, all diplomas except those
of the School of Dentistry, the Medical
School, and Flint College, will be dis-
tributed from the windows of the
Cashier's Office and the Registrar's Of-
fice, lobby, Ad. Building. Following the
ceremony, diplomas may be called for
until 9:00 p.m.
Doctoral degree candidates who qual-
ify for the Ph.D. degree or a similar
degree from the Graduate School and
who attend the commencement exer-
cises will be given a hood by the Uni-
versity. Hoods given during the cere-
mony are all Doctor of Philosophy

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