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May 08, 1960 - Image 9

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-05-08
This is a tabloid page

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Story of a Power

The Avant Garde

Continued from Page Nine
directorship under the aging Yost.
And for icing on the cake he was
supposed to have been given the
highest salary in the Big Ten at
that time.
In his early years at Michigan,
Crisler inaugurated the policy of
inviting Michigan high school
coaches and players to a clinic at
which he demonstrated plays and
He began to show that he was
more than a mere football coach
when during the war years he was
willing to schedule both Army and
Navy in 1945 for the sake of pub-:
licity and gate receipts.
(Y CE CALLED "football's super
salesman," Crisler didn't for-
get to put his time in on the field
as his ten years as head coach of
the Wolverines brought them back
to glory. Crisler-coached Michigan
teams posted a 70-16-3 record and
scored 2,234 points to 731 by oppo-

Up to the 1947 season, his teams
had finished second in the Big
Ten six times and had tied for the
title once with Purdue in 1943.
Then, for the culmination of his
career on the field, he kicked home
a winner in 1949.
That era is gone now. His play-
ing days are in the dim past and
his coaching days are fast becom-
ing ancient history. All we have
left is Fritz Crisler-the enigma,
the moving force behind the
scenes-Michigan's athletic direc-
The postscript to this historical
sketch is yet to be written. In
appreciation for his efforts as
coach and athletic director at
Michigan, he was recently nomi-
nated for the State of 'Michigan
Sports Hall of Fame. On May 17
the results will be announced, and
perhaps Crisler will join a half-
dozen other Wolverine standouts
who have been chosen in the past
1five years.

Continued from Page 8
At this time the major festivals
shifted their emphasis from the
well - established to the lesser-
known. younger contemporaries,
thereby encouraging the avant
garde composers to write for con-
ventional instruments and making
it possible for them to obtain a
wide international hearing with-
out recourse to the laborious pro-
cesses of electronic music.
SECOND, the patronage of two
large European publishers, Uni-
versal Edition, and Schott. assist-
ed the avant garde with financial
support and publication of journ-
als and both conventional and
electronic scores. Correlative to
this support was the attention of
conductor Hermann Scherchen,
who founded both a publishing
house, Ars Viva Verlag, Mainz,
and an electronic studio at Grav-
esano, Switzerland to encourage
advanced work in music.
In the United States conductor
Robert Craft performed, recorded
and encouraged avant garde music
for conventional instruments.
Third, because of political prob-
lems, the European electronic
composers were having trouble
using certain state supported
electronic studios. Word has it
that the RAI Electronic Studio in
Milano has completely closed down
this year.
Finally, and most important,
was the announcement that RCA
had developed a new Synthesizer
which employed radical new tech-
niques and made it possible to

compose electronic music with a'
vast range of sounds, precise con-
trol, and. eliminate most of the
time and labor of tape splicing
and mixing. (Stockhausen spent
nearly two years to produce his
13 minute "Gesange der Jung-
NUMEROUS foundations, in-
cluding Rockerfeller, h a v e
made work with the new RCA
Synthesizer possible, but to date
little progress has been made be-
cause the huge machine is heavily
encumbered with legal, patent,
security, and professional jealosy
The Luening-Ussachevsky "Con-
certed Piece" is interesting in the
respect that it is a combination of
electronic music and conventional
instruments. Scheduled for per-
formance in Koln this year is a
new Stockhausen composition,
"Schwingungen" for four groups
of loudspeakers and four instru-
mentalists, a work of the same
hybred nature.
Electronic composition is not
only of interest to the younger
composers. Luigi Dallapiccola,
Roberto Gerhard, Ernst Krenek,
and the musical radical of the
1920's Edgar Varese, have also
worked with the medium. It was
an electronic composition by Ver-
ese which was heard in the Le
Corbusier-Phillips Pavillion at the
Brussels World Fair.
N CONTRAST to the ideas and
music of the serialists is the

phenomenon of John Cage. Cage
has exploredra wide range of mus-
ical ideas, from pianos prepared
with stove bolts, furniture tacks,
and pencil erasers, to music com-
posed by chance techniques or
random processes, the electronic
modification of sound, and the
exploitation of silences.
Certainly the most radical of
these ideas is the composition of
music by random processes. Al-
though it has historical precedents
--Mozart is reputed to have com-
posed music by drawing cards
from a pile-and is Justified by
the artistic pronouncements of
certain Oriental philosophies, the
concept of "random music" has
created a greater storm of protest
than even the far-out serial
The most violent critics are fur-
ther annoyed because Cage refuses
to respond to their attacks as
would the serialists (by justifying
serial organization) and is more
likely to answer them by lecturing
about mushroom hunting.
SURROUNDED with anecdotes,
legend, and enigma, Cage has
gained a strong following. In
America this is a following pre-
dominantly or artists, writers, and
dancers, and includes few music-
ians. But in Europe the young
serialist composers take him
pretty seriously, which is paradox-
ical since the concepts of total
serialization would seem to be in
opposition to those of random
Concluded on Page Eleven

A History Beginning in 1949
Students and the Bias Issi
Progress Over i

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of active disapproval toward
racial and religious bias provides
a healthy climate for student gov-
ernment work on eliminating
biased membership selection cri-
teria in University organizations.
Thinking and planning with this
object on the part of University
students shows steadily increasing
depth of understanding of the
problem in the light of the history
of bias legislation here. This week
student efforts culminated in a
sound step in solving it: a regula-
tion and implementation setup
which in effect will be a broad
frame of reference from which to
operate in arbitrating future spe-
cific discrimination cases.
The concern anddiscussion over
a number of years could not be
formulated until 1949, when a
strong representative student gov-
ernment had emerged from the
confusion of World War II. On
May 3 of that year, the University
Committee on Student Affairs-a
student-faculty body with admin-
istrative power over student or-
ganizations - adopted the follow-
ing motions at the request of the
Student Legislature:
". ..that every student or-
ganization recognized by the Com-
mittee on Student Affairs file ...
a copy of its constitution which
follows the pattern set forth in
the University Regulations Con-
cerning Student Affairs, Conduct
and Discipline.
". . . that the Committee on Stu-
dent Affairs refuse to recognize
any organization which prohibits
membership in the organization
because of race, religion or color."
AND THE regulation passed this
week by Student Government
Council (which at its inception in
1955 inherited the power of the
SAC and the representative func-
tion of SL) resolves the great
ambiguity which limited the po-
tential effectiveness of this ruling.
The new regulation applies to all
organizations. The 1949 ruling was
directed toward the establishment
of new organizations and did not
apply to those recognized prior to
the date of its adoption.
Before 1949, the regulations
booklet included no non-discrimi-
nation provision as a qualification
for recognition. Student Legisla-
ture regarded the 1949 regulation
as a beginning, the thin edge of
a wedge separating individual
rights from outside pressure in
membership selection.
Two efforts were then made to
Jean Spencer, a junior in the
literary college, is acting Daily
editorial director. Last semes-
ter she was The Daily's re-
porter for Student Govern-
ment Council.-

secure University enforcement of
"regulations designed to assure
the removal of restrictive mem-
bership clauses from the consti-
tutions of student organizations,"
both of which were initiated by
Student Legislature, both of which
were vetoed by the President of
the University.
T E MOTIONS which became
recommendations by the Stu-
dent Affairs Committee both speci-
fled flexible time limits for the:
removal of bias clauses. The close-'
ness of the SAC vote in each case,
with the presidential veto by Pres-
ident Alexander Ruthven in 1951
and by President Harlan Hatcher
in 1952, would seem to indicate
an atmosphere of uncertainty
about non - discrimination legis-
lation and an administrative al-
lergy to the time limit.
The students who drew up the
1949 regulation felt it was a com-
promise between inaction and
harsher methods of removing dis-
criminatory clauses. Rationale for
the motion postulated that it
1) Indicate the strong disfavor
of the student body toward dis-
criminatory clauses through ac-
tion by its student government.
2) Exclude from future recog-
nition groups whose constitutions*
contained discriminatory clauses.
3) Encourage campus organiza-
tions with discriminatory clauses
to work for removal of them in
view of strongly opposed student
body opinion.
ANALYSIS of the 27-17 SL vote
on the motion showed a divi-
sion between "liberals" and "con-
servatives" with regard to dealing
with the bias clause problem,
rather than between fraternity
and dormitory residents, indicat-
ing a general support for the plan.
' A report by SL's Special Publi-
cation Committee in the summer
of 1951 said faculty and adminis-
tration thought the new policy
was a good one, which served to
check the spread of selectivity
' clauses.
"Although the President of the
University made no formal state-
ment regarding The Michigan
Plan (of which the 1949 rule was
to be the first step), Dr. Ruthven
did in effect give the policy final
University approval when he did
not submit it to review. His per-
sonal opinion, stated later, was
in accord with the full backing
given the policy by the student
government and the University,"
the report pointed out.
Student Association adopted
the Michigan Plan over several
others proposed at the Second Na-
tional Student Congress in August
1949, and similar action was taken

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by Syracuse University, University
of Minnesota, University of Hous-
ton and the University of Wash-
At the University, after the rul-
ing was adopted, the problem of
speedily implementing elimination
of clauses was turned over to the
Interfraternity Council.
IFC established a sub-commit-
tee on discrimination whose stated
purpose was "elimination of legal
discriminatory clauses from fra-
ternity constitutions and by-laws,
and the promotion of an educa-
tional program designed to elimi-
nate all phases of discrimination
in fraternities."
This committee formed two:
working units-one "dealing with
combatting any drastic action by
campus groups against frater-
nities" and the other to deal with
discriminatory attitudes and legal
T[HE DEFENSIVE attitude of
fraternities spelled out by their
feeling a need for the first-men-
tioned unit was borne out by the
reactionary refusal of the House
Presidents Assembly (which de-
termined IFC policy) to take ac-
tion of a positive proposal by the
latter working unit.
The legal working committee
presented the following resolution
to the Assembly in November
1949, when it was tabled:
"All fraternities having dis-
criminatory clauses existing on
campus as of November 1, 1949
will be suspended unless they are
able to present to the Office of
Student Affairs by January
(blank) evidence showing: 1) a
motion requesting removal of the
clauses was presented at their na-
tional convention, and 2) the ac-
tive chapter has petitioned its na-
tional office asking that all such
clauses be removed."
A Daily editorial criticized the
fraternity presidents' action-they
passed a resolution to send peti-
tions to fraternity nationals ask-
ing removal of bias clauses-say-
ing, "This week-kneed approach
to the question of clause removal
casts serious doubt on the sin-
cerity of some of the men in IFC"
particularly in the light of the
closed meeting.

THE SL REPORT was stern with
the IFC, asserting, "the damage
done to the IFC position - that
fraternities themselves could han-
dle the problem of discriminatory
clauses--was severe."
When the watered-down ver-
sion was presented to the SAC for
approval, so much controversy had
developed with IFC regarding the
resolution they had passed that
SAC chose to return it to IFC for
further study and clarification. At
this the IFCCD ceased function-
ing, and the resolution died.
After four months of IFC "edu-
cation," a member of an impa-
tient SL introduced a motion call-
ing for both a petition and a
motion at the national convention
asking removal of clauses.
The motion was postponed a
week to give IFC a chance to act,
and the next night IFC "strongly




Vol. VI, No. 9
By-Jean Spencer Page Three
By Gordon Mumma Page Five


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.Page .Six

By Michael Gillman.

Page Nine

PHOTOS: Cover: top and center, Daily; lower, "die Reihe;" Page
Three: Daily; Page Four: Daily; Page Five: "Melos;" Page Six:
Robert Logan; Page Seven: Robert Logan; Page Eight: "die Reihe
Page Nine: Daily; Page Eleven: Daily.
SUNDAY, MAY 8, 1960

The November, 1958 Si
Blocked Time LM im


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