"Wait for Your Leaders, Dammit"
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hen Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
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or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Cub an Land Valuations,
Court Criticism Rise
By DREW PEARSON
UBA'S SUPREME COURT, last remaining independent agency in
the government structure, may soon be purged or even liquidated
The reason: two recent decisions have raised valuations on ex-
propriated lands which the agrarian reform institute (INRA) expected
to acquire for a song.
Since these decisions, Antonio Nunez Jimminez, INRA's pro-Com-
munist boss, has sharply criticized the court on a nationwide TV panel
show and warned that "nobody can be allowed to set up roadblocks in
the revolution's path."
His right-hand man, Waldo Medina-an openly avowed Red-went
3AY, APRIL 26, 1960
NIGHT EDITOR: PHILIP SHERMAN
Face Opportunistic Minority
'HE CRY FOlR AFRICAN self-government is
causing the British and the world to re-
nsider the place of the African in world
British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
sted Africa two months ago. At Salisbury,
uthern Rhodesia, he said that the Central
rican Federation would not be granted
minion status until both Africans and Euro-
ans expressed their support for "a full and
dependent federation." He later added that
e federation would remain under British
otection until capable of expressing its poli-
7ENNETH KAUNDA, president of the United
National Independence Party in Northern
hodesia pointed out that Northern Rhodesia
as a British protectorate. The word protec-
rate presupposes something, but "don't ask
e what," he remarked.
Kaunda further asserted that the Africans
Northern Rhodesia are ready for self-gov-
nment now. He was careful to point out that
e Africans do not want to replace the gov-
nment, but only attain self government. If
e African ever achieves self-rule, he said,
will not degrade or subjugate the white
ttlers as the whites have subjugated the
"HE AFRICANS fear white domination. The.
.settlers have devised a voting system
hereby thepoliticalvoice of the Africans is
eatly diminished. There is a property or
age requirement for voting in Rhodesia.
iose who meet these requirements are regu-
Those who earn less or own less property
it have some education becoine special voters.
hree special votes are equal to one regular
)te. In this way the white minority is able
The white settlers- were also able to form
the Central African Federation. Last year full
scale riots broke out in Rhodesia and Nyasa-
land when the Federation was put into effect.
KAUNDA'S party, which stresses non-vio-
lence, opposed the governmental plan from
its formation in the early fifties. He looks
forward to the day when the self-ruled Afri-
cans will form a Pan-African Union.
Portugal's two colonies, Angola and Mozam-
bique, have been relatively free of the African
nationalism which is prevalent in other Africar
states. The Portugese have made these over-
seas provinces and hold firm control over them.
But the African nationalism is bound to seep
into these states and they could become future
Kaunda could not walk into Northern Rho-
desia tomorrow morning and form an effective
African government. Of course Kaunda can
look to Ghana and say that Ghana became
self-governing and is faring quite well under
African leadership. The white minority in Rho-
desia, however, is larger and more powerful
than that of Ghana.
THE WHITE problem in Rhodesia would be
more acute. But Kaunda cannot take the
first real step. The white settlers of Africa!
must realize that they are not a minority
which is ruling as a Utopian elite but a minor-
ity which has taken advantage of the situation.
They must recognize the growing stature ofI
the African's political voice and place it on anI
equal basis with their own political opinions.
The political equality of the Africans and their
eventual self-government should come within
the next ten years and bring the African to his
rightful place among the nations of the world.I
-HARRY PERLSTADT I
even further. Speaking to peasants
Province, Medina attacked several
magistrates by name, charged that
Court President (chief justice)
Emilio Menendez had "enriched
himself illegally and ought to
have all his property confiscated."
* * *
MENENDEZ, one of the coun-
try's most respected men, is con-
vinced that he and at least a
majority of other judges will be
fired before long, so the court is
working overtime to rule on ap-
peals from owners of property
seized by the Castro regime.
,None of these cases involves a
challenge of expropriations-only
of INRA's value estimates, which
average around. 15 per cent of
what the owners figure their lands
Speculation is lively in Havana
about the fate of the supreme
court as an institution. It is known'
that Nunez Jimenez, Medina, and
some others in high posts want toi
see it abolished altogether.
* * *
THEY ARGUE that such a tri-
bunal, even if reliable yes-men ,
were named to it, delays the work
of the revolution and thus "helps
the enemies of Cuba."
Incidentally, Americans whose
property has been taken over
have a hard time finding com-
petent assessors willing to put a
fair figure on it.
Jack Everhardt, a resident of
Cuba for 41 years and a big land-
owner in Pinar del Rio Province,
had everything seized by INRA.
INRA wanted to pay him $230,000
for property and installations he3
valued at $1,400,000.
Everhardt went to six profes-
sional assessors, one after another.
Five of them turned him down
fiat. The sixth said:J
"Look, my friend, after a while
there won't be any private prop-
erty left to assess. The only job
I'll be able to get then will be
with INRA or the agriculture de-;
"Now, can you afford to pay me
enough to make it worth my while,
to give you an honest assessment=
and run the risk of being black-
Everhardt did. For triple the
normal fee, he got a valuation of;
$960,000 and has appealed to the
supreme court on the basis of that
(Copyright 1960, by the Bell Syndicate)
on a farm cooperative in Oriente
The Daily'Official Bulletin Is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
TUPSDAY, APRIL26, 1960
VOL. LXX, NO. 151
Doctoral Foreign Language Examina-
tions: The last doctoral foreign lan-
guage! reading examinations for the'
Horace H. Rekham School of Graduate
Studies for the current semester will
be given on Thurs., June 2. Since fa-
cilities for giving the doctoral foreign
language examinations are limited, stu-
dents wishing to be examined this se-
mester after May 15 are advised to make
an appointment with the Graduate For-
eign Language Examiner, 3028 Rackham
Bldg., at the earliest possible time.
"Reducing Supreme Court Power"
will be the topic for a public inter-
collegiate debate on Tues., April 26, at
7:30 p.m. in The Rackham Ampitheater..
The debate wil feature women debate
teams from the University of Wiscon-
sin' and the University of Michigan.
Phi Beta Kappa: Annual Meeting
Wed., April 27, Room 411 Mason Hall,
4:15 p.m. Election of new members and
officers. open to all members.
International Student and Family
Exchange have moved to new quarters
at the Madelon Pound House (Base-
ment) 1024 Hill Street. Open Thursday
mornings each week, 9:30-11:00 a.m.
Topcoats and sweaters for men and
women. Infants equipment and cloth-
ing and children's ,clothing.; These are
available for all Foreign Students and
Families needing the above items.
Ushering: Sign-up sheets, for people
who wish to usher for the next De-
partment of Speech Playbill production
are on the bulletin board outside room
1502 Frieze Building.
Box Office open. 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to-
day, Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre, to
sell tickets for Look Homeward, Angel.
Performances Wednesday through Sat-
urday 8:00 p.m. Tickets $1.50, 1.10, 75c.
STUDENT GOVERNMENT COUNCIL
April 27, 1960
Constituents' Time 9:00
(Continued on Page 5)
A Complex of Paradoxes
AX I ERNER:
Chou s Invitation
NEW DELHI--If the meeting of Chou En-lat
and Nehru were not in itself dramatic
enough the unexpected entrance of Krishna
Menon has made it so. Menon is one of those
men feted by history, circumstance and char-
acter to be a member of every melee.
Doubtless there are innocent reasons for
Chou's invitation to him to call. After all, Chou
knew him at other times, in other climes,
under more favoring skies. Moreover, since
Chou is seeing the Home Minister, then why
not the Defense Minister, with whom he might
consult on how to keep the border from be-
coming too "alive."
The tr'ouble with this reasoning is that the
question of who shall negotiate what, with
whom, is for ,the Indians to decide, not the
Chinese. Had Nehru wanted Menon on his
negotiating team he would have chosen him.
His reasons for not doing so must have seemed
adequate to him.
RIGHTLY OR WRONGLY, Menon has be-
come a symbol of India's old 'soft line'
diplomacy toward China, and any settlement
to which he was a party would be suspect to
a large segment of Indian opinion. If we
assume that Chou did not invite Menon merely
for a social cup of tea, their two-hour con-
versation must have involved something more
serious and substantive.
What was Chou aiming at? We may never
know. But if he wished deliberately to needle
Nehru for having left Menon off the formal
negotiating group, thus raising an issue that
Nehru would prefer unraised, he could not have
spread confusion in the Indian ranks more
HENCE IT WOULD be a mistake for Indian
or American opinion to make too much of
the Menon incident, unless it has traceable
consequences. Where the issue of aggression is
so clear it is better to hold to the issue and
not be deflected.
Chou's entire tactic since his arrival has
In his banquet speech he spoke of the
"fascist" forces being revived in the world-an
echo of Khrushchev's propaganda line during
his stay in France. But the only fascist experi-
ences that India has recently encountered have
THOMAS TURNER, Editor
PHILIP POWER ROBERT JUNKER
Editorial Director City Editor
JIM BENAGH ...................Sports Editor
PETER DAWSON .............Associate City Editor
CHARLES KOZOLL .......... . rsonnel Director
JOAN KAATZ .... Magazine Editor
BARTON HUTHWAITE .. Associate Editorial Director
FRED KATZ ....«. .... Associate Sports Editor
DAVE LYON.................Associate Sports Editor
JO HARDEE ................ . Contributing Editor
been the aggressions at Longju and Ladakh
and the genocide in Tibet.
As for Chou's celebration of the links be-
tween China and India as Asian nations and
revolutionary ones, Indian opinion will know
how to answer. Asian nations should behave
in a more neighborly fashion than China has
done. And Nehru's earlier observation still has
point: "Across the Chinese-Indian border two
revolutions confront each - other." They are
two different revolutions, not the same one.
N THE RANKINGS of current Chinese Com-
munist leadership, published in scholarly
journals, Chou En-lai is usually ranked fourth.
He is not the top policy maker.
Mao and Liu have sent their No. 4 man to
New Delhi with two others to flank and sup-
port him. They may improvise the tactics but
the strategy was laid down before they left
Peking, by others more powerful than they.
By contrast, India is a democracy. How
deeply so is attested by the iron mood of the
Indian people in the face of Chou's visit, and
by Nehru's response to that mood. Unlike Chou,
Nehru is undeniably and completely No. 1' in
his government and can speak for it and the
But this does not mean that he spins policy
out of his innards. Democracy involves a great
and continuing creative dialogue between lead-
ers and people, between elite and demos. It is
part of Chou's education that he has come to
India at this crisis of its history and can wit-
ness how a seemingly slumbering people can
awaken to its dangers and its strength, and
communicate its strength to its leaders.
As I watched Nehru restlessly moving among
the spectators at the airport before Chou's
plane arrived I could not help feeling that he
was gathering strength from them for the long
The Chinese Communists have a different
conception. For them the people are so much
raw material to be instructed, corrected, re-
construgted, hammered into the right social
forms. But Chou En-lai's education may profit
from the experience.
PERHAPS NEHRU has also derived some
education from recent events. In a long,
brilliant, tumultuous career, this may be his
most dangerous hour and may prove his finest.
But his new firmness, which he has expressed
in every recent speech including those ad-
dressed directly to Chou, which took courage
to make, is a back-to-the-wall firmness.
By making vague bilateral settlements with'
Indonesia, Burma and Nepal, Chou has tried
to isolate India and compel Nehru to accept
the status quo plus a boundary commission,
which is the formula he has used elsewhere.
One may guess that Nehru understood the
full force of the Chinese intentions only when
Prime Minister Koirala came back to Nepal
from Peking and revealed the Chinese claim
on Mt. Everest. However loftily Nehru may
dismiss the idea of pacts with other countries,
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Premier Fer-
nando Tambroni's minority Christ-
ian Democratic cabinet resigned
April 11 after nearly half of its
22 members had threatened to
quit due to Tambroni's reliance on
Neo-Fascist support in Parliament.
The Tambroni cabinet, in office I
days, had been approved April 8 in
the Chamber of Deputies by a 30-
293 vote, with the support of 1
Christian Democrats, 24 Neo-Fasc-
Ists, four Independent Monarchists
and one Monarchist, Communists,
Socialists and most Monarchist-
and other rightists bad refused their
support despite Tambronis warn-
ing that Italy risked being without
a cabinet during the May ~ast-
West summit meeting. Tambroni,
who remained as caretaker premier
after his ministers resigned, desig-
nated Amintore Fanfani as premier-
elect. Norma Sue Wolfe is a Daily
staff writer studying in Europe this
By NORMA SUE WOLFE
Special to The Daily
ROME, APRIL 12--Italy's nine-
week-old governmental crisis
consists of a maddening maze of
The rat-race began February 24
with the resignation of Premier
Antonio Segni. Formerly, the Lib-
eral Party, as well as the Republi-
cans and Democratic - Socialists,
had often collaborated with Seg-
But the Liberals added insult
to injury by withdrawing' support
from Segni, who had been trying
unsuccessfully to find a central
coalition party formula. And with-
out waiting for parliamentary ap-
proval, Segni quit.
The ex-premier's untimely move
touched off a chain-reaction of
explosions. Liberals, Communists,
and Social - Democrats screamed
that the Christian - Democratic
Party has created an artificial
crisis: the former allies were link-
ed in protest against this country's
THERE WAS NO opportunity
for the Christian - Democrats to
retort. They were looking for a
solution to their own puzzle-in-
The right, left, and center mem-
bers of the party realized that
with no Liberal, Communist, or
Social - Democratic support, they
had only the Fascist Party and a
handful of independents to turn
to. Without their votes of confi-
dence, a new government would
This new government came
March 25 In the form of one Fer-
nando Tambroni, a 58-year-old
lawyer who served as budget min-
ister in Segni's second govern-
ment. Tambroni is considered left-
of-center, but still a moderate
However, his further left assoc-
iates were not completely "with"
him. They balked at accepting
the Fascist backing necessary for
a victorious vote of confidence.
In fact, they instructed Tam-
broni to publicly reject Fascist
votes even if it meant the resig-
nation of his own government.
ITOn ,t S
THE RIGHTISTS in the party
opposed a left-slanted government
that would count on left-approved
And meanwhile, all the parlia-
mentary parties from left to right
were yelling that the Christian-
Democrats were only dodging
their responsibilities because of
In 'the midst of all this was
Premier Tambroni, whose stopgap
"business" government had been
organized for three main pur-
1) To end the 32-day record
crisis in Italy.
2) To keep Italy functioning
financially by passing the 1960-61
budget, which needed approval by
the end of March.
3) To preserve this country's
prestige' abroad and thus gain a
chance for representation in cur-
rent and future international con-
ferences on peace and arms con-
But the crisis was not relieved
ITALY'S LARGEST P A R T Y
falls short of a parliamentary ma-
jority. In order to firmly establish
his "business" government, Tam-
broni first had to win a vote of
He was trapped in a crossfire-
the need to accept anticipated
Fascist support and the possibility
of a split in his own party if he
did. Even if Tambroni managed
somehow to win without the Fas-
cists, he would still have a gov-
ernment without a parliamentary
majority, filling in only until some
better solution could be found.
"Confidence Day" (April 8) was
a victory for Tambroni's govern-
ment. It was endorsed by a scanty
three-vote plurality in the Cham-
ber of Deputies (lower house).
But the victory was sealed with
what has been called "the kiss of
death." Two hundred seventy-two
votes had come from the Christ-
ian-Democrats, four from inde-
pendents, and the other 24 from
TAMBRONI HAD asserted he
wanted the votes of those who
agreed with him. His government,
he said, could make "no political
A gross generalization at best.
Within an hour after the vote,
Giulio Pastore, a leader of the
Christian-Democratic left wing,
announced his resignation as min-
ister for southern Italy.
Nullo Biaggi, undersecretary for
Two other cabinet ministers
walked out. And five of the re-
maining 18 ministers sent Tam-
broni letters demanding immed-
iate assembly of the cabinet.
If the central directorate of the
Christian - Democrats failed to
back Tambroni, his "business"
government would go bankrupt. If
party leadership supported him,
wholesale resignations by cabinet
members could also bring the gov-
ernment tumbling down.
The meeting lasted two and a
half hours. Then instead of head-
ing towards the convened Senate
to open the debate prior to the
One, a "business" government
will probably gain the same un-
welcome support as before-Fas-
cist backing. On the other hand,
there is not enough agreement in
parliament to establish a "politi-
cal," full-scale government.
Two, Italy's efforts to maintain
national respect are more than
balanced by her internal crisis.
Three, it has been rumored that
President Giovanni Gronchi may
call for new national elections.
But his Christian - Democratic
party is already divided and an
election could mean heavy losses.
When Gronchi first asked Tam-
broni to form his own government,
the latter told newsmen: "Well,
here we go again. I wonder which
of us has the toughest job to per-
Obviously Gronchi. He's kept
busy wandering through the maze
looking for a running mate.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Moral Views Confuse Koch Issue
To the Editor:
STUDENT Government Council's
recent failure to uphold aca-
demic freedom in the case of Prof.
.Koch spotlights a grave and gen-
eral danger to freedom of speech
in the United States. Unfortu-
nately, the real issue is becoming
confused with side issues as argu-
ments rage about the morality of
Prof. Koch's views.
Whether or not one agrees with
him is completely irrelevant to the
basic problem that the individual's
right to, express himself in this
society is being stifled. It is clear
that the civil liberties of Prof.
Koch and others are being vio-
lated if one judges by the tradi-
tional American concept of free-
dom of speech, which includes
the right to criticize social stand-
ards and stops only at the possi-
bility of infringing upon the rights
of another individual.
,' * *
THE IRONY of the whole situ-
ation is that attempts to censure
people for expressing unpopular
views actually-only aggravate the
situation they are designed to
control. For example, if the Presi-
dent of the 'University of Illinois
had let the matter pass, one letter
advocating "immorality" would
have appeared in an obscure col-
lege publication. Now the letter
or commentaries on it have prob-
ably been published in hundreds
of newspapers throughout the
that the idea contains some truth.
Otherwise, why not simply show
people where the error lies? In
the long run, the most effective
way to combat untruth is with the
truth itself, not with persecution.
History has shown this many
THE FRIGHTENING part of
the --hole situation is that pres-
sures, both the official and the
more subtle' and insidious social
ones, discourage people from pub-
licly expressing views on anything.
Educators have noted this and
condemned our "Silent Genera-
Also, when one tri
an idea, it is a ta
Lightly Turning A Young Man's
.. ew+""Mf tlJF r"
es to suppress Yet when someone such as Prof.
cit admission Koch has the courage to stand up
Fa cy against social pressure and say,
si FaJCy "I believe this," he is immedi-
ately censured, often by these
very same educators. Apparently
the "Silent Generation" is ex-
pected to be articulate about the
old ideas and silent about new
-Stephen K. Parrott, '61
Breaks Tradition .
To the Editor:
IT IS A PLEASURE to see that
j the University is attempting to
maintain its high standards by
constructing additional facilities
for the students.
However, I'm concerned over its
latest project, the addition to the
East Medical Building. Although
great skill has been demonstrated
by tucking this substantial struc-
ture into an area hardly thought
large enough for twelve parked
cars, there is lacking the usual
variety in design, a tradition in
True the ratio of red brick to
white concrete facing bears little
if any relation to that of the par-
ent building. Nevertheless, the
brick is almost the same color, and
/' .. 'i