"Tell Me, As One Old Soldier To Another, How Does
It Feel Actually To Run A Government?"
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. 0 ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Vhen Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevaill
'YEARS OF POWER':
Potrait of Nehru
Mirrors Indian History
Nehru: The Years of Power, by Vincent Sheean, Random House,
New York, 1960, $5.00.
IN THE almost thirteen years since India achieved her independence,
there have been a number of books written by both Americans and
Europeans, informed in widely varying degrees, about the "real"
India, the "heart" of India, and so on.
Vincent Sheean has studied and lived in India for long periods of
time and knows many of its leading statesmen, other influential figures,
and its masses well. His previous book, "Lead, Kindly Light," was a
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staf writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
.Y APRIL 24, 1960
NIGHT EDITOR: PHILIP SHERMAN
HE LOCAL pacifists are at it again. This
time they're setting up a booth on the Diag
o get students to sign a petition against
iuclear bomb testing and urging a program of
progressive arms reduction, with controls,
ventually leading to total disarmament of
The petition, sponsored by the Ann Arbor
,ommittee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, is to
ie sent to the State Department, where "it is
:nown such petitions are seriously considered,"
in time "to have an effect on our Summit posi-
NOW, OF COURSE, it is a good idea to end
nuclear tests, at least until disagreement
mong scientific authorities about their harm-
ulness is ended. But it seems very question-
ble that the State Department actually gives
erious attention to such petitions, at least as
ar as determining United States' Summit
policy from them.
Not only this, but the actual contents of the
>etition itself are a perfect replica of the
United States' stand. We certainly urge a
R it of Sring
1ICHIGRAS does not lend itself to astute,
critical analysis. Nor does it lend itself to
omparison with "the old days," since it some-
rhat synthesizes old and new and leaves one
eeling traditional yet modern.
With Gargoyle dead, and J-Hop quaking,
MIchigras remains as something uniquely "col-
egiate" in a "non-collegiate" University.
It does not necessarily reflect anti-intellec-
ualism or useless frivolity. Instead, it repre-
ents unusually intense interest in a community
It is Michigan's biennial "sacre du prin-
"permanent negotiated ban on all nuclear
weapon tests with an effective inspection sys-
tem covering currently detectable tests and
continuous research to improve this system."
And in urging "'a plan for making disarma-
ment an economic advantage to our nation
and the world, rather than an economic
threat," the petitioners are avoiding the ques-
tion. Just what system would do this, if there
is any such system?
THIS PARTICULAR point seems vague to
the point of being fatuous .
In short, the petition seems rather inane,
in that it keeps falling back on just the same
undefined restrictive phrases that the Adminis-
tration uses to state its policies-"with con-
trols," "currently detectable tests," "effective
controls," and the like.
Perhaps the Committee could write its
petition a little more plainly, explaining ex-
actly what it wants, and what it doesn't like
about the present State Department stand.
IN A BURST of fierce intellectual ac-
tivity, incensed University scholars at-
tacked and set fire to the parade float of
Williams House Friday night. The float,
called "A Whale of a Tale," was con-
structed of 20,000 paper napkins and was
consumed within seconds.
Spiffy, his child's heart torn with grief
at this sight, retreated to the comforting
arms of South Quad's court.
Backward, turn backward,
Oh time in thy flight:
Michigras, oh Michigras
A pox on your plight!
+K' 4A'amt Gio 'P,.s.- .,..._-
It is a good thing.
Massacre in South A frica
NEW DELHI-The long-dreaded event has
come to pass-the coldblooded mass killing
of blacks by whites out of fancied racial superi-
ority, which may forebode the mass killing
some day of whites by blacks out of racial
It was appropriate that the two sharpest and
earliest rebukes to the South African govern-
ment came from Washington and New Delhi.
Americans, who in their own history fought
a civil war to destroy slavery, cannot remain
silent at a massive effort in our day to create
a slave society. Nor can a people who gave'
Gandhi to the world and whose freedom
emerged from the mounds of dead at the
Amritsar Massacre of 1919 remain silent at a
new Amritsar, whose victims sought, however
clumsily, to use Gandhi's methods of passive
In an. emotion-choked voice, Nehru said in
Parliament that the South African tragedy was
"one of those very special happenings which
almost affect the course of history." What gives
his statement an acrid flavor is that he failed
to make a similar comment on the genocide of
the Tibetans by the Chinese Communists. But
what gives it point is that Nehru knew he
would sit in the Commonwealth Conference
in May alongside Prime Minister Verwoerd,
who had praised the police for their restraint
and who resisted an inquiry into the events
at Sharpeville and Langa because it might
undermine police morale-another name for
their killing fervor.
1JHE PICTURE of the bloody ground at
Langa,. with the bullet-riddled bodies laid
out on it, will sharpen the struggle for justice
and freedom in Africa and cause the wind of
change to blow more strongly.
The parallel with the corpse-piled ground
at Jallianwala Bagh more than 40 years ago
at Amritsar is one that should trouble Ver-
woerd and his comrades-in-apartheid on sleep-
less nights. Surely they must know that the
Amritsar martyrs, like dragon's teeth, pro-
duced a harvest of resistance fighters against
British rule in India and that Sharpeville and
Langa spell the ultimate doom of apartheid
and the pass laws.
The spectre over South Africa today is that
violence will lead to counter-violence and that
Verwoerd's policy of keeping the Negro leaders
imprisoned removes the only force that can
keep the resurgent African mass disciplined in
The spirit of a wizened, dhoti-clad man
called Gandhi walks across South Africa today
as it walks across our own American South. I
don't call the two situations comparable. The
gap separating them is the fact that the
overwhelming majority of white Americans
are struggling for Negro civil rights while
only a timid minority of South African whites
make common cause with the Negroes against
the creators of a slave state. But the exciting
parallel remains that in the Carolinas as in
Capetown, bands of young Negroes are follow-
ing the Gandhi tactics of non-violently offer-
ing themselves for mass arrest.
THERE IS, ALAS, no Ghandi in South Africa
today to keep the Negro mass resistance
disciplined on their great march into Trans-
vaal, which began November 6, 1913. Chief
Albert Lughugi of the African National Con-
gress has to quote Gandhi from his prison
cage aet the Pretoria treason trial because the
cage at the Pretoria treason trial because the
purblind band of white South African rulers
by putting its leaders behind bars. In Gandhi's
day, South African General Smuts, whatever
his own blindspots, was relatively a humanist,
while Verwoerd and his compatriots follow a
Nazi pattern not only in racism but in ruth-
These two facts-the ruthlessness of the
apartheid whites and the lack of trained lead-
ers who can discipline the Negroes in non-
violent resistance-make me fearful of the
bloody days that lie ahead for South Africa.
Those whom the gods would destroy they first
infuse with the dogma of racist supremacy. It
happened to Hitler; is it happening to Ver-
woerd, again with how bitter a harvest of
He should know that even with machine-
guns mowing down the Negro demonstrators
and jets diving at them from overhead, the
brutality of the ruling minority will only feed
the passion for freedom of the underlying
majority, who outnumber the whites 4 to 1.
With garrison mentality, South African leaders
may rely on their superior firepower. What they
should remember is that when the blacks put
down their tools and refuse to work they are
utilizing more powerful weapons, and can
bring the whole economy to a stop.
PREDICT that South Africa will drop out of
the British Commonwealth as a final but
futile racist gesture.,Something is happening
in the Commonwealth--a shift of axis to non-
white nations-which the apartheid rulers can-
not tolerate and which cannot tolerate them.
WO YEARS ago this writer was
in Paris as Charles de Gaulle
was called from semi-retirement to
take over the floundering French
republic. At that time I wrote:
HAVING BEEN one of his Amer-
ican admirers since June of
1940, when he raised his flag in
Britain and summoned the French
to go on with the war, I cannot
pretend to write dispassionately
about Gen. de Gaulle.
But now that he is coming back
to Washington in triumph, I have
been asking myself what is the
secret of this famous man?
The secret is that he is more
than a great man. He is a great
man in the sense that he has taken
a great part in historic events. But
there were other great men in the
war days. In addition to being an
historic man, he is also, which is
rarer than greatness, a genius.
This is the special quality which
he, and I think only he, shares
His genius consistsdin the capac-
ity to see beneath the surface of
events, to see through the obvious
and conventional and stereotyped
appearance of events to the sig-
nificant realities, to the obscured
facts and forces which will pre-
vail. This gift, which is more than
leadership as such, is second sight
into the nature of history.
The ability to see truly the sig-
nificant reality carries with it the
ability to convey what his vision
brings him. Men like Churchill and
de Gaulle do not sign ghost-writ-
ten books and they do not read
ghost-written speeches. For the
vision is their own and they alone
can communicate it.
* * *
THUS, IN THE bitter days of
1940 when France had fallen and
Britain stood alone, it called for
a great man, for a brave man, for
a resolute and faithful man, to go
into exile and from there to or-
ganize the French resistance. But
it took genius to see how this noble
but desperate venture would end,
and to see that France, defeated,
demoralized and prostrate, re-
mained one of the great powers,
to see that in the end she would
be-as is now the fact-among the
principal shapers of the settlement
* * *
THINKING OF ALL that has
happened in these twenty years, it
occurred to me to see whether or
not my memory was deceiving me.
Was it true, as ever since I have
believed, that in the darkest days
of the most desperate of modern
wars, Gen. de Gaulle had com-
municated his vision of an en-
during and an undefeated France?
I find that about three weeks
after the fall of France, I had
ornely Hero Visits U.S.
- By DREW PEARSON
"De Gaulle's ideas are so pro-
gressive that the Algerian colon-
ists would be shouting out of the
opposite side of their mouths if
they really knew them. . . . De
Gaulle is a brilliant idealist, has
the world's worst public relations,
a genius for antagonizing people
... temperamental, conceited,
strong-willed, will probably lean
toward Russia . . . passionately
devoted to France . . . whom the
United States will have to get
along with whether we like him or
Time passed. De Gaulle became
premier, then president. He was
invited to the United States - a
personal invitation from the Presi-
dent. He declined. Instead Ike
made two trips to Paris to see him.
Now, two years later, de Gaulle is
It was another spring exactly
20 years ago that Charles de
Gaulle made another historic trip.
This time France was falling be-
fore Hitler's onslaught and de
Gaulle flew to London to confer
with Churchill, designated by Pre-
mier Paul Reynaud as the man
who some day would liberate
France. This was June, 1940.
In the two decades that have
passed, de Gaulle was to hear him-
self accused of "latent fascism" by
Winston Churchill and ridiculed by
FDR as wanting to be a cross be-
tween Joan of Arc and Clemen-
He was to remain a virtual
prisoner in Lndon, hated by
Churchill, ignored by Allied com-
manders, kept in the dark regard-
ing the Allied landing in North
Africa until after reading it in
the papers. Only Anthony Drexel
Biddle, onetime tennis star, took
the trouble to win his friendship.
De Gaulle was a very lonely hero.
He was to learn that American
troops wiped out one unit of the
French Foreign Legion in North
Africa, and he was to find 900
Americans drowned, below decks,
their hatches fastened, when
French troops opened fire in Oran
And he was to see free France
decline until only the tiny mid-
Atlantic islands of St. Pierre-Mi-
quelon, famous as the bootleg capi-
tal of the world, remained loyal;
and even Cordell Hull, the sup-
posedly Democratic Secretary of
State, referred sarcastically to the
"So-called free French."
Came the liberation of France,
the triumphal march up the
Champs Elysees, the expectation
that de Gaulle would bring peace
and orderand power to war-torn
France. The triumph was short-
A decade of turmoil followed. De
Gaulle watched it from the side-
lines, watched the army of France
get stronger, civilian government
weaker, saw his old comrades-in-
arms become so powerful, so ar-
rogant they would not obey civilian
orders in Algeria.
And he watched French para-
troopers, on the verge of a great
victory at Suez which would atone
for the sting of losing Indo-China,
Morocco, Syria, Lebanon, suddenly
bassador had called on him fre-
quently, asked his advice rather
than that of the French govern-
ment. But in office de Gaulle has
leaned the other way. He has been
tougher toward Moscow than Ei-
senhower, so tough that Khrush-
chev diplomatically delayed his
trip to Paris in order to jockey for
a change of his Paris program.
It was also expected that de
Gaulle would rattle the saber
against the Germans. Instead he
has become the bosom friend of
Chancellor Adenauer. It was said
when he assumed office that he
would be the Kreensky of France,
the caretaker who would fall be-
fore the march of Communism. It
has not happened this way.
There have been moments of
grave crisis -- when the French
army almost revolted in Algeria,
when Minister of the Interior Fer-
dinand Mitterand fled for his life
through the streets of Paris pur-
sued by political gangsters, and
when the Communist high com-
mand offered de Gaulle 3,000 of
its hard corps secret underground
troops ready to do battle to sup-
port the republic -- in case the
During the war de Gaulle wrote
a letter to the British and Ameri-
can governments comparing allied
strategy to the beating of a drum.
"No one man is beating the drum,"
he wrote, "but a host of beetles are
bouncing up and down on it and
they think they are beating it." ..
De Gaulle first rose to fame by
writing two books on military
strategy. The first was "Edge of
the Sword:" the second, "Towards
a Professional Army." In these he
proposed that the French army
organize a highly mobile blitzkrieg
division. Later, the Nazis did ex-
actly this.. . . Roosevelt, in report-
ing to Congressmen on his Casa-
blanca visit with de Gaulle, quoted
de Gaulle as saying: "What France
needs is a great soul in this hour
of defeat. I am that soul."
(Copyright 1960, by the Bell syndicate)
perceptive study of Gandhi whom
written in the somewhat rambling
and conversational, albeit not in-
coherent, style which characterized
his first book, "Personal History"
"Nehru: The Years of Power" is
nominally a study of Jawaharlal
Nehru and the period in which he
has guided the destiny of an inde-
pendent India. Any book which
concerns itself with Pandit Nehru
however, must also necessarily
treat the country of which he is a
part and whose modern history is
so well mirrored in his life.
THE STORY of his close associ-
ation with Gandhi in the Indian
National Congress (the nationalist
organization which eventually led
India to independence) and out-
side of it, his British education
and cultural ties as well as his
discovery of his Indian heritage
and his, considerable leadership
ability is well summarized by Mr.
Sheean in this provocative book.
Major Issues of India's eco-
nomic, social, and political devel-
opment are taken up - among
them, the complex and perplexing
Kashmir case and its ramifica-
tions for the future of Indo-
Pakistani relations, the measures
which India is taking to develop
the agricultural and industrial
sectors of her economy, the prob-
lems of regional vs. national loyal-
ties and their inherent regional
language problems, Mr. Nehru's
"critics, colleagues, and friends,"
and "the man Nehru," a specific
study of his personality and tem-
A clear and understandable ex-
position of the "neutralist" or
more correctly "non - alignment"
policy which Mr. Nehru has ex-
pounded in the foreign relations
field is set forth in the chapter
entitled "The Pursuit of Peace."
That Mr. Nehru has almost single-
handedly forged Indian foreign
policy in the years since indepen-
dence is not the authoritarian
process that it might seem. As Mr.
Sheean points out, it is Mr.
Nehru's feeling for the pulse of
Indian public opinion on these
points that has for the most part
enabled him to enunciate the poli-
cies which India is now following.
" -+ -
THE CONSIDERABLE role he
has played as an informal go-
between for Communist China and
the West in the Korean War and
for Communist China and the
United States in the off-shore
islands crises has yet to be ade-
quately told. The vital necessity
for India's remaining at peace
with her powerful neighbor to
the northeast is spelled out, as is
the quandary in which Mr. Nehru
now finds himself vis-a-vis Com-
munist China and the rising averse
Indian public opinion which is
even now vociferously protesting
the presence of Chou En-lai in
This and many other issues are
adequately and informatively dealt
with in this book. What emerges
is an understandable and compre-
hensive picture of the man Jawa-
harlal Nehru and the influential
nation which he has guided to
world prominence in thirteen short
In this task Mr. Sheean has
again proved himself an able and
excellent rapporteur to the rest
of the world of the subject to
which he has addressed himself.
New Books at Library
Gaiser, Gerd - The Final Ball;
N. Y., Pantheon Books, 1960.
Gregory, Horace - The World
Of James McNeill Whistler; N.Y.,
Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1960.
he also knew. The ,work at hand is
(Continued from Page 2)
ities within the University family and
fills requests for information and pic-
tures. Salary, 400. Experience helpful
but' not, essential.-
Name: National Bank of Detroit, 661
Woodward, Detroit, Michigan. Contact:
Mr. A. W. Gietz, Vice"Fires; Mr. E. L.
Koning, Vice President." Job: Men with
a degree in Economics, Liberal Arts' or
Business Administration for Loaning
Officer Trainees. Will start in. the
Credit Department for six months or
less, working with a lending officer.
Salary, 425; 450 for BA; 00, MA.
For further information call the
Bureau of Appointments, Ext. 3371
Beginning with Mon., April 25, the
following schools will have representa-
tives at the Bureau of Appointments
to interview for the 1960-1961 school
Man., April 25
Garden City, Mich. - Elementy
Greenville, Mich. -- Elem. 12th Gr.
Eng.; Mont. Ret.; Speech Corr.
Livonia, Mich. (Clarenceville Sehs.)
- Elem., Music, Ment. Hdcp.; Jr. or
Sr. HS French/Eng., Latin/Eng., Biol,
Eng., Comm., Ind. Arts, Home Ec., Girls
& Boys Phys. Ed., Math/Physics; Li-
brary; Art. (Elem. & HS).
Otsego, Mich. - Elem., Vocal.
Tues., April 26
Eaton Rapids, Mich. -- Speech Cor-
Highland Park, Mich. - Elem., Art,
Phys. Ed., Visiting Tchr.; HS Eng., For.
Lang., St., Math, Soo. Stud., Bus. Ed.,
Library. Gen. Shop, Home Ec.; Jr. CoIL.
Eng., Soc. Stud., Sci., Math, Bus. Ed.
Rochester, New York - Elem. (K-7)
All Secondard Subjects; Men. & Phys.
Hdep., Hearing and Speech Therapists,
Sch. Psychologist; Music.
Sheridan, Mich. -Id. Art, Set
Math, HS Eng.; Early Elem
Wed., April 27
Albion, Mich. - Elem.; 7 & 8 Or. Soe.
Stud.; 9th Gr. Eng.; 10th Or. World
Hist/Eng.; L. Elem. Instr. Mus.; 7th,
Gr. Girls Phys. Ed/Swim.
Elkton-Pigian, Mich -- Elem.; ES
Cleveland, Ohio - Elem.; HS Math/
Se., Phys. Sd., Ind. Art, Home Lec /
Tecumseh, Mich. - Elem., Instr.
Mus.; Jr. HS Eng/French or SpaH.; 1S
Eng., Eng/Latin, Soc. Stud., Gen. Shop,
Detroit, Mich. (Redford Union schs.)
- Elem., Vocal; Jr. HS Eng/Soc. Stud.,
Thurs., April 2
Arlington Heights, 111.-Elem. Jr.
HS St., Math, For. Lang., Speech Corr,
Couns. or Social Work.
East Detroit, Mich. - Jr. S e .
Set., Eng., Math; HS Eng/Soc. Stud.,
Eng., Math. Home Ec.
East Rockwood, Mich. (Gibraltar Sb.
Dist.) - Elem. Phys. Ed., Art, Vocal
Mus.; Speech Corr., Type A.. Jr. HS
Set., Eng/Soc. Stud.
Ferndale, Mich. - Elem.; HS French
Sci., Math, Shem., Eng/Jour.; Deaf
and Hard of Hearing, Ment. Rt. Or-
Hopkins, Mich. - Elem. (4 & ); MS
Se., Comm., Hom Be.;
Mantonah, Wi. - ES Eng.; Jr. ES
Fri., April 29
Gary, Ind. - Elem.; 7th Gr. Eng.!
Soc. Stud.: Jr. HS Strings & Band; HS
Vocal Mus., Art, Home go., En
Sparta, Mich. Elem. (2, 3, 5, &
Es Amer. & Eng. Lit., Latin/Spanish
vocal Music/Art, Math.
West Hemstead, New York - Elem,
Vocal; Jr. ES Librarian, Eng., Sl~
Rem. Read.; HS French, Bus. Ed., Eng.
Math, Chm. of Citizenship Ed. Dept.
For any additional Information and
appointments contact the Bureau of
Appointments, 3528 Administration
Building, NOrmandy 3-1511, Ext. 489.
April 26. Bernard Scotch of Camp
Chi., Lake Dalto, Wisconsin, will inter-
view students for camp counseling job
-male and female. This is a camp run
by the Jewish Community Centers of
April 26. Mrs. H. L. Turner of Camp
Missaulsee, Lake city, Mich,' wil inter-
view women for jobs in her camp. She
wants 2 assistant cooks, Archery Dir-
ector, Asst. Waterfront, and Nature
April.26 and 27. Stan Michaeis of
Camp Nahelu will interview men and
women for counselors positions..
The Summer Placement Service is
open every afternoon from 1:30 to 5:00
and Friday mornings from 8:30 to 12:00,
in D528 of the S.A.B.
TO THE EDITOR:
Koch Cites Real American Values
To the Editor:
THE STUDENT Government
Council, it appears, has de-
cided not to "support" Professor
Koch, of Illinois. This decision is
all very well, since Professor Koch
obviously needs none of their
"support," whatever that may
But who, now, is this fellow
Trost, who rises up from his place
and justifies the dismissal of Koch
on the grounds that "there are
still some American values . . . I
hope." Well I hope so too. I live
here, and values are necessary to
life. But Mr. Trost, aside from us-
ing a pompous and meaningless
phrase, has sadly mistaken Ameri-
can values if he believes that Koch
has denied them. Actually, Koch's
letter was a mistake, just because
it stated so clearly what American
sex values are: what Koch was dis-
Sir W. S. Gilbert, and he a Vic-
torian, might have read the state-
hient and said, as he once wrote:
"Why, what a most particularly
pure young man this pure young
man must be!''
--R. K. Burdette, Grad.
Gripe Pages . .
To the Editor:?
RE: THE EDITORIAL by Judith
Doner on April 21, 1960.
You are misinformed about the
Eastern college exam schedule.
True it is usually crammed into
one week (students frequently
take two exams in one day and in
some instances three, although
this is rare). However, never have
I heard of a week reading prior
to the exam period.
Perhaps the University plans
Grow up and act like the young
adults you are supposed to be!!!
-Lydia Glutz, Grad.
To the Editor:
IN REPLY to Mr. Stevens' con-
fused catharsis of yesterday:
The University probably does
not have a small men's residence
over near the medical school for
the same reason that it doesn't
have one near the Frieze Bdlg. or
sufficient women's residence halls
near campus at all or new build-
ings for the music school or .
Would you really like to know
how we can talk of lack of funds
for education when we spend so
much on cigarettes? It's very easy.
The same way that we can talk
about lack of anything although
our economic system is far from
THOMAS TURNER. Editor
HILIP POWER ROBERT JUNKER
,ditorial Director City Editor
EIM BENAGH ....ports Editor
ETER DAWSON .... .Associate City Editor