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April 12, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-04-12

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Seventieth Year
"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. 0 ANN ARBOR, MICH. 0 Phone NO 2-3241

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex

his behal
san Quentin
execution wi
As the nin
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Those favorir
Chessman c(
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repeat that i
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prieved eigh
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transcribed b
riage to the
was not perm
where they w
defending sot
who feel the
tempers will
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issue ever ;be
vidual case?
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in a dispropoi
tion cases. W
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Loeb where e)
tually saved ti
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or the editors. This mui
PRIL 12, 1960

xpress the individual opinions of staff writers
st be noted in all reprints.


Would Be Blot on Country
another unforeseen intercession on clearcut case. The fact that, the extenuating
f, Caryl Chessman will die in the circumstances vary is not nearly so important
gas chambers on May 2. His as the fact that they are almost always present.
ll climax twelve years spent in The State of California's readiness to recog-
of death, interrupted by eight nize these circumstances and postpone Chess-
man's execution indicates that nobody wants
nth execution date nears, the con- to be morally responsible for such an action.
its justice will arise once more. It represents acknowledgement of the fact
ng the execution will repeat that that no matter what crime a man has com-
ommitted a capital offense and mitted, a life is never so worthless that there
penalty. Those who oppose it will are no obstacles to extinguishing it.
t is inhuman to kill a man who
prison for twelve years and re- PERHAPS this is a hea hy sign. It may mean
t times, particularly when his that despite California's recent decision to
onger punishable by death, maintain capital punishment, people are be-
cite the fact that the court ginning to realize that taking a man's life is
who recorded Chessman's testi- not the way to cure society's ills even when we
fore two-thirds of his notes could are indisputably certain of his guilt. Capital
ed, that these notes were later punishment with all the nightmarishly im-
y a man related through mar- personal calculations it involves is an infinitely
prosecution, and that Chessman greater sin than the worst imaginable nmur-
itted to be present at the hearing der which at least entails a human element.
ere read. Those who feel they are The fact that execution is carried out coldly
ciety will line up against those and methodically is supposedly sane, just indi-
ey are defending humanity and viduals and rationalized as a "duty" to the
flare. state adds to its fanatical vindictiveness.
Since it is statistically proved that capital
SS of the poct raised, however, punishment is not even a deterrent to potential
ponents that the issue of capital criminals, conscientious citizens are slowly.
.f o . . a beginning to realize that there is no ethical
itself is not involved. Ideally, justification for its continuance. Thus the
e the case. But can the whole question is not, "Does Chessman deserve to
entirely divorced-from the mndi- die?" but "do we have the right to execute
anyone?" Regardless of the circumstances of
iere are unusual circumstances the individual case, the whole concept of
against Chessman's execution, capital punishment must always be on trial
ngcircumstances sm o aris along with the defendant.
rtionately high number of execu-slnwihtedfda.
e have only to recall the Rosen- If Chessman dies, his execution will be a
acco-Vanzetti trials where the far greater wrong than the crime he com-
ed, and the case of Leopold and mitted. It will be a crime against human pro-
xtraordinary circumstances even- gress and a blot on the conscience and code
he lives of the two boys, to realize of justice of the entire country.
l cases there is seldom a simple, -JUDITH OPPENHEIM

"I Packed My Kit in a Hurry, but I Have
Everything I'll Need"
.i r 7 T
I #1-
M 19.o -r46 c.JA . A 4 ~A #PAtrC


'Sapphire' * * * by J. L. FORSHT
"SAPPHIRE," the English film now at the State Theatre, is poorly
paced, unimaginatively shot, its best effects borrowed. It deserves
atten ion nevertheless, for it deals with the subject of miscegenation.
The film begins with the discovery of Sapphire in Hampstead
Heath. She is quite dead, apparently the victim of nothing more than
the usual homicide.
Autopsy reveals that she was pregnant. The obvious suspect,
therefore, is her lover-a university student (and you know how. they
can be) who had just won a scholarship to study in Rome. Although
the student in question insists that they were in love and soon to be
married, the police suspect that perhaps he wanted the scholarship
more than he wanted Sapphire.
MATTERS become further complicated when it is learned that
Sapphire was a product of miscegenation, who had lived in a Negro
society before suddenly discovering that she was light enough to pass
for a white girl. At this point she had deserted her Negro friends and,
had moved exclusively in white circles.
Racial hatred is thus established as having been the motive for
the murder, and the number of suspects grow to include several of
her former Negro friends as well as the family into which she was to
HER NEGRO FRIENDS implicitly share this motive of hatred:
Sapphire had crossed the color line, she got what she deserved.
At its best, "Sapphire" delivers a realistic social punch. At its
worst it degenerates into that clipped, understated form of Scotland
Yard melodrama that the British film makers never tire of perpetu-
ating. But it represents a worthy attempt to probe the social issue
of our time, and to this extent it is worth seeing.
'He Who Must Die' , . by PATRICK CHESTER
A TRULY moving and profound motion picture, Jules Dassin's "He
Who Must Die," is the current feature at the Campus Theatre. It
is particularly significant that it is being shown during this week, Holy
Week, because the film is an allegorical retelling of Christ's passion
and death based upon the novel "Christ Re-Crucified."
The film is set in a Turkish-ruled Greek village in Asia Minor in
1921. In this village, it is the custom every seven years for the villagers
to re-enact Christ's Passion.
The town council and the local pope, the village priest, choose
the players for the sacred drama and it should surprise no one that
.the roles are assigned to people who, in reality, are quite like the
nersons they.are to play.
* * * *
THE DRAMATIC conflict is brought about by a group of refugees
who are wandering over the countryside because the Turks have de-
stroyed their village after they had revolted. The local pope does not
want to help these people because doing so might upset delicate balance
between the local Greeks and their own Turkish masters.
The shepherd-Jesus literally assumes his role and tries to aid the
newcomers thus incurring the wrath of the pope and the town council.
He is turned over by the Turks to the pope and the council and
is killed; but his ideas of charity and benevolence live on in the,
villagers' heart.
DIRECTOR DASSIN is one of the really great creative talents on
the contemporary movie scene. Every one of his shots reveals the sure
touch of a master at work.
It is hard to single out specific performances or special mention,
so high is the overall acting level, but especially good are Pierre
Vaneck as the shepherd, Melina Mercouri as the wayward widow, and
Maurice Ronet as the son of the village patriarch.

Lord B ridges... An Im pression

Events and World Opinion

CALCUTTA-In the good old days of political
boxing, when Woodrow Wilson and Henry
Cabot Lodge aimed lethal blows at each other
with bare knuckles, the issue was the League
and the Covenant, and whether America would
adhere to the World Court. But there is in
truth a world court today, and willy-nilly,
every nation belongs to it-even those who are
in the United Nations, like China, or those who
would like to get out of it, like South Africa.
Whatever other issues have arisen, this one is
Take the case of China. Despite Nehru's
theory and Krishna Menon's, that the Chinese
blundered unintentionally into their border
aggression in Ladakh, the best view in India
is that they intended it but miscalculated. At
the risk of a bad pun I should call it a Hima-'
layan miscalculation, both of the'Indian re-
action and the universal Asian response. There
is a difference between a blunder anrd a mis-
BUT WHICHEVER it was, Chou En-lai would
not be coming to New Delhi if there were
not a world court of opinion which he assessed
badly. Without supply roads or logistics, and
with inferior planes that could not match the
Chinese, Nehru played it entirely for that
world court. He had his hands -full at home,
where the leaders of the normally tiny oppo-
sition found themselves expressing the full rage
and frustration of the Indian people. Even
now Acharya Kripilanl, Minoo Masani, and
the other Opposition leaders have joined in a
manifesto to Nehru to push the Chinese out of
the occupied territory and then negotiate.
I don't know how Mao tse-Tung, who is a
master of the tactic of zigzag in history, will
fit this one into his now overworked doctrine
of "contradictions" in Marxist theory. It has
been the boast of the tough-minded Chinese
leaders that they deal only with the hard facts
of population, resources, armies, technology,
and power, unlike the tender-minded liberals
of the West who deal with the intangibles of
world opinion. It looks now as if the Chinese
bad miscalculated on the intangibles. Above all
else, they had not counted on the rise in
Editorial Staff
ditorial Director City Editor
IM BENAGH................ ...... Sports Editor
ETER DAWSON ............ Associate City Editor
3HARLES KOZOLL .............Personnel Director
fOAN KAATZ. Magazine Editor
ARTON HUTHWAITE . Associate Editorial Director
RED KATZ..............Associate Sports Editor
AVE LYON .........Associate Sports Editor
O HARDEE..................Contributing Editor
RNOLD TOYNBEE............ Contributing Editor

Russian prestige in Asia in contrast with the
fall in their own. Hence Chou's mission to New
even clearer and more massive condemna-
tion before the world court. In one of those
tricks that history plays it was left to the
grandson of Henry Cabot Lodge to cast Ameri-
ca's vote for the resolution of censure in the
Security Council. Russia and the United States
vied with each other in condemning Ver-
woerd's massacre at Langa, not only on what-
ever ethical scruples each mustered, but be-
cause each is desperately wooing the new Afri-
can-Asian nation-states. Even the British and
French delegates, who abstained from voting
on tactical grounds, made the right noises of
revulsion on moral grounds.
The problem which bothered the British and
French was that of non-intervention in the
internal affairs of any nation. It was the same
problem that bothered Nehru and Krishna
Menon when the latter made his fateful
'United Nations speech on the Tibetan resolu-
tion. It is the old question of sovereignty, and
it is time we faced the need for rethinking it.
Yesterday it was the Russians in Hungary and
the Chinese in Tibet who invoked it. Today it
is the South Africans. Tomorrow it will be-
who? And in what cause?
WE LIVE ON THE edge of history, when no
nation dare go all the way in using either
its sovereignty or its full power, lest it plunge
the world into a crisis from which there is no
return. Dulles was perhaps the last of the
world decision-makers to play with the idea of
brinkmanship. Even he was aghast when'An-
thony Eden went him one better, and charged
over the brink at Suez.
The question for political leaders today is
not how close to the edge you come, but how
far from the edge can you get. I don't mean
that there will be real headway made at the
Geneva disarmament talks, or even at the
Paris summit. Eisenhower still seems to think
that America can make headway in the nuclear
weapons race, in order to bargain from strength
at the summits to come, when the fact is that
nuclear advantage is illusory.
There can no longer be unlimited national
sovereignty, for the simple reason that no na-
tion dare any longer use the full measure of
its power nor can it carry out its threats. De
Gaulle, having exploded the second French
atom-bomb, is probably no closer to using
either of the two models than he was before
he had them. Under the system of classical
world politics the idea was to amass power
in order to use it at need. Today the members
of the Nuclear Club, into which De Gaulle
was graciously inducted the other day by
khrushchev, have surplus power which they
dire not use but which they also dare not
ranps an -pf m..

Daily Staff Writers
T IS PERHAPS typical of Lord
Bridges that he doesn't plan to
write his memoirs.
Having been secretary to the
British war cabinet, he would have
every right to do so, but appar-
ently this is not his way. His state-
ment, "I don't really like express-
ing opinions on things I don't
know much about," seems to re-
flect a personal reticence above
and beyond the typical British
habit of understatement.
Bridges was speaking specifically
of his tour of the University's
Phoenix Project, which he visited
last week, but the impression is
borne out by some of his other
views. For instance, his judgment
of Neville Chamberlain: "He had
many good. qualities for a peace-
time prime minister. He was very
knowledgeable concerning social
conditions and local government,
but he lacked some of those re-
quired in a great war leader."
ON THE subject of civil service
he was equally diplomatic. "One
advantage of our system is that
with fewer political appointments
to minor posts, it is easier for per-
sonnel to move up in the hier-
archy. This improves incentive
and makes recruitment much
easier." He didn't want to criticize
the American system, but he evi-
dently preferred the British.
Bridges often gave a strong im-
pression that he had stronger
opinions about many matters than
he was willing to express. One
reason was, as he himself pointed
out, that though he no longer has
any official position.in Great Brit-
ain, his opinions would be taken

Bridges thinks opinions like these
are "more human and to the point"
than many observations on world
affairs. However, he did comment
on some of the men with whom he
worked during World War II.
Winston Churchill, for instance,
"was obviously a tremendous lead-
er of the nation. He had a very
good understanding of how war is
carried on . . . the strategy and
the decisions. He also expressed the
will and determination of the
British people, which kept them
aroused. He had all the qualities
to lead a nation with its back
against the wall. He did a job
which nobody else could have
BRIDGES emphatically sup-
ported reduction of barriers to free
trade. He noted that artificial bar-
riers between nations make it
harder to have a large-scale ex-
port trade which Britain needs,
and finds the possibilities of a
trade war between the European
Common Market and the so-called

'Outer Seven' very unfortunate. "I
hope the two bodies get as near
as possible to each other." He also
favors fewer barriers in free world-
Communist trade.
The current imbalance of United
States foreign trade is not serious,
Bridges feels. "America seems
strong enough to stand a move-
ment of thisc kind for some time
without serious damage to its in-
Germany's remarkable indus-
trial recovery means that Britain
must work especially hard to keep
up its position in world trade. "I
see no reason why we can't keep
up," he asserted, "provided we
don't get complacent, and that we
improve on our industrial capacity
and new inventions."
Bridges was only able to be
in Ann Arbor for a week. He came
specifically to speak at the fiftieth
anniversary celebration of the po-
litical science department, which
he says is well-known in England.

The Inside Story

To The

Ends & Means
To the Editor:
IN a leaflet currently being dis-
tributed by pickets in the vicin-
ity of the Cousins Shop here in
Ann Arbor, one of the justifica-
tions of the tactic being used is
this: "Mrs. Cousins has continued
to deny Negroes the right to try
on clothing."
At the risk of going out on a
)imb without much material sup-
port, I would like to ask an obvious
question which seems to have been
studiously ignored thus far: Could
it be that Mrs. Cousins refuses to
allow Negroes to try on her dres-
ses because she knows that her
other patrons would subsequently
refuse to purchase them?
If so, is it not then true that
her store is being picketed and
her livelihood endangered because
she insists upon practicing good
(if not currently acceptable to
all) business.
jecture, but there is a very real
point to be made. If we are going
to be idealistic and strive toward
the "American" traditions of
equality and individual worth,
then are we not engaging in the
most ludicrous stupidity (even
hypocrisy) by dealing with effects
rather than with causes?
The Cousins Shop may or may
not practice discrimination; but
it is a certainty that this would
not long be tolerated by patrons
who did not (at least tacitly) ap-
prove. If we must resort to pick-
eting, let us use our pickets where
they belong.
A little serious reflection will
show that instances such as this
one, action outwardly asserted to
be for the purpose of preserving,
liberty, are definitely antidemo-

Herblock .
To the Editor:
rp E editorial cartoon which ap-
peared in the April 9th issue
of The Daily is merely one of a
long series in which Mr. Herblock
has allowed his strongly partisan
feelings to lead him completely
away from the facts. The cartoon
to which I refer sharply criticized
the President for not being in-
terested in the racial conflicts
which are now occurring in Amer-
ica. It meant to imply a "soft"
attitude toward civil rights on the
part of the Administration.
Nothing could be further from
the truth! The Eisenhower Ad-
ministration has strongly sup-
ported full civil rights for all
Americans. The Justice Depart-
inent has fought on behalf of op-
pressed people in the courts and1
has also been instrumental in the
implementation of civil rights leg-
islation. Certainly the most dra-
matic evidence of Mr. Eisenhow-
er's genuine support of civil rights
occurred when he chose to enforce
the law in Little Rock by using
federal troops.
It is very doubtful if any Demo-
cratic president (the party toward
which Mr. Herblock so obviously
leans) would have dared do this
for fear of splitting that party.
Any implications by Mr. Herblock
that the Eisenhower Administra-
tion is "soft" on civil rights can
only be regarded as falsehoods.
*~ * *
THE DAILY also degerves to be
chided in this matter. In its dedi-
cated desire to be liberal it has
attached itself to Mr. Herblock
and closed its eyes to reality. It
is not the intention of this letter
to criticize the liberal point of
view to which The Daily sub-
scribes, but rather to plead for5
enlightened lihnlisam a lihval-

--Daily-James Richman
I beg your pardon, but this is a Michigras ticket booth
and nothing else!

... British Civil Servant
as official in the United States.
Another was his infinitely great
tact. Churchill wrote of Bridges,
"Not only was this son of a former
Poet Laureate an extremely com-
petent and tireless worker, but he
was also a man of exceptional
force, ability and personal charm,
without a trace of jealousy in his
nature. All that mattered to him
was that the War Cabinet Secre-
tariat as a whole should serve ...
to the very best of their ability.
"No thought of his own personal
position ever entered his mind and
never a cross word passed between
the civil and military officers of
the Secretariat." -

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
VOL. LXX, NO. 139
General Notices
President and Mrs. Hatcher will hold
open house for students at their home
Wed., April 13 from 4 to 0 p.m.
Extra ushers are needed for the hal
Holbrook-Mark Twain Show on Tues.,
April 12. Anyone interested, please re-
port to the East door of Hill Aud. at
7:30 p.m. Tuesday. All regular Lecture
Series ushers are reminded that this
event is the 5th in the series and was
postponed from Feb. 27. Please be there.
Applicants for the Joint Program in
Liberal Arts and Medicine: Application
for admission to the Joint Program in
Liberal Arts and Medicine must be

ther information: NO 3-1511, ext. 3383
or 3048.
Undergraduate Women Students, now
on campus who do not have a housing
commitment for the fall semester, 1960,
may apply for housing at the Office of
the Dean of Women, S.A.B., beginning
Wed., April 13. In addition, League
House applications are asked to apply
on Wed., April 13.
Fulbright Awards for University Lee-
turing and Advanced Research have
been announced for 1961-62 in Austral-
ia, New Zealand, the countries of South
and Southeast Asia, and Latin America.
Those applying must be U.S. citizens;
for lecturing, must have at least one
year of 'college or university teaching
experience; and for research, a doctoral
degree at the time of application, or
recognized professional standing. Ap-
plication forms may be obtained from
the Conference Board of Associated Re-
search Councils, Committee of Inter-
national Exchange of Persons. 2101 Con-
stitution Avenue, Washington 25, D.C.
Deadline for filing an application for
these countries is April 25, 1960. Furthejr
information may be obtained at the
Fellowship Office. in the Graduate

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