EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Publish or Perish: A iscussion
Opinions Are Free
.h Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staf writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DAY, MARCH 20, -960 NIGHT EDITOR: KENNETH McELDOWNEY
AS I SEE TBy THOMAS TURNER
PIRESIDENT Dwight D. Eisenhower's proposal
for a new immigration law is sound, though
t does not fully carry out its implicit philos-
The President (by inference) attacked the
,wo fundamental aspects of the existing Mc-
Darran-Walter Act: the low number of immi-
grants allowed into the United States each
rear, and still more significant, the inequitable
'national origins" basis for determining ad-
Were Eisenhower's proposal enacted, the
umber of immigrantion quota-spaces per
rear would be doubled, from 154,000 to 308,000.
[he new total would be fixed at one-sixth of
me per cent of the United States population,
sing the census of 1960 rather than that of
L920 as does the McCarran-Walter Act.
The date of the census employed is not
mportant. What is, is the recognition that
nany people throughout the world need a
:bance at A better way of life, and that the
United States ought to assume a greater share
>f. the responsibility for giving them this
:hance than it has done in the past.
EISENHOWER would discard the notion of
basing immigration quotas on the racial
ind ethnic composition of the population in
.920, and would substitute a new base, the
iumber of immigrants actually accepted from
ach area between 1924 and 1959.
The United States would thus accept immi-
rants in terms of what might be called "dem-
nstrated need" for immigration.
Britain and her neighbors of Northwestern
Europe, which perennially fail to fill their
guotas, would be allotted a smaller share of
he immigration total. More immigrants would
e admitted from Italy and other South Euro-
ean countries which have perenially over-
ibscribed their quotas.
'INCE THE proportion of persons desiring
Immigration to those able to do so will no
loubt continue to increase in the more popu-
ots areas of the world, the immigration system
nust be flexible. risenhower's proposal meets
his need in three ways.
4irst, unused quotas would be distributed
imong nations with oversubscribed quotas.
Second, the current restrictive limit on
Iuotas within the "Asiatic-Pacific triangle"
would be removed,
Third, "many thousands of peoples who are
efugees without a country as a result of poli-
ical upheavals and their flight from persecu-
ion" would be allowed to enter.
L IN ALL, the President's proposal would
have the United States set a modest limit
i Immigration-a number of immigrants it
eels it can absorb each year without undue
rain-then apply that quota as best it can
W world needs, with certain restrictions. The
>nly question left unanswered is "Why not
ninimize these restrictions?"
Sen. John Kennedy posed that question, in
ffeet, when he suggested some months ago
hat immigration quotas be based on world
>opulation-distribution. He would incorporate
Cwo of the same provisions for flexibility as
Oisenhower suggests. These are transferability
f unused quotas and special provisions for
'efugees. The Kennedy proposal goes farthest
oward meeting the obligation of the United
States to do the most it can for the peoples
if the world, helping those who want the help.
INCE THIS obligation seems a simple enough
concept to grasp, one might think a new
mmigration law would win easy Congressional
pproval. Watchdog Francis Walter, co-author
if McCarran-Walter, has served notice that
his is not the ease.
At risk of seeming to set up a straw man,
herefore, it might be wise to examine a defense
i the current law. The conservative newsletter
'Human Events" published such an article in
ts February 11 issue. Written by President
vllton M. Lory of the American Coalition of
patriotic Societies (sic), it was entitled "Immi-
pration: 1960 Issue - The Walter-McCarran
Pct is Again Being Attacked."
Lory begins by impugning the motives of
hose who disagree with him (as did Walter in
ommenting on Eisenhower's speech):
"It's an election year, and office-hungry poll-
Icians ... are redoubling their attack on the
Valter-McCarran Act, willing to sacrifice our
THOMAS TURNER. Editor
'HILIP POWER ERRO BERT JUNKER
ditorial Director City Editor
O HARDEE ................. Contributing Editor
IM BENAGH. . ....... ........ Sports Editor
ETER DAWSON ..,....... Associate City Editor
HARLES KOZOLL ........ .. Personnel Director
JOAN KAATZ...... Magazine Editor
ARTON HUTHWAITE .. Associate Editorial Director
RED KATZ ............Associate Sports Editor
AVE LYON............Associate Snorts Editor
carefully-wrought immigration system for an-
other term in office, regardless of .the conse-
quences fot the Nation. They are being joined
in the efforts by the Communists (who have
their own ends in mind), by professional "lib-
erals" and spokesmen for minority ethnic blocs,
and by a large number of misguided citizens
who are unaware of the actual provisions of
the Act and of the dangers threatening if any
of a host of amendments, currently hanging
fire, are adopted."
Lory defends the Act as "misunderstood,"
pointing out that before 1952 "a confusing
welter of complicated and conflicting statutes,
passed at various times, comprised the immi-
gration 'policy' of the United States."
Majorities in both houses of Congress fa-
vored the Act, he notes, as did the State De-
partment, Justice Department, Central Intelli-
gence Agency, and "organizations of citizens
of Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Filipino de-
scent-surprising supporters of a law so often
He refutes the "racist" charge by noting that
the McCarran-Walter Act "removed the racial
barriers of previous immigration law, deter-
mining quotas for all nations, European and
Asiatic, on the same basis ...
Y THIS TIME one reading the article will
be wondering whether Lory is ever going
to get around to discussing what's good about
the Act, instead of why it seemed good at the
time of enactment and who supported it at
This he finally does, in a way, by discussing
the national origin basis for quotas, which is
"the heart of our immigration policy."
He explains the present system, and shows
how the Kennedy plan and other proposed in
Congress differ from it. The others are in most
respects similar to that of Eisenhower or of
Kennedy. They all seek to alter the national,
"These and similar proposals," Lory writes,
"would not only increase immigration, but
they would change its character radically,
since between 1920 and 1950 (several of the
proposals he mentions would substitute the
1950 census for that of 1920) great numbers
of non-quota immigrants came in under refu-
gee and other special acts. The refugees are
largely from Eastern and Southern Europe, so
opponents of the proposed amendments are
frequently branded as 'bigots'."
'WHAT'S WRONG with Eastern and South-
ern Europeans?" one is tempted to ask.
Lory has an answer.
Most of these immgirants reside In large
metropolitan areas, where they form voting
blocs. Large influxes of new immigrants would
swell these blocs, adding to the power of the
bosses who would trade votes for new immigra-
tion-quota favors, and . .
Thus, the conservative would abandon the
whole idea because it's more risky. Or at any
rate, he would use non-riskiness as an impor-
tant criterion for quotas. British immigrants
are hardly likely to form a "bloc" these days,
nor are Belgians. (But they're not too likely
to want to come, either, and in the meantime
there are people whom this country could
Lory raises another such objection, citing the
problem of detecting Communists among the
refugees admitted. Again, he argues not to the
philosophical justification of the McCarran-
Walter Act, but to dangers in changing it.
H E NEVER comes closer to this central point.
The final section of his article is devoted to
miscellaneous arguments against increasing the
quota. The United States herself is getting
crowded, while Australia, the Dutch end of
New Guinea, and large portions of Africa and
South America need more people..
For the United States to weaken herself by
taking too many immigrants would be to let
down the Western defenses which depend on
Nor could even a doubled quota substantially
ease the world's population problem, because
that problem is such a monumental one.
He never asks himself why the United Sattes
should not do as much as it can to help.
"Unless the United States simply admits
everyone who want to come, there is no feasible
method of admitting more immigrants that
would do anything except multiply our own
problems," he reasons,
THE QUESTION of the inequity of the pres-
ent national origins quota system cannot be
answered by defenders of the McCarran-
Walter Act, it can only be circled. But to get
new immigration law (such as that suggested
by the President, or by Sen. Kennedy), will
require a substantial demonstration of concern
by the voters. Mail to Congress will certainly
Ne Rooks at the Library
(Continued from Page 1)
MEMBERS of the faculty as
well as of the Administra-
tion have some definite ideas
about publish or perish.
"The English department fol-
lows the declared policy of the
literary college," Prof. Arthur M.
Eastman explained. "We live by
it quite well, but some other de-
"Publication versus teaching is
a confused effort to establish gen-
eral rather than personal princi-
ples. I believe in the British tra-
dition of 'muddling through' in
respect to people, and- in dealing
with them individually. The esti-
mate of a man's worth is the cen-
tral concern. Publication gives you
one kind of very special evidence
of a man's worth," Prof. Eastman
said, "but only one kind."
Is there a pressure to "publish
"Publication lets the world
know you," Prof. Eastman said.
"It's a quiet form of advancing
onto stage center, and the Uni-
versity gets embarrassed about
those who don't walk out onto
* * *
PROF. MARVIN Felheim, also
of the English department, thinks
"there is a necessity for profes-
sional attitudes on the part of
teachers bothtoward scholarship
"As I see it, we give -lip service
to good teaching and don't really
pay enough attention to it," he
said. "It's a curious thing, but
most college teachers are not pro-
fessionally involved enough--they
don't inform themselves sufficient-
ly well about the nature of the
profession. Most people here don't
bother or care. We say we're in-
terested in teaching, but do noth-
ing real about it."
Prof. Felheim also commented
on the third area considered be-
sides teaching and research for
promotion. "It's called euphemis-
tically 'service'," he said, "but I
would call it politics - making
oneself indispensable around the
University in several ways."
Prof. Singer agreed with this.
"Although one of the University's
major virtues is a well-balanced
approach to teaching and re-
search, administrative activities
sometimes get greater weight than
teaching and research.
"ONE OF our biggest diseases
today is that we're over-adminis-
tered," Prof. Singer contended.
REASEARCH AND PUBLICATION: DOES THE YOUNG SCIENTIST NEED THEM FOR PROMOTION?
"We're too formalized. There's a
lot of make-work, more than we
need even for the size of this
Prof. Helen Peak of the psychol-
ogy department, a member of the
Senate Advisory Committee's sub-
committee on the improvement of
emphasis on administrative activ-
instruction; also stressed the great
"Many of us are not regarded
as administrators, but are doing
administrative work," she said.
"There are so many pressures to
make speeches, be consultants,
and the like, that I think it quite
odd that publication has been
asked to bear the brunt.
.* * *
"SOME OF the problem is in
the size of the University," Prof.
Peak maintained. "Everything you
do takes more time. So many dif-
ferent departments are involved
that it's difficult to communicate
with all' the people you need to
see. So much time is spent not
even in meetings - but getting
start once you do, that the
there, and waiting for things to
amount of lost motion is depreks-
Commenting specifically on pub-
lish or perish, she said that "This
ignores the possible intrinsic in-
terest in research. The statement
is made as though publication is
the main competitor of teaching,
and has no value in itself except
for promotion. There may be good
professional reasons for research."
"It's true," she said, "that
teaching has too little time spent
on it, but everything we do has.
too little time spent on it."
"THIS PROBLEM of publish or
perish is more acute at large uni-
versities, such as Michigan," Prof.
Norman E. Kemp of the zoology
department declared. "In the
small college there is not such a
great pressure to publish,
"The Administration here very
definitely takes into account one's
efforts in teaching," he said. "But
I don't think they reward good
teaching as much as they do good
research." Teaching and research
are not opposed activities at all,
Prof. Kemp said.
"But a professor wants to do
well in both, and has to choose.
The basic thing is to do a job
that will satisfy our consciences,
and there is also enough showman,
in us to want to do something
that will be recognized by our col-
"A good researcher may also be
competent in teaching," Prof.
Kemp noted, "but he often doesn't
take as much time to prepare as
he might. It all boils down to
content in the course. Most of
them could be outstanding teach-
ers, if they made the effort.
"BUT I think it's always true
that the ones most active in re-
search are the ones first pro-
moted," he commented. "A person
with a good research record is
wanted by other Universities. To
keep him, they have to promote
him. If a professor does a good
job in teaching he will be pro-
moted, in time, but teaching won't
lead to advancement so rapidly.
"My feeling is that this dispar-
ity between the reward for teach-
ing and that for research may be
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Writers Discuss Irish, Picketing
To the Editor:
M R. O'DAY in his letter of 18th
March stated that The Daily
article on St. Patrick's Day "left
an erroneous impression of the
situation in Ireland." May I hasten
to correct the even more "errone-
ous impression" created by Mr.
Mr. O'Day states that "The first
error is the impression that some
Irish are Orange." The Irish na-
tional flag is green, white and
orange (or would Mr. O'Day pre-
fer to say gold?). Green symbolizes
the nationalist element and orange
the Protestant element in Irish life
united by the. white of Chris-
tianity. Why is there orange in the
national flag if there are no Prot-
estant Irish? The Bunreacht nah
Eireann (the Constitution of Eire)
recognizes Protestant Irish. To
quote a former Southern Irish
senator "Under the existing Con-
stitution of Eire Protestants have
full civic and national rights, as
Irishmen and as Protestants. Any
assertion that they would be bet-
ter Irishmen if they changed their
religion must be refuted" (W. B.
MANY OF THE nationalist
leaders have been Protestant -
Wolfe Tone, Thomas Davis and
Eire's first President under the
new Constitution - Douglas Hyde.
While Shaw, Sheridan and Gold-
smith may be regarded as Anglo-
Irish does Mr. O'Day deny Irish
ancestry to Sean O'Casey and W.
B. Yeats (to name but two) on
the grounds that they were Prot-
estant? Two other famous Irish-
men - Dean Swift and Bishop
Berkely - were both Protestant
If all that is truly Irish is Ro-
man Catholic could Mr. O'Day ex-
plain some of the following facts?
That the only two Cathedrals in
Dublin are Episcopal, not Roman
Catholic. That St. Patrick's grave
is also in Episcopal territory. That
the Protestants, but not the Ro-
man Catholics, hold a pilgrimage
on St. Patrick's Day. Mr. O'Day's
suggestion that the non-Catholic
(i.e. non-Irish in his terminology)
should leave Ireland is as sensible
as suggesting that America should
be given back to the Indians.
-Robert M. Farr, Grad.
To the Editor:
Y WOULD LIKE to correct and
clarify several statements which
your staff member Henry Lee at-
tributed to me in his news story
of Friday covering a talk to the
Political Issues Club and in his
editorial of Saturday, "Sit-Ins and
Pickets: Con." ..
1) CORE Method and Strategy:.
Mr. Lee quotes me as saying all
efforts toward integration must be
made on the basis of passive re-
sistance. I did not say this, nor
do I believe that they should. There
is definitely a place for direct ac-
tion of the sort used by CORE
(Congress of Racial Equality), but
I am quite aware that not all
phases of the complex.problem of
discrimination in this country can
be solved by any one technique.
I am also aware that not all in-
dividuals who are concerned and
want to do something have the
same talents and resources: some
work more effectively through one
approach; others, through an-
other. We discussed this at some
length during the question period
-after Mr. Lee left to turn in his
story, I believe.
I would like to stress the fact
that the CORE approach is not
limited to the sit-ins, standing
lines, pickets and boycotts which
Mr. Lee emphasized. These tech-
niques are last resort measures
when efforts at persuasion and
negotiation fail to produce results.
CORE does use them, but only
after testing situations personally,
discussing the issue with the man-
agement, and seeking change
through non - pressure methods.
Management is always told before
a CORE group begins to use direct
1"nI W n*_i. tiy ^"v a+Amn
group distributed leaflets inform-
ing Negroes of recently passed
anti-discrimination laws in hous-
* * *
2) CORE'S Role in the Sit-Ins:
Mr. Lee's editorial suggests CORE
started the recent sit - ins in
Greensboro, N.C. Students who
initiated the sit-ins had received
CORE literature describing ac-
tion technfiues, but they them-
selves began the local protest
which has spread over the South.
After the sit-in in Greensboro
began, assistance from the na-
tional office was requested and
granted. On the national level,
CORE personnel have conferred-
with officials of Woolworth and
3) NAACP and Direct Action:
Mr. Lee also quotes me incorrectly
as stating that the NAACP is now
"favoring the methods of or-
ganizations like CORE." He him-
self thinks, "The NAACP has made
a mistake by preferring passive
resistance to educational means."
I would like to clarify the NAACP's
position, as I understand it.
Thursday night I noted that
Thurgood Marshall,. Chief Legal
Counsel, NAACP, has said on sev-
eral occasions that the drive should
now be on community organiza-
tion, recognizing the fact that the
fight for integration cannot be
won in the courts alone.
I indicated the NAACP realizes
legal victories are fruitless, unless
individuals and groups in the com-
munity cooperate to change prac-
tices after the law is changed.
Mr. Marshall is defending some
of the students involved in the
North Carolina sit-ins and NAACP
branches in the South are sup-
porting arrested students. It is
inaccurate to say the. NAACP is
giving preference to direct action'
techniques, however. While the
NAACP has done some educational
work, it has never been an "edu-
4) Repressive Laws: Mr. Lee
quoted me correctly as saying that
historically segregation laws have
been passed as issues come up, and
for this reason tend to be spotty,
not covering many areas which
are segregated by custom. I also
said that new laws will probably
be passed in the deeper South, as
they were in response, to the Su-
more acute in the sciences," Prof.
Kemp -said. "I'm not sure."
Outside of the literary college
the publish or perish issue doesn't
seem to be any issue at all.
IN ENGINEERING school, for
example, "We have the relaxed
view that individual achievements
count for more, than an organized
formula," Prof. John C. Kohl ex-
plained. "Departments are the
core here, too, and though there
Is some variation within them, to
my knowledge, no real pressure to
publish is exerted. The first requi-
site is a good job of teaching."
This might seem paradoxical
since, accordin gto Prof. Kohl, the
opportunity for publication In
trade and technical journals in
the engineering field' is probably
much greater than in most other
areas. "But there are so many
opportunities for engineers in.in-
dustry that a person drawn to a
teaching post must really enjoy
It and be good at it," he said.
* * *
ONE DOES not necessarily per-
ish for lack of publication 'in the
education school either, it would
"There is no particular tech-
nique and no set policy In promo-
tion in 'the education school,"
Prof. Byron O. Hughes said. "Pro,
motion is determined in a broad,
not rigorously specified way, which
combines boldness with a reason-'
able amount of democratic dislo-
"Research work in education is
probably one of the least of the
school's responsibilities" he said.
Speaking of the University in gen-
eral, Prof. Hughes said, "As for
management of people for ad-
vancemient,. few universities 4d
much better than werdo-If they
do, the only reason Is that they
have more cash.
"In order to advance in the Uni-
versity," he said, "you have to do
a reasonably important part of
the University's work." Here he
ventured that possibly the most
important job of the English de-
partment, for example, is to teach
people to write, commenting that
it would be nice to to'have to
teach doctoral candidates this be-
more proceeding any further.
"AS FAR as I know, if you look
at the list of full professors, a
very large number who've moved
up to the top academically in the
University have done it each in a
different way," he said. "There
are 10,000 different ways to do it,
and all you have- to do is not
spread yourself too thin."
"Teaching is probably the most
important of the several factors
taken into account for education
school promotion," Prof. Algo D.
Henderson agreed. Prof. Hender.
son found, though, when he was
dean of a liberal arts college, that
"those who have the combination
were by far the best faculty. They
kept creatively at work, and this
made them outstanding men."
But he also estimated that only
the" ten or fifteen percent at the
top were this ideal combination.
AND SO where does all this dis-
cussion leave the question that
started it? Must a teacher publish
or perish? As President Hatcher
said, the picture is indeed com-
The question is considerably
complicated by the fact that there
is a distinction between publica-
tion and scholarship, and that
neither publication nor scholar-
ship is a necessary corollary of
"Some people who don't pub-
lish are in a real sense of the word
very fine scholars," President
Hatcher said, illustrating this
n-nint "m hp--. r.oarin d ,titv as
By HARVEY MOLOTCHI
Special to The Daily
PARIS-After tiring of the daily
routine of classes, TGIFs and
sorority meetings, Carol Ference,
'61, and Mary Worthing, '61, are
now leading a more adventuresome
life as students at the Sorbonne
The girls are living with a
French family in the exciting Lat-
in Quarter of the city. "The Latin
Quarter houses the rebels of
Paris," Miss Ference explained. "It
may not be typical of France, but
its extremely fascinating."
Both girls are enrolled in the
same courses at the university:
classical art, contemporary French
literature, civilization, grammar
"All courses are taught in French
and after having only two years
of French at Michigan, the lan-
guage barrier was a real problem,"
Miss Worthing said. "But now the
work is much easier and not really
any more difficult than the work
/ 4* *
on a day-to-day basis. There are
only suggested reading lists which
are lengthy and quite comprehen-
sive. Most of the French students
seldom come to class and learn
the entire course through these
* * *
"IT'S BEEN VERY difficult for
us. to meet the French students,"
Miss Ference explained. They are
extremely serious and remain aloof
from Americans and even from
"I think they're over-burdened
with the problems of their coun-
try. Even their entertainment is
politically or at least philosophi-
The efficiency of the, students
as an organized political body
amazed Miss Ference. "The stu-
dents are constantly waging walk-
out strikes against the govern-
ment. Recently they even waged
a strike for the government.
"GENERALLY, the students dis-
like Americans," Miss Worthing
added. "They seem to consider
them shallow and superficial; they
rr r}- rrra.n~rr7 A a. t e., a ,t