THE MICHIGAN DAILY
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iMIASN UNION SURVIVAL:
Smith Sees Life, Death' Issue in Rail Work Rule Dispute
Test Ban Document
MARY LOU BUTCHER
principal issue in the rail
concerning jobs for fire-
a diesel freight locomotives
fe or death .matter for the
rhood of Locomotive Fire-
id Enginemen, Prof. Russell
.th of the Law School said
of 15 members of President
D. Eisenhower's Rifkind
ssion created in 1960 to
ey issues in the dispute be-
the five railroad brother-
nd the carriers, Prof. Smith
zat the firemen's brother-
worried both about the loss
for its members and the
iat the brotherhood itself
go out of existence should
s of 32,000 firemen be elim-
possible that some of the
1 whose jobs are jeopardiz-.
he railroad's proposed work
hanges can be relocated in
ositions with the railroads,
The Rifkind Commission rec-
ommended a retraining program
for displaced workers, with costs
to be shared by the railroads.
"I feel that the parties can set-
tle the rest of the disputed issues
through collective bargaining once
they get these manning issues re-
solved," Prof. Smith noted:
The bill passed by Congress
Wednesday puts the two major is-
sues-firemen's jobs and the size
of train crews-in the hands of a
seven-member arbitration board,
whose settlement will be binding.
Thesecondary issues such as pay
scales and management's right to
introduce technological advances
are to be left to free collective bar-
gaining with no strike permitted
for 180 days.
Recent negotiations between the
unions and carriers attempting to
avert congressional action have re-1
sulted in a virtual deadlock with
the railroads insisting on effecting1
its proposed changes and the five
brotherhoods representing engi-
neers, firemen, conductors, switch-
men and brakemen threatening to
strike the minute they do.
A provision of the Railway La-
bor Act allows the government to
act as a third party in any rail-
road dispute to protect the na-
tional interest. "The original com-
mission was set up by 'the agree-
ment of both parties with the un-
derstanding that the commission
was in lieu of the provision of the
Railway Labor Act," Prof. Smith
"The commission's findings were
not binding and when the unions
reacted adversely, President John
F. Kennedy felt he had to go
ahead with the emergency Rosen-
man Commission," he said.
The current stalemate in nego-
tiatigns dates back to 1959 when
the railroads first announced plans
to institute revised work rules to
offset a loss in profits due to in-
creasing competition from other
The carriers claimed that the
work rules, outdated by technolog-
ical innovations, required the out-
lay of $600 million a year in salar.
ies for unnecessary workers.
But the brotherhoods were un-
willing to make the required con-
cessions. A year of unsuccessful
bargaining ensued and in late 196(
both sides requested Eisenhower to
create a commission to study the
Eisenhower appointed former
Secretary of Labor James Mitchel:
head of the commission which held
hearings and on-the-rails inves-
tigations for 14 months. When
Mitchell resigned, President Johr
F. Kennedy appointed former fed-
eral Judge Simon Rifkind chair-
The Rifkind report recommend-
ed fundamental revisions both in
work rules and wage-base formu-
las, a solution accepted by man-
agement but rejected by the un-
Thirty-two bargaining sessions,
twelve of which were directed by
the National Mediation Board,
were held from April to July, 1962,
and again all meetings terminated
After the railroads announced
they would begin to implement the
Rifkind recommendations, the
brotherhoods sought a permanent
injunction against rules revisions
in the Federal District Court in
When the injunction was denied,,
the unions went to the Federal
Court of Appeals and then to the
Supreme Court, which last March
rejected the brotherhood charge
that new work rules would be a
'violationof the Railway Labor
Following the court's decision,
management announced an April
deadline for instituting the rules
changes. To avert a strike, Kenne-
NOW ON CAMPUS!
has opened a new and beautiful branch at
300 SO. STATE ST.
(at the corner of Liberty St.)
SAME TREMENDOUS STOCK-
SAME LOW PRICES.
as at our first store--still at 337 So. Main St.
AT BOTH STORES-ONE WEEK ONLY
n all records!
RAIL LEADERS--In July rail leaders (left to right) E. H. Hall-
man of western carriers, J. E. Wolfe, C. A McRee of southeastern
carriers and John Gaherin of eastern roads predicted that there
would be a rail strike unless Congress enacted legislation to solve
dy created. an emergency board
and appointed former Judge Sam-
uel Rosenman of New York as itsi
When the Rosenman commis-j
sion substantially reiterated the
Rifkind findings, the carriers and
the unions maintained their pre-
With a strike sure to follow the
implementatiorn of rules changes,
Kennedy again persuaded the car-
riers to delay their July 11 dead-
line for 19 days to allow a new six-
man presidential panel to study
the dispute. After reviewing the
issues, the panel made a 15-page
report but, submitted no recom-
mendations with it.
At the same time, Kennedy pre-
pared to ask Congress to intervene
by enacting legislation to prevent
a rail strike which' would affect
commerce and transportation in
every section of the country.
Meeting with congressional lead-
ers, Kennedy came up with an un-
expected proposal: to pass a bill
which would require the Inter-
state Commerce Commission to re-
solve the four-year-old dispute.
The bill proposed that the ICC
prescribe interim work rules which
would be in effect for two years,
concerning firemen's jobs and the
makeup of train crews.
The move came as a surprise to
congressmen who had been expect-
ing an unwelcome choice between
compulsory 'arbitration and fed-
eral seizure of the railroads.
Immediately, the House and
Sedate Commerce Committees be-
gan hearings on the proposed bill.
Although the plan appeared to
have widespread support, Demo-
crats and Republicans alike agreed
that more time was needed in or-
der to act on the measure.
Congressional leaders and Ken-
nedy requested the railroads to
postpone once more the change in
work rules, which was sure to bring
on a rail walkout.
On July 30, the carriers accepted
one more "final" delay in employ-
ing the new work rules. Wednes-
day, 12 hours before the deadline,
the House passed a bill calling for
compulsory arbitration of the work
rules issues and rushed the meas-
ure to Kennedy for his signature.
The arbitration board of two
members each from the railroads
and unions and three "public"
members chosen by the two sides
or the President if they fail to
agree will be selected late this week
or early next.
A heavy preponderance of en-
dorsements marked the now-
completed Senate foreign relations
committee hearings on the nu-
clear test ban treaty with Britain
and the Soviet Union.
The committee Is expected to
vote on the treaty and reportdit
out favorably this week. Floor de-
bate is tentatively scheduled with-
in the next two weeks.
- Former President Dwight D.
Eisenhower was one of the last to
add his name to the list of those
who endorse the nuclear test ban
signed late last July by Russia and
the United States.
Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-
Ark), chairman of the Senate for-
eign relations committee, made
public a letter from Eisenhower
saying, "I believe that, with one
specific reservation, the ratifica-
tion of the treaty is desirable."
Eisenhower advocated a reser-
vation that would state that the
United States was free to use nu-
clear weapons in the event of war.
Several administration spokesmen
have argued that. the treaty ap-
plies solely to testing and would
not hamper the use of such weap-
ons in military action.
The foreign relations committee
has been holding hearings on the
treaty for the past several weeks,
prior to a vote by the entire Sen-
ate on ratification of the docu-
Included among the supporters
are Secretary of Defense Robert
McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of
Staff, Secretary of State Dean
Rusk and Glenn T. Seaborg, chair-
man of the Atomic Energy Com-
The principal opponent of the
pact has been Edward Teller, the
so-called "father of the H-bomb."
The distinguished nuclear phys-
At present advocates of -the
treaty appear to hold the upper
hand. It is expected that the Sen-
ate will ratify the treaty by a
margin of 80-20, well over the re-
quired two-thirds vote.
Advocates of the treaty main-
tain -that it will signal 'a halt to
at least one aspect of the arms
race-the pollution of the atmos-
In addition they hope that the
agreement will slow the prolifera-
tion of atomic weapons to other
countries. This in turn will help to
maintain the present American
nuclear superiority and lesson the
chances of war in the future.
Opponents of the bill have argu-
ed that the treaty will leave the
United States dangerously behind
Russia in the development of anti-
missile missiles.. They also argue
that the USSR will be able to
whittle away the American lead in
other fields of nuclear weaponry
through work in the laboratory,
underground tests and cheating.
The Senate committee has been
concerned primarily with experts'
answers to these charges. McNa-
mara said that the United States
itself will continue underground
testing and will be prepared to
resume atmospheric testing im-
mediately should the Soviets vio-
late the treaty.
Gen. Maxwell Taylor, chairman
of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, testi-
fied that the major anti-missile
missile problems are in areas not.
affected by the treaty.
After hearings before the foreign
relations committee, the debate
will continue in the Senate Armed
Services Committee and the JAin"
Congressional Committee on Atom-
Several urged varied reservations
to the treaty. They mainly sought
to make it clear that the treaty
in no way limits the United States'
armed forces, especially in their
use of nuclear weapons.
Those urging reservations fear
that the treaty would seriously im-
pair, by implication the United
e St. 337 S.
... first study'
300 S. Stag
Men who work unusual hours
may experience problems in main-
taining stable family and social
relationships, University sociolo-
gists Paul E. Mott and Donald P.
Warwick told members of the
American Sociological Association-
at a recent meeting in Los Angeles.
The fact, that a ma~n may be a
shift worker is often neglected in
sociological studies; however this
condition may have .important ef-
fects on himself, whis family and
his social life, the researchers in-
This, report was based on find-
ings from a more comprehensive
study by Professors Floyd C. Mann,
program director of the Institute
of Social Research,. and Quin Mc-
Loughlin of Eastern Michigan Uni-
versity. The project, entitled,
"Shift Work and Health," was
supported by the United States
Public Health Service.
Studies show that one out of
five manufacturing industry em-
ployes work evenings or nights,
the University researchers report-
The analysis indicated that the
worker's absence in the evening
raises barriers to companionship
between husbands and wives and
between fathers and. school-age
Shift workers feel that they are
excluded from social activities
either because they are actually
unable to participate or because
friends think that they will be at
"Shift workers belong to fewer
organizations than do day work-
ers" and they are less likely to
hold organizational positions be-
cause "shift schedules make it
very difficult for him to accept
the responsibility attaehed to these
roles," the report stated.,
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to Mariln Mark's for individual-
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Street near South University. Why
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RUSSELL A. SMITH
W. WILLARD WIRTZ
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THE GUILD HOUSE
802 MONROE STREET
(across from Law School)
We invite all freshmen and new, students to
DESSERT and OPEN HOUSE I
Friday, August 30thx
Written invitations will be sent you but come anyway,
phone your reservation: NO 2-5189
To all Students
Sunday, September 1st
Every Friday noon beginning September 6th:
Excellent lunch, 25e, cafeteria style
- mt/ a