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November 22, 1963 - Image 7

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-11-22

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

PAGE REVER'

T- IHG ND IYPE ~V SA4aS

Civil Rights Loses Former Top Priority

Communists
Give Arms

POTENTIAL DANGER:
Indonesia Contributes To Asian Trouble

v

Meader Rejects
Civil Rights Draft
By JOHN WEILER

(V

Peek Lists Labor, To Somalia

The House Judiciary Committee
yesterday published a formal re-
port including the majority's rea-
sons why the civil rights bill
should be passed and seven sep-
arate reports of dissatisfaction
with the committee bill.
Rep. George Meader (R-Mich),
who wrote one of the separate re-
ports, said he felt that the civil
rights bill as reported out of
committee was unconstitutional in
some of its provisions.
He said that the draft of the
civil rights bill "had so many fish
hooks in it that it is impossible
to support it in its present form."
Meader did not support the ad-
ministration bill, the subcommit-
tee bill nor the compromise bill.
Vote Protection
He said that any legislation he
would support would have to in-
elude "protection for the rights to
vote from denial or abridgement
as secured in the Fifteenth
Amendment; regulation and pro-
tection of interstate transporta-
tion of persons; assurance that
federal financial assistance will
not be employed to perpetuate
discrimination by reason of race
or color; and prevention of dis-
crimination on the grounds of
race or color in employment by
the federal government or in the
execution of contracts let by the
federal government."
Objectional Feature
Meader said the objectional fea-
tures of th'e bill were that it pre-
empted the field of civil rights,
and thus did not "preserve state
statutes and municipal ordi-
nances" in the field of civil rights.
Meader also cited "an alarming
tendency in adopting new federal
programs to utilize the sanction
of what may be clled govern-
ment by injunction."
He noted that he "opposes
strained interpretations of the in-
terstate commerce clause as it
has been applied to the equal pro-
tection clause. This tends to un-
dermine the vitality and autonomy
of state and local governments
and to promote the expansion of
federal power beyond constitu-
tional limits," he said.
Congressional Obligation
Meader also said that in his
Judgment "the Congress is under
an obligation to carry out the
mandate of section two of the
Fourteenth Amendment by reduc-
ing the representation in the
House of Representatives of states
in which the right to vote is
denied or abridged."
He suggested a bipartisan com-
mission set up under the , Civil
Rights Act up to study the facts
and r e p o r t recommendations
which would add "necessary evi-
dence with which Congress could;
apportion representatives among
several states and effect the man-
date of section two of Fourteenth
Amendment. The amendment,
however, was voted down by a
voice vote in the committee.
He also offered an amendment,
for the public accommodations1
section of the bill, which would
provide for enforcement with
criminal proceedings. "There is
also a non-preemption provison
which would preserve the validity,
in the field of public accommoda-
tions of the laws of 32 states,"
Meader's report says.j
The majority committee report
said "considerable progress has
been made in eliminating discrim-
ination in many areas." It noted,)
however, that "it has become in-1
creasingly clear that progress has
been too slow and that nationalz
legislation is required to meet a
national need which becomes evenI
more obvious."1
Committee's i
Budget Request}
Given to Senate

WASHINGTON - The Senate
Appropriations Committee voted
on November 13 to restore 50 mil-
lion dollars to the National Sci-
ence Foundation Budget which
had been cut 266 million dollars
by the House.
The Senate, expected to act on
the bill sometime this week, will
conside rthe committee's .recom-
mendation of 6373 million com-
pared to the 6323 million voted by
the House.
The committee also voted to re-
store $80 million to the budget of
the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, bringing
the total to four billion dollars.
However the Committee was criti-
cal of NASA's university programs
and declared:
The committee found that the
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration has initiated an
academic grant program which is
projected to cost between 21 and
28 million dollars per year in the
near future.

Rep. George Meader, left, refused to support the proposed civil
rights legislation, claiming it contained too many "fish hooks".
Prof. George Peek, Jr., right, said that without a priority reversal,
the stock market would fall and labor would be antagonized.
DRAWS COMPARISON:

Slosson Cites Conflict
Between Israel, Arabs
^ 2

By NANCY KAHN
"The conflict between Israel
and the Arab world is basically
the conflict between East and
West," Prof. Emeritus Preston
Governors Set
Economic Gain
As Future Goal
At the second annual Midwest-
ern Governor's Conference in
Omaha yesterday, eleven midwest-
ern governors investigated the
possibility of a research institute
to increase economic growth in
this area, the Detroit News re-
ported.
With the approval of the indi-
vidual state legislatures concerned,
the governors would serve as
board members of an organization
aimed at obtaining more research
work for their states. The organ-
ization would attempt to pull both
government and private research
work from the East and West
coasts.
The organization would utilize
the governor's board as an execu-
tive unit only. It would maintain
a permanent executive director
and up to four other staff mem-
bers.
Institutional Aid
The organization would be aid-
ed by educational and other in-
stitutions in the participating
states. The educational institu-
tions would pool their facilities
for the benefit of the research in-
stitute.
The conference's host, Governor
Frank Morrison of Nebraska, not-
ed that most of the research now
being done is being carried on in
the East and Midwest and that
"more and more industry is being
tied to research."
Governor George Romney re-
fused to comment on the proposal
awaiting further explanation. He
will participate in a panel dis-
cussion today on "An Expanding
Midwest Economy."
One of Three
Romney, one of the three Re-
publicans at the conference, flew
to Omaha Wednesday with his
wife and five staff members. Rom-
ney's delegation was second in
size only to that of Minnesota's
Karl F. Kolvaeg. Ohio's James A.
Rhodes was the only midwestern
governor absent from the meeting.
The three-day governor's con-
ference will also discuss such
topics as highway safety, treat-
ment of the criminally insane, and
higher education. Governor Wil-
liam Guy of North Dakota is the
chairman of the conference.
Following his arrival, Romney
and the other Republican govern-
ors attending the conference ap-
peared at a fund-raising dinner
given by area GOP associates.

Slosson said recently at a lecture
entitled "Israel, the West in the
East."{
Prof. Slosson explained that the
Jewish people have always served
as a bridge .between East and
West, not really accepted in either
area.
"The hostility in Europe toward
the Jews was based on the
grounds that the Jews were 'ori-
entals' and thus did not belong,"
Prof. Slosson said. He added that
Hitler used this-as the basis of his
criticism against the Jews in Ger-
many.
Lived in Europe
Because the majority of the
Jewish population has lived in
Europe and the United States for
the past 1,000 years, they have,
in truth, become Westernized.
Thus, the Arabs, in turn, regard
the Jews as outsiders from the
West, he explained.
"The Arabs are not 'anti-
semitic'-they are more semitic
than the Jews-they resent the
Jews on the grounds that they are
intruders from the West and, as
such, have no right ir the East,"
Prof. Slosson said. "The Jew has
a paradoxical fate. He has always
been regarded as an oriental by
the West, and as a Westerner by
the East," he added.
Prof. Slosson pointed out that
the conflict between Arabia and
the West stems from the time of
the Crusades. This has carried
through to modern times in the
form of Eastern resentment of
Western advancement.
Modern Israel
"Modern Israel represents the
industrialism, commercialism, lib-
eralism and democracy of the
West. Thus, it is natural for the
resentment of the East to be di-
rected toward the Jews as repre-
sentatives of the West," he said.
"Israel is like a piece of Europe
and 'America which has estab-
lished itself in the midst of a be-
wildered Asia," Prof. Slosson con-
cluded. He added that the grow-
ing political and economic ad-
vancement of the Arabs may, in
time, lessen their resentment of
the state of Israel and its inhabi-
tants.

Business as Cause
By NELSON LANDE
Prof. George Peek, Jr., of the
political science department, as-
serted yesterday that because
"business is counting on a tax cut"
to stimulate investment, and be-
cause economic expansion would
result in increased employment,
President John F. Kennedy has
switched his legislative priorities.
As a secondary motive, Prof.
Peek cited that "some working
class people may perceive a civil
rights thrust as a threat to their
status." Besides, civil rights legis-
lation is ineffective without jobs
to absorb the unemployed.
Last month, Kennedy placed
civil rights before a tax cut in
Congressional action. Last Friday,
addressing the fifth biennial con-
vention of the AFL-CIO in Miami
Beach, the President asserted that
"no one gains from attending a
better school if he doesn't have
a job after graduation.-
Rights Mean Jobs
"Civil rights legislation is im-
portant. But to make that legis-
lation effective, we need jobs in
the United States," Kennedy fur-
ther declared. "If jobs are the
most important domestic issue
that this country faces, then
clearly no single step can be more
important in sustaining the econ-
omy of the United States than
the passage of our tax bill. For
this will help consumer markets,
build investment demand, build
business incentives, and therefore
provide jobs for a total addition
to the economy of the United
States in the next months of
nearly $30 billion."
Motivating Factor
Prof. Peek elaborated on the
motivating factors behind the
President's priority reversal. "The
stock market is assuming that a
tax cut is coming. I think that the
market will fall if it doesn't come."
He added that the President
had formerly emphasized the civil
rights issue because of racial ten-
sion. Now that the demonstrations
have quieted down, Kennedy no
longer feels obligated to press as
vehemently for civil rights legis-
lation. Furthermore, according to
Prof. Peek, the President would
'lose votes in making class dis-
tricts" where many union locals
resist national union pressure to
end racial discrimination.
ROTC Set-Up
Reconsidered
By Legislature
WASHINGTON - A House
Armed Service Subcommittee has
approved legislation which would
permit colleges and universities to
establish two-year ROTC pro-
grams, either in addition to or in
place of existing four-year pro-
grams.
A "clean bill," introduced by
Rep. EdwardHerbert (D-La.),
chairman of the subcommittee,
embodied the subcommittee's rec-
ommendations.
Those students wishing to di-
rectly enter into the two-year ad-
vanced program would be first re-
quired to complete a six-week
course of field training or a prac-
tice cruise.
This bill also would make avail-
able to the other services the pro-
visions of the Navy's "Holloway
plan" by authorizing a monthly
retainer pay of $50 for up to four
years and payment of tuition and
fees for students entering ROTC
programs agreeing to serve at
least four years on active duty.
These students would be appoint-
ed cadets or midshipmen in the
service programs. The bill auth-
orizes the appointment of up to
8,000 students in each of the three
service programs providing this

financial aid.
The bill also authorizes an in-
crease in the retainer pay from
the present $27 a month to $50
a month for all students in the
advanced course.

African land of Somalia is accept-
ing arms from the Soviet Union
but without any apparent fervor,
for Communism.
The deal appears to have come
out of Somali nationalism, blown
wild and militant.
United States officials reported
recently the Somalia has dci&ded
to accept a Soviet offer of $30
million in arms and reject a West-
ern offer of $18 million. They said
the capital, Mogadishu, already
was teeming with Communist ad-
visers, and the Russians are build-
ing a huge air base in Somalia.
Somalia probably wants the
military build-up for a single pur-
pose: the creation of a greater
Somalia, uniting all the Somalis
in the eastern horn of Africa.
Five Pointsk
The Somalian flag has a star
with five points, one for each seg-
ment of a greater Somalia. So far
Somalia includes only two of these
segments, the old British Somali-
land and the old Italian Somali-
land.
The other three segments are
now outside the Republic of Som-
alia: France controls French
Somaliland, Etthiopa controls the
Somali-populated Ogaden Prov-
ince, and the British colony of
Kenya controls the Somali-popu-
lated Northern Frontier District.
Surging Somali nationalism has
become a critical problem for
Kenya, which becomes indepen-
dent on Dec. 12 and is trying to
prevent its Somalis from seceding
and joining Somalia.
New Arms

By STANLEY MEISLER
Associated Press Staff Writer

WASHINGTON-The little Eat In the midst of a sea of its own

By WILLIAM L. RYAN
S' Special Correspondent
JAKARTA-The biggest power
in Southeast Asia is making a big
contribution to the sensitive area's
instability.

dangerous economic troubles, In-
donesia is embroiled in a squabble
with its neighbor, Malaysia. The
crisis is more potentially danger-
ous than appears on the surface.
If some day the claw of the Red
Chinese dragon should reach for
control of the whole of South-
east Asia, Indonesia with its 100
millions is bound to loom in-
portantly in one way or another-
either as a bulwark against fur-
ther Red expansion or as potential
ally of the Communists.
Malaysia Tangle
This makes the Malaysia issue
the more worrisome, since it can
easily billow into world crisis.
Britain and Australia are com-
mitted to defending Malaysia
should there be attacks on Sara-
wak and Sabah (North Borneo)
which joined Malaya and Singa-
pore to make up the new nation.
Should there be open hostilities,
the British commonwealth will be
Japan, alert to the dangerous
possibilities of this for Southeast
Asia, is among those nations
which appear to be urgently seek-
ing avenues for conciliation. The
Japanese express such worries as
these: President Sukarno probably
regards Malaysia as a fact which
must be lived with but cannot
back down on his objections to it
without losing face. He calls it a
trick of British imperialism and
denies that the people of Sarawak
and North Borneo gave their ap-
pr'oval.
Sukarno, in economic trouble at
home, may maneuver himself into
some sort of reckless response to
Western acceptance of Malaysia,
say some Japanese. This, they
add, could go as far as abandon-
ment of his posture of nonalign-
ment and allying himself fully
with the Communist camp. Th us,
the reasoning goes, the non-Com-
munist world could lose 100 mil-
lion people and the resources of
Indonesia.
Kid Gloves
These possibilities create a ten-
dency to treat Indonesia with kid
gloves. It is such an important

country in Asia that it is getting
assistance from all sides - the
United States, the Soviet Union,
Red China, Japan, Europe-while
its regime seems to be squandering
the nation's own rich resources
with happy abandonment. Indo-
nesia is expensive to everybody.
Since 1949, United States aid to
Indonesia, much of it outright
grants, has totalled $644.6 million.
By coincidence, that is almost the
exact total of Soviet and Red
Chinese economic aid combined.
But the Soviet investment in mili-
tary aid to Indonesia is much
larger-than any other nation's. It
totals the equivalent of more than
a billion dollars.
Indonesia stopped trade with
Singapore and Malaya when Ma-
laysia was formed in September.
This jolted the rubber trade. Rub-
ber brings in about 50 per cent
of Indonesia's foreig nexchange
earnings, two-thirds of the export
total coming from small holder
planters who send 80 per cent of
their rubber to Singapore for pro-
cessing. They may be hurting bad-
ly soon.
It will be necessary to cut im-

ports if Indonesia is to save he
dwindling foreign exchange re
serves, already at the dangerou
level of about $135 million. Cut
ting imports will hurt Indonesia
industrial production program
and create new job problems.
To a lesser extent the oil busi
ness may suffer, but most of the
oil has been going to Japan, Aus
tralia, the United States and the
Philippines. The total export wa
almost $252 million last year, o
which Indonesia's share of th
profits was almost $90 million
Should the Malaysia crisis broad
en into a wider international one
this trade will be threatened, too
Indonesia earns about $600 mil
lion in foreign exchange yearl
but much is used to import suc
things as automobiles which nov
clog Jakarta's streets, and eve
food, in a country whose lush lan
could create agricultural miracle
Against this sort of backgroun
Indonesia becomes a major worr
to the West. Economic confusio
could lead to chaos and politica
turmoil, a climate in Which it i
conceivable that the Communist
would try to take over.

Somalia may use its new arms
in a show of force against an in-
dependent Kenya if the Kenyans
try to keep the Northern Frontier
District from seceding.
United States officials said they
are worried that the Soviet Union,
which slipped badly in the past in
West Africa, has now found a new
stepping stone to tropical Africa
on the East coast.
Actually the east coast of Africa
always has seemed more fertile
ground for Communism than the
west coast. The reason is not hard
to find. Colonialism always was
harsher in the east.
Second Class
In Kenya, for example, the Brit-
ish once encouraged whitesettlers
to turn the colony into a white
man's country. Africans became
second-class citizens, and their
education was neglected.
Somalia, which never was tab-
bed as a white man's country, has
other reasons for anger at its
former European masters. The
Somalis ebelieve that the British
and Italians unjustly gave chunks
of Somali territory to Ethiopa
after World War It.
In addition, the United States
has sent $80 million worth of
military assistance to Ethiopia
since the end of the war.
Turn Eastward
To Somalis, it seemed natural
for them to turn to America's
enemy, the Soviet Union, if Amer-
ica was helping Somalia's enemy,
Ethiopia.
It is understood that the Soma-
lis wanted more aid than that and
also questioned the feasibility of
an army using supplies from three
different sources.

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