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November 15, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-11-15

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Wil Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al reprints.
Presidential Power Fails
To Save Foreign Aid Bill
PRESIDENT KENNEDY gave the Ameri- zens' committee to review foreign aid,
can people a lesson in the limitations have not worked. His attempts to woo
of the presidency yesterday and at the Congress have been further stymied by
same time warned of the disasterous con- erstwhile friendly American aid recipients
sequences of congressional foreign policy. who are stirring international tension.
"In the field of foreign policy, there are Political maneuvering, the favorite
particular burdens on the President, who- Kennedy method of employing presiden-
ever he may be. If there are failures in tial power, has failed and now the Presi-
the Middle East, Africa and Latin Amer- dent is left with public opinion as the
ica, and South Viet Nam and Laos, it is only way to sway an angry Senate.
usually not a senator who is selected to But even that did not work, as six hours
bear the blame, but it is the administra- after Kennedy's news conference, the
tion, the President of the United States." Senate cut another $20 million from the
Kennedy continued his plea for more measure.
foreign aid funds and for fewer restric- Foreignaid, more than Kennedy's pow-
tive amendments, declaring he cannot reis in trouble since this issue is
methis resposibilitles if the current bill er bae si rul ic hsisei
meethonly one that affects the presidency. But
is enacted. the debacle shows the limits of presiden-
IS IS UNUSUAL TALK from a self- tial power against opposing forces. The
styled strong President. Kennedy has program, as the President pointed out, is
styedcstgcPedntKenedytha an important part of United States for-
often both practiced and preached the eign policy and cannot be allowed to die
cause of strong executive leadership. He on the vine.d
seeks to lead Congress, not to be led byo
Congress. Kennedy must have had to gulp THUS A REAPPRAISAL of both the for-
hard to make this plea. eign aid program and the political
However, there are stern limits to presi- methods of getting it through Congress
dential power. While the office has much are needed. Perhaps the best tactic-the
prestige, a President's orders are not investigatory commission--could be bor-
self-executing. He must depend on the rowed from the British. When the British
strict obedience not only of his subordi- face a major policy decision or wish to
nates in the administration, but also of investigate a disaster, they set up an in-
Congress if he is to succeed. dependent study commission to do the
work. This commission, while separate
THUS KENNEDY'S legislative program, from the government, often includes
now featuring foreign aid, has been in members from both inside and outside
trouble in Congress. The congressional Parliament.
Democrats are in general politically more In this case, the study commission
extreme-left and right-than the Ken- should include State Department experts,
nedy administration. However, conserva- congressional experts and the general
tive Democrats in league with conserva- public. Unlike the ill-fated Clay commit-
tive Republicans dominate Congress. tee, it would include personnel immedi-
In terms of the foreign aid bill, Ken- ately connected to the congressional and
nedy has been attacked by both sides. executive ends of foreign aid and with
Conservatives oppose the measure because outside observers.
of its $4.5 billion price tag and because it
is a politically opportune place to cut the mHE COMMITTEE'S CHARGE should be
budget. Liberals and some conservatives broader than the Clay committee's; it
oppose certain parts of the measure be- should review the moral, political and fi-
cause of disfavor over Kennedy aid policy. nancial aspects of foreign aid in both
They are particularly upset at foreign short and long run periods. It should also
countries using aid to stir up trouble prepare a long-term program for foreign
harmful to the United States. They also aid.
are irked at countries that play West Such a broad committee can save the
against East for aid. Indonesia and the foreign aid program from future mutili-
United Arab Republic are the prime ex- zation and death now that political
amples of this. They are the hardest hit. methods have failed.
THUS FAR, Kennedy's maneuvers, like -PHILIP SUTIN
selecting a supposedly friendly citi- National Concerns Editor
education's InFighting
David Marcus, Editorial Director ' r

Budget Squeeze Hurts Staff Growth


(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
first in a series of articles analyz-
ing the University's budgetsrequest.)
sity asks for increased funds
from the Legislature; year after
year the Legislature rejects the
University's bids. Budget appro-
priations are falling millions of
dollars short of requests.
The Legislature argues that the
University gets more money each
year; but on a percentage basis,
the amount of increase has been
getting smaller. In the years from
the end of World War II through
1957, budget increases averaged
well over 10 per cent a year. Since
that time increases have averaged
around half that figure. The Uni-
versity's total budget requests
over the last seven years have
been cut by approximately $50
the weight of these figures is
their effect on the quality of the
University. This denial of funds
has prevented the University from
keeping pace with educational de-
velopments across the country.
The faculty is the heart and
the measure of any institution.
This university attained world
fame because of its attraction to
faculty. But in five years (1958-
1962) the University's salary level
dropped from 4th in the country
to 20th. It is no longer competing
with only the top schools-it is
having trouble matching offers
with schools which used to rank
far below it, for a commodity
which is becoming more scarce.
If the University has suffered
at all yet, the suffering has only
been around the fringes. This is
still a top quality institution. But
administrators are wondering how
long it can stay at the top. With-
out more money, the effects of
underappropriation must be felt.
LEGISLATORS complain that
a University budget is coplicated,
that they don't understand it.
They are "suspicious" that the ad-
IN WRITING a history of the
political parties of the United
States one must bear constantly
in mind the fact that there are
two separate and distinct parties,
the Republicans (a clever com-
bination of two Latin words, res
and Publicae, meaning "things of
the public") and the Democrats
(from the Greek demos, meaning
something which I will look up
before this goes to the printers).
The trick comes in telling which
is which.
During the early years of our
political history the Republican
Party was the Democratic Party,
or, if you choose, the Democratic
Party was the Republican Party.
This naturally led to a lot of con-
fusion, especially in the Republi-
can Party getting the Dem'rocratic
Party's mail; so it was decided to
call the Republicans "Democrats"
and be done with it.
The Federalist Party became,
through the process of natural se-
lection and a gradual dropping of
its rudimentary tail, the Republi-
can Party as we know it today.
This makes, as prophesized ear-
lier in this article, two paries, the
Republicans and the Democrats.
As a general rule, Republicans
are more blonde than Democrats.
-Robert Benchley
in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
or David Copperfield

ministration really doesn't need
what it asks. For the next fiscal
year, 1964-65, the University is
asking nearly $10 million more
than it received from the Legis-
lature last year. The increases fall
in six areas:
-Salary increases;

University enrollment increased by
3,300 and the teaching staff by
38-a ratio of 1:84 with 1:14 ac-
cepted as par.
"Although in 1963-64 there were
52 staff additions and about 800
more students to bring the six-
year increment ratio to 1:44, this

over 2000, maintaining a student-
teacher ratio of 1:14.
tional supplies and equipment, has
also been caught in the budget
squeeze. While current enrollment
is 18 per cent higher than in the

on a per student basis are less
today than they were in 1957-
while prices are higher. "On a per
capita basis the needs of the stu-
dent of 1957 were, on the average,
recognized by an allocation of $90
per year for instructional supplies
and equipment," the budget re-



The danger signs: not enough appropriations nor enough staff and a growing student population

-Provision for higher enroll-
ment and augmented programs;
-Books and services;
-Services for new buildings, re-
habilitation and plant mainten-
-Research and public service;
-Trimester operation.
Each of these areas deserves
examination, but due to the Uni-
versity's pressing growth problems,
it is necessary to explore the pro-
visions for higherienrollment and
augmented programs-funds es-
sential for growth. With admis-
sion pressures expected to sky-
rocket beginning next year, this
item should be the University's
major current concern.
It isn't. Administrators, because
of seven lean years, must focus
first on other areas. Before think-
ing of expansion they must do
everything they can to maintain
the status quo.
NEARLY $4 MILLION is being
asked from the state to adjust
to higher enrollment. This money
would be spent in the following
-Additional staff;
-Instructional supplies and
equipment ;
-Admissions, registration and
records, student services, business
operations and general adminis-
tration services;
-Transitional summer program;
-Building alterations for more
effective use of present space.
Over $2 million is aimed at re-
cruiting new staff. Enrollment is
expected to rise from 27,000 to
28,500. The University wants 170
more teachers.
Because of low budget appro-
priations, additions to the staff
have been haphazard in recent
years. While enrollment has risen
steadily, staff has actually drop-
ped in two specific years since
1957. The Regents' request to the
state for the next fiscal year says
the following:
"Due to limitations created by
a lack of funds, the University
has been unable to make additions
to the teaching staff, in numbers
and rank, to keep pace with the
growth of the student body. Be-
tween 1957-58 and 1962-63, the

was accomplished in an undesir-
able way. Of the 52 teachers add-
ed, 44, or 83 per cent, were teach-
ing fellows. 20 per cent is con-
sidered a dangerously high pro-
The addition of 170 teachers
would push the teaching staff just

fall of 1957, the budget expendi-
ture for items ranging from test
tubes to projection machines has
risen only 4 per cent. The prices
for these goods and services have
risen faster than legislative al-
locations for them.
This means that expenditures

Arsenal' Images
Poetic but Limited

EISENSTEIN, Pudovkin and
Dziga-Vertov were essentially
naturalist in approach. The fourth
in the quadrumvirate of Russian
silent masters, however, tried for
a sort of lyricism appropriate to
poetry. In "Arsenal" and in his
masterpiece, "Earth," Alexander
Dovzhenko disposed of standard
film plot in favor of a mosaic of
visual images. As a result, "Ar-
senal" is virtually formless. This
quality is both its success and its
failure; it demonstrates both the
possibilities and the severe limi-
tations of Dovzhenko's method.
The director is most successful,
when he is dealing with a very
simple idea. In the first third of
the film there is an abstract se-
quence of images. It roughly goes
as follows: shot of a mother (with
subtitle, "There was a mother who
had three sons"); several shots of
a battlefield; another shot of the
mother (with subtitle, "And then
she had no sons"); soldier in the
battlefield pulls off gas mask,
laughs hysterically; shot of a
corpse who seems to laugh back;
another mother and her children;
czar at his writing table, meditat-
ing; one-armed man leads horse
across a wheat field and looks
with despair on a meager crop;
children cry with hunger; czar
be'gins to write a letter ("Weather
is lovely"); man beats horse;
mother beats children; shots of
battlefield; man stops beating
horse, falls to ground (subtitle:

T IS IRONIC that Michigan, a leader in
developing a system of public higher
education, is faltering so badly at a time
when other states and other nations are
beginning to build at an almost frantic
New York is planning a new university.
Britain is building an entire system of
residence universities. States such as Illi-
nois and California are financing educa-
tion with a liberality that would jolt
Michigan legislators.
other states are feeling their higher
educational needs more acutely than
Michigan. New York, for example, is at
least a half-century behind Michigan in
providing anything like the quality and
variety of education available in this
Other established systems, such as Cali-
fornia, must meet the needs of a popula-
tion which is expanding even more rap-
idly than Michigan's. Furthermore, Cali-
fornia, both educationally and politically,
seems to have attracted much more dy-
namic leadership than Michigan.
Within Michigan, there are explana-
tions for educational sluggishness. All has
not been well economically in the state.
To further compound the problem at a
time of extreme economic difficulty in
Michigan, the Legislature has found it-
self with more of an educational burden
than ever before. Besides the enrollment
increases, the Legislature is now support-
ing Wayne State University-an institu-
tion supported by the city of Detroit ten
years ago.
BUT THE CORE of the matter is much
more fundamental. It is not something

This legislative attitude of inertia to-
ward education is an inherent roadblock
to any presentation the universities may
attempt to make in Lansing. And the uni-
versities have not helped themselves at
the universities, for example, hurts in
many ways. Aside from the obvious confu-
sion and bitterness it causes, it also forces
the universities into a competition which
is stupid because it is harmful to them.
If one university expands, all the univer-
sities have to expand. If two of the uni-
versities have medical schools, the third
wants one.
This in-fighting encourages the legisla-
tors to do nothing about education since
it forces the universities to do exactly
what the economy-minded politicians
want them to do: to try to do more and
more with less and less. Each of them
hopes to outdo the others but in the end
nobody wins.
On the other hand, when the universi-
ties work together, at least nobody can
get hurt and there can be benefits. For
example, all the state-supported colleges
and universities have agreed to a uniform
speaker policy. While one may debate the
merits of the policy itself, the uniformity
has gotten rid of any chance of one uni-
versity playing itself off against another
or of the legislators trying to conquer
through division.
IT IS A TRUISM to point out that com-
pulsory coordination of one sort or an-
other is coming. It is also obvious that
higher education in Michigan is only go-
ing to develop as a system. But mean-
while, the University and the other uni-

"Just A Few More, To Make Sure You
Don't Get Carried Away"

horse says to man, "You shouldn't
be beating me. I am not respon-
Inthis sequence, hunger, de-
spair, frustration, callousness and
even a kind of gallows humor
emerge as the results of war and
as the reactions to its horror. The
ideas are simple enough to be
communicated adequately by a
compressed series of image. The
subtitles are also appropriately
** *
IT IS THE images that one re-
members from "Arsenal": the
falling accordion in the train se-
quence, for example; later, in the
grave sequence, a team of racing
horses that suggests the dynam-
ism of revolution. This is precise-
ly one of the limitations of Dov-
zhenko's method. In the second
half of the film when he tries to
present a more complex idea or
group of events - the struggling
of factions, or the quelling of the
workers revolt at the armament
factory-the method becomes in-
Dovzhenko is forced to add
more and more, longer and longer
subtitles just to make the action
coherent. These titles are cumber-
some, but there is not a propor-
tionate gain in coherence. The
visual simplicity of the first half
of the film is necessarily lost, but
without the form that could have
been provided by plot, the direc-
tor cannot deal adequately with
the complexity of his theme.
* * *
DOVZHENKO said that "Ar-
senal" was a purely political .film.
He was concerned with the revo-
lutionary experience in his na-
tive Ukraine. But for me the film
is most successful when it is least
explicitly political, as in the open-
ing sequence.
Dovzhenko's contribution to the
medium has been a genuinely vis-
ual poetry. But his cinema also
demonstrates that the area of ex-
perience open to this approach is
a limited one. Dovzhenko worked
at the close of the silent era. The
subsequent development of sound
has provided those directors who
share Dovzhenko's basic approach
-Antonioni comes to mind-with
a means of broadening this area.
-David Zimmerman
For Sale
'THE EDMONTON Journal got
some surprising replies when
it ran an advertisement putting a
diesel fronkelsnortz up for sale.
The fronkelsnortz was advertised
by G. H. Wheatley as having a
transverse gridge with a special
power dippoleck and left-handed
Thirty-one persons sent in in-
quiries about the machine. Only
five wanted to know what a
fronkelsnortz was. One concern
said it would buy the fronkel-
snortz at ten per cent below the
original price if it was a mark E
model. One man offered 450 herns
or a straight trade for two 1948
sorlit-sfitzers (one with skids).
Finkeleheimer's Multi-Shnorkel
Machine Shop wrote three letters
offering 10,000 equity units pro-

quest states. "The student of 1963
lias only $79 available at a higher
price level." The Regents want
$500,000 more for the next fiscal
year to reverse that process.
They also ask $500,000 to meet
the service needs of increased en-
rollment. These fall primarily in
the areas of admissions, counsel-
ing and registration and records.
THE summer program funds
are needed to use the 1964 session
as a transition toward year-round
operations. The University anti-
cipates a summer enrollment in-
crease of five per cent. Moreover,
faculty salaries and fringe bene-
fits for this session must be
brought in line with the regular
session norms. The Regents ask
approximately $450,000 for this
Finally, a small portion of the
$4 million request-$150,000-
would be used for building alter-
ations aimed at greater efficiency.
ed for growth planning and action
is less than ten per cent of the
full budget request of $47.6 mil-
lion. It cannot even be top priority
on the list of recommended in-
creases-maintaining the current
faculty is too important.
Yet these provisions, too, are
vital. This is not Michigan State
University. We can't keep raising
enrollment without making ade-
quate preparations. The prepara-
tions cannot be made without the
That brings the issue right back
to the Legislature. Somehow legis-
lators must come to understand
the University and its needs. They
must come to realize th t these
needs aren't imagined, th t they
spell the difference between ex-
cellence and mediocrity.
to the
To the Editor:
REGRD GProf. Clark's let-
ter,Iwol like to know what
he means by "the spirit of Cain"
which "the Author of my (his)
first paragraph is capable of deal-
ing . ." (Editor's Note: Prof.
Clark, in his first paragraph,
quoted from the Bible.)
The "Author" I assume, is God.
Let us remember how God pun-
ished Cain (Genesis 4:11-12): he
commanded that the earth should
never again yield to Cain (Cain
was a farmer), and that no one
should slay him to relieve him of
his agony. Then we find (4:17-18)
that Cain is married (which
prompts me to ask, who was his
wife?), that he has founded a city
(Enoch), and that he is a father
and a grandfather.
This is punishment for the
murder of one's brother? Cain
pleaded with God that this was
too much to bear, this castigation
of getting married, having kid-
dies running around the house,
becoming a City Father, and be-
ing doomed to die a natural death.
God murdered multitudes for
much less than the wrong that
Cain committed.
THE discrepancy is this: Prof.
Clark confuses two sets of ethics-
his and God's. Prof. Clark knows
it is wrong to kill people (particu-
larly brothers), but God's ethic,
while seeming not to condone
fratricide, actually assures the
misdoer a life of relative ease.
One wishing to repeat Cain's
act might perhaps ask for a small
pension to be thrown in as a sort
of fringe benefit.
With this in mind, I give a re-


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