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November 06, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-11-06

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Smarty-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail" -
Editorials. printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al; reprints.

C ommunity College vs.

'U' Branch

AY, NOVEMBER 6, 1963


Fifth Circuit Court:

Bulwark of Justice in South

SINCE THE END of Reconstruction, the
Southern judicial process has paid al-
most no attention to the United States
In fact, Southerners have paid almost
no attention to any form of judicial
process other than stomping on Negroes
and civil rightists.
Last Friday, one of the few exceptions
to this rule, the United States Court of
Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, struck
down an 1871 Georgia insurrection law
and an unlawful assembly statute. Con-
viction for insurrection was punishable
by death.
FIFTH CIRCUIT Chief Judge Elbert P.
Tuttle handed down the court's deci-
sion and continued the tradition of the
tribunal upon which he sits. In the past,
the Fifth Circuit has enjoined state of-
ficials from interfering with lawful ac-
tivities of freedom fighters, ordered
school boards to integrate and command-
ed the registration of Negro voters.
The Fifth Circuit stands out as a con-
stitutional bulwark in a desert of intoler-
ance and disregard for law. Not only does
this court attempt to preserve justice
in the absence of law but also it is in a
position of power to carry out this end.
The only problem that arises is it is only
one court anad can hear only a limited
amount of cases. Even if racists are un-
satisfied with decisions of this court
(which they usually are), appeals from it
go to a tribunal whose members are not
Southern diehards-the Supreme Court.
slow and costly, the Fifth Circuit re-
mains above the vagaries and interesting
legal methods of lower courts in its area.
In many instances, it is the only hope
of persons wrongly accused, imprisoned
and in the hands of Southern police. Its
decisions have caused one Albany, Georg-
ian-C. B. King, the only Negro lawyer
in the city-to term it "the most liberal
court in the South."
In the cases decided Friday, the court
ordered five persons being held on charg-
es of insurrection and unlawful assem-
bly,, to be freed on bond. Since the in-
surrection law was a capital offense, these
persons were denied bail and were held in

prison for over three months. During the
hearing, the state prosecutor was asked to
define activities of insurrection. He
claimed that persons actively working for
integration might be guilty of insurrec-
tion. He further added that one of the
main reasons that the defendants had
been charged with inciting insurrection
was to deny them bail.
These persons remained in jail for over
three months with the possibility that
they would die if convicted. Their integral
crime was attempting to integrate Geor-
gia schools.
The other statute struck down by the
court was used to prevent any type of
peaceful assembly of civil rightists. It
was an effective tool to prevent change in
the status quo.
where a capital offense has been void-
ed. In the South, capital crimes are num-
erous and nearly always used to suppress
and legally execute Negroes. The pros and
cons of capital punishment are not at is-
sue here. What is at issue is that these
laws should be applied equally to all peo-
ple and not only to Negroes. These laws
should not, as the insurrection law was,
be invoked to deprive persons of their
civil rights and freedom because of the
intolerance and prejudice of state offi-
If and when these laws are used in
such a manner, they should be invalidat-
ed. This would undoubtedly put the law
codes of many Southern states in an ex-
tremely precarious position. But it is the
only way that any sort of justice can be
JUDGES TUTTLE -and Lewis R. Morgan,
who concurred in the 2-1 decision, are
both Georgians. While they are not mili-
tant civil rightists, they do believe in the
basic doctrines upon which this country
rests. They believe that the law should
not be perverted to fit anyone's ends.
They have on Friday as in the past faced
attack by many of their neighbors and
colleagues for their decisions, for some-
thing their attackers do not believe in-
justice, fairness and impartiality.

(EDITOR'S NOTE:This is the last
in a three-part series on the pro-
posed expansion of Flint College
into a four-year institution. The
proposal brings up an important
question in state higher education
expansion: should large state insti-
tutions branch out or should the
community college system be in-
MANY of the state's higher edu-
cation questions are reflected
in the University's Flint College.
Like the state of Michigan, Flint
stands on a brink, uncertain of its
On the one hand, the college is
structured as intended by its
founders in 1956-a creditable
two-year senior college and sup-
plementary older brother for the
two-year Flint Community Junior
College. This arrangement is call-
ed the "two-two" plan.
On the other hand, Flint and
University officials taste enviably
the prospect of expanding the
college intota full-fledged state-
supported four-year institution,
maintaining certain affiliations
with the University.
The brink thus juts up before
Flint-to expand or not-epito-
mizing the basic question puzzl-
ing state educators and legislators:
should the state expand its com-
munity college system or its uni-
versity complex system?
The 40,000 additional students
who will be enrolled by 1970 in
state-supported schools await the
ing Flint College was built right
into the major academic structure
In the construction of Mott
Memorial Building, which houses
most of the college's classrooms
and offices, space provision was
made to expand one wing.
Even without the expansion, the
completed structure was expected
to educate a capacity of 1000 stu-
dents. With this growth anticipat-
ed, the college increased from 167
in its opening year of 1956 to the
600 enrollment figure for this
Although it is "hard to find an
empty classroom at the 10 a.m.
peak period," according to Dean
David M. French, there is definite
slack at other times.
The college could definitely ex-
pand, French notes, explaining
that Flint has begun to request
that graduate programs be inau-
gurated due to the availability of
classroom space.
* * *
would like to be able to handle
the admission of a 200 student
freshman class, which is cur-
rently under consideration, much
of its growth provisions have been
irrevocably linked to the Flint
Community (junior) College.
Basically, the growth of Flint
College has historically been cor-
related with that of Flint Com-
munity College as part of a larger
educational scheme called the
"Flint College and Cultural Cen-
This center, which includes the
major facilities of both institu-
tions, has facilitated sharing such
structures as the library, athletic
building, applied sciences building
and the public facilities.
These public facilities, including
an art center, a public library, a
planetarium and a proposed
theater, plusathe collegestruc-
tures have all been constructed
through gifts and pledges total-
ling over $30 million of Flint ci-
Expansion plans are in the off-
ing for the overall cultural cen-
ter as future specifications call for

the construction of a museum and
a theater-type auditorium.
THE POINT IS that Flint citi-
zens have supported-and backed
financially-the whole expansion
process of two institutions adja-
cently situated and organically
linked. In giving backing to the
"two-two" plan, whereby students
could get a four-year education
through two-years work at each
institution, they had not seriously
considered the expansion of the
Flint College into a four-year
operation which would have to
compete in part with the junior
community college.
** *
AT LEAST, they hadn't actively
considered it until recently.
In October of last year, a prom-
inent citizen and member of the
Charles Seward Mott Foundation
asked Executive Vice-President
Marvin Niehuss if he had con-
sidered the possibility of expand-
ing the University's Flint College.
This set the machinery in mo-
tion for the establishment of an
inquiry committee onsisting of
Flint Board of Education mem-
bers, University administrators,
representatives from the Mott
Foundation and citizens.
The committee gave, in effect,
the task of developing a specific
plan of expansion to the Univer-
sity s Dean for State-wide Educa-
tion Harold M. Dorr.
He will report back next month.
In the meanwhile, Flint pressure
away from the "two-two" plan
grew as Guy Bates, member of the
board of education, ran on a plat-
form last year saying he would
bring a four-year institution to
Antagonism toward the possi-
bilities of expansion was expressed
in the reaction of many Flint
citizens, Bates relates, that he was
"out to destroy the junior college
Bates presents a convincing ar-
gument that "in order to fulfill
adequately the diverse educational
needs of Flint," the need for a
four-year institution in addition
to a two-year college seems ob-
IT IS UPON this backdrop that
the situation unfolds today, fea-
turing local pressure for the Flint
expansion stalled by waiting for
coordinating educational groups to
assess the needs of the state.
When the inquiry group reveal-
ed its consideration of the expan-
sion recently, the immediate re-
action of legislators was "pru-
dence" and "caution" until the
governor's advisory educational
group is able to make its interim
As Senate Education Chairman
William Milliken related, "I per-
sonally favor the Flint expansion
but would strongly advise the Uni-
versity to remain cautious in plan-
ning it."
anticipated, but more because of
a painful memory than because
of a few legislative comments.
The memory is last year's at-
tempt to establish a four-year in-
stitution on the campus of Delta
College, a two-year junior college.
The University hoped to bring
in an entirely new four-year
branch-there was no two-year
senior college there initially-but
was unable to muster sufficient
support from the Legislature or
key coordinating councils of high-
er education to go ahead with the
As the situation resolved itself,
the University had all it could do
to prevent the Legislature from
adopting a piggy-back plan where-

by a two-year senior college would
be installed without organic con-
nection to the junior college.
In trying to achieve a branch
campus, the University aroused a
steady blockade of anti-large uni-
versity expansion. At the same
time, the Michigan "thumb area,"
which houses Delta College, did
not get its upper two-year level

counselling and research services
to groups and institutions within
the community, supplementing the
usual short courses, lectures and
concerts which the college offers
to its adult citizens.
With this local orientation being
a bastion of the system, legislators
from local areas are very willing
to see their area get a college of

Flint citizens, administrators
and professors join their eager-
ness, dissatisfied with the "two-
two" plan, particularly its "in-
To create the proper academic
atmosphere, a student must live
on campus and participate in a
thoroughly integrated educational
and activity experience, they ar-
The "two-two" commuter prin-
ciple is stifling this experience:
students arrive by car, attend
classes and return.
This school "inbredness" be-
comes self-perpetuating, marring
the college's attractiveness to out-
side students. At the very least,
Dean French recommends, Flint
College must consider dormitory
But all agree that dormitory
additions, like adding a few com-
munity colleges, are stop-gap
measui~s which will become ob-
solete for the state's pressing en-
rollment and academic needs al-
most as soon as they are effected.
* * *
THE UNIVERSITY inquiry corn-
mittee into the Flint expansion
picture must move cautiously.
Ugly dreams and legislative feel-
ing demand prudence.
Ironically, University action
awaits the decision which state
educators and legislators must
make as to whether to expand the
university complexes or the com-
munity college system.
This decision in turn is becom-
ing more crucial as colleges such
as those that exist at Flint and
Delta stand on a "brink," uncer-
tain of their future roles.
State education is thus stalled
as a wheel might be-with each
spoke only going to be generated
into motion once the others are.
The individual decision to expand
awaits the overall decision to ex-
pand which in turn cannot be
made until individual intentions
are seen clearly.

... Flint needs . .. double the number

education or the four-year degree
granting institution its citizens
* * *
THE INABILITY of the Legis-
lature to take a stand in the
Delta case (the "blue ribbon"
committee has presently been ask-
ed take one) has very relevant
implications for both Flint and
the state's educational picture.
The Legislature was merely
echoingrthe long-time issue among
educators. They agree that the
spiraling enrollment figures in-
dicate a need for more facilities.
They do not agree who or what
should provide them.
THE ARGUMENT for commun-
ity college expansion comes from
noted educator Lynn M. Bartlett,
the state superintendent for public
He presents a forceful argument
that can be illustrated with per-
suasive statistics. To fulfill ade-
quately the state's higher educa-
tion needs, Bartlett says, will take
an approximate doubling of the
current 18 community colleges by
A study commission of six coun-
ties in this area, including Wayne
and Washtenaw counties, reported
that 10 community colleges are
needed right now.
The feasibility of the commun-
ity oollege-although it offers only
a two-year program-is that it
can either prepare students for
further study at four-year uni-
versities or it may serve as ter-
minal education: a two-year edu-
cation to develop technical and
occupational skills that will bene-
fit the area.
As Bartlett and other commun-
ity college advocates explain, the
community college is especially
suited to local requirements for
the labor market.
* * *
IN THE CASE of Flint Com-
munity College, Dean Louis Fibel
outlines the "occupational pro-
gress" and "community services"
which are a fundamental part of
the college program.
The occupational programs train
students to become functional
members of the working commun-
ity in such capacities as practical
nursing, retailing, police admin-
istration and medical secretary.
Community services provide

this sort but jealously oppose see-
ing other areas get a full-fledged
University branch-campus insti-
* * *
AND YET, despite the com-
munity college proponents, the
University has a good case for ex-
pansion in Flint as it also had
in the abortive Delta situation.
Noting that there is room in
Flint for both kinds of institu-
tions, University officials are
quietly, patiently, but eagerly,
waiting for the opportunity to
expand Flint.

YDs Support Merger
gOf Union, League

Will New Director
Increase HRC Potential?

and the Ann Arbor City Council have
finally recognized the fact that human
relations in a city the size and make-up
of Ann Arbor is a full-time responsibility;
thus, the establishment of a full-time hu-
man relations director.
However, now it depends on the human
relations commission and certain city of-
ficials in high places to determine if the
office of human relations director will
be realized to its fullest. This is what re-
mains in doubt. No one will know just how
the city fathers plan to oversee the new
office until a director has actually taken
The potential of the new office is far-
reaching. More thorough investigation of
discriminatory practices can be made.
More complaints from Ann Arbor citizens
can be attended to.
IT SEEMS that the present attitude of
certain members of the human rela-
tions commission toward the director is
not consistent with the qualifications
they themselves have set up for the office.
Recently one commission member said
the major benefit of having a full-time
director around city hall is that of re-
lieving commission members of their pres-
ent responsibilities; in short, to lighten
the work load.
This view is not only undesirable but
also it could lead to the weakest possible
solution of intergroup relations in the
MORE FORCEFUL human relations ac-
tion in Ann Arbor rests on an intangi-
ble foundation. That intangible is out-
lined by Paul Wagner, chairman of the
HRC, in his job description of the new of-
r Ag r3Jjj j l jt1

fice. The heading is "knowledge, skill,
and personal qualities."
Qualities under this heading include
"initiative, resourcefulness, dependability,
good judgment" and "extensive knowledge
of the psychological and social forces in-
volved in the integration of minority
groups into the economy and culture of a
With a person possessing these intan-
gible qualifications, much more meaning-
ful human relations action can be taken.
However, advocating stronger and more
forceful human relations action in this
city does not necessarily imply any
changes in the present powers of the hu-
man relations commission. Rather, the
position of a human relations director
makes up for certain shortcomings the
commission may have.
AS OUTLINED in the job description, the
future director will not be sitting on
the commission as just an executive sec-
retary. Nor is he sitting there as a means
for commission members 'to shunt re-
Instead, he will occupy a post which is
only effective if he makes use of all the
intangible qualities he possesses. Unless
the director, who finally will be selected
by the commission and the council, pos-
sesses these intangible qualities, there
will be no need for the 'existence of the
Thus, the outcome of future human re-
lations action presently rests with the
city fathers and commission members.
This is because they are responsible for
finding a person who possesses the in-
tangible qualities that the directorship
After the selection has been made, only
time will tell as to the future of human
relations action. The city fathers and

* ;.xt~'" t .r.., __________ h r ,w' r? '1" i 's,l; ,;,, / "? '" ' e':r r' r.,,. " '
d ; rti , . ~

To the Editor:
IN VIEW of a recent statement
by the Regents with regard to
the future control of the financial
activities of the Michigan Union
and Michigan League, the Uni-
versity of Michigan Young Dem-
ocratic Club wishes to reaffirm
the Student Government Council
policy statement of Oct. 3, 1963.
Therefore, the Young Democratic
Club strongly supports the con-
cepts expressed in the Union-
League Study Committee Report
of May 17, 1963, and encourages
the Regents to endorse these prin-
ciples in their review of the Union-
League proposal currently before
These principles being:
-Retention of the Board of
Directors concept whereby the
three major components of the
University-students, faculty and
alumni-have a voice in determin-
ing the extent and form of services
provided for the most accurate
representation of their individual
and collective interests.
-Retention of a healthy degree
of operational autonomy for stu-
dent activity programming and
management operations will con-
tinue to be psychologically and
educationally beneficial to the
University community.
-Student activities'should re-
main as part of a board structure
which provides the facilities and
financing for these activities since
the board would be well equipped
to reflect the interests of the
-Dave Vaughn, '66
-Marty Baum, '64
-Mike Grondin, '66
-Carole Crumley, '66
-Alan Jones, '66
-Elmer White, '64L
-Chris Cohen, '64
-Debby Gould, '64
-Dick Katzman, '67
-Steve Adamini, '67
-Neil Armstrong, '66
-Pat Murray,'66
-Mark Killingsworth, '67
-Mary Feldblum, '64
Inner Beauty...
To the Editor:
IFEEL A REPLY is in order to
Trim Bissell's letter of Nov. 5
protesting the recent showing of
"The Freaks" at Cinema Guild.
Mr. Bissell, as well as many others
who attended the movie, mis-
understood its purpose and con-
sequently misinterpreted its ef-
"The Freaks" has been a sub-
ject of controversy since its re-
lease and subsequent banning in
1932. A great deal of the problem
in viewing the film today lies in
the fact that modern audiences
are not accustomed to look past
the superficial level of a film
dealing with the supernatural or
horrible. (Only Ingmar Bergman's
"Seventh Seal" and "The Magi-
cian" have managed to break this
Tod Browning, however, never

sell and others who dismiss "The
Freaks" as simply a voyeuristic
experience designed to satisfy "the
audiences love of the grotesque
and (their) desires to be satis-
fied," is to assign his view of
the freaks as the same as the
movies' view of the freaks. The
claim is that the misfits are
gathered together only for show,
that there is little attempt to
produce any positive reaction to
This may well be the view of
some of the audience but it is
obviously not that of Browning
and his film.
*I * *
society needs to reevaluate its
view in this respect. But dis-
regarding his social or political
philosophies (and they are ap-
parent in all his films), let us
simply deal with his handling of
the freaks. It is on this level that
the criticism has been placed and
it is here that it must be met.
Anyone who felt that the film
had little sympathy for the freaks
but simply exploited them should
remember that the two "beauti-
ful, big" people, Hercules and
Cleopatra, are the ugliest charac-
ters in the film. Browning con-
stantly contrasts the so-called
normal people with his freaks, re-
vealing the beauty of the nature
of the latter: the cruel, selfish and
crude workhands of the circus
harassing the freaks for fun con-
trasted with the pastoral scene
where the Freaks frolic peacefully;
the lustful, animal laughter of the
drunken Hercules and Cleopatra
seen against the quiet dignity of
the freaks at the wedding dinner.
Again by simply using camera
vantages, Browning adds to his
point. Thus, Freida and Hans are
always placed on horses or tables
so that they are equal to or rise
above the regular people. It is the
inner height that Browning is
after, the basic goodness and
beauty that is meaningful.
As for the complaint that the
characters of the Freaks are never
developed, let me quote the ex-
amples given by Tom Milne in
Sight and Sound which he uses to
highlight his point that "the real
world is that of the Freaks: of
Johnny, perfect from the waist up
but cut off below, who can enjoy
and try to improve on Frozo's
clowning; of the living torso, who
lights his own cigarette, and
calmly meditates on what is going
on around him ...; and above all,
of the formal, gentle Hans and
Freida, with their grave concern
for each others welfare." Never,
for a moment of the film, do these
people appear stilted or unreal;
they are the "decent" beings, the
heroes of the film.
* * *
THAT MR. BISSELL and others
were sickened by the film is
healthy if they are aware of the
reasons for their disgust. The
cause of concern should not be
the movie but the problems it
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