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November 03, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-11-03

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"'

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in at; reprints.



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3' A

Europe Must Overcome
Obstacles to Unification

New Needs Arise
After Rapid Growth

praised by the vast majority of politi-
cal and economic experts, has recently
been the target of an unprecedented
amount of criticism. Most of the attacks
have used as a basis for complaint the
fact that the growth rates of the member
nations of the Common Market have de-
clined since its formation in 1956. The
critics claim that this casts a shadow of
uncertainty on the effectiveness of the
The decline in European growth rates
has been a natural thing, and certainly
not an effect of the Common Market.
The phenomenal growth of European
economies in the post-war boom could
not be expected to continue forever. When
economies industrialize and recover from
war-time setbacks, they naturally have a
higher growtha rate, since they have a
smaller economic base on which to build.
As this base grows, and industrialization
and recovery become a reality, percentage
growth rate must and does necessarily de-
Examples of this are Russia and Ger-
many, which have been in the dual proc-
ess of industrialization and recovery since
World War II. They have, for years, had
percentage growth rates far above that
of the economically more mature United


r O DISCREDIT the Common Market on
such flimsy bases as decline in growth
rates is to jeopardize the future hopes of
Europe. The old Europe, that of several
nations competing against each other as
first-rate world powers, was left dead in
the smoldering ruins of World War II.
The separate nations must band together
-today economically, tomorrow political-
ly and socially-to make Europe again a
seat \of major world power. To accomplish
first the economic, and then the political
and social unification of Europe, two ma-
jor obstacles must be overcome.
FIRST, in the process of economic unifi-
cation, Europe's nations must undergo
a "shakedown." Minor industries long pro-
tected by high tariffs will be exposed to
and dominated by new competition in
their field from larger and more efficient
enterprises in other countries. Thus, the-
country or countries which today house
the major steel industries of Europe will
tomorrow become the steel centers of a
united Europe, to the exclusion of minor
steel industries in other nations. The
same phenomenon must occur in the tex-
tile, toolmaking, food producing and oth-
er industries.
As Europe becomes economically inte-
grated, whole countries will, to a greater
extent than ever before, specialize in
those things in which they are best, leav-
ing other fields of endeavor to those coun-
tries which can best handle them.
Undoubtedly some people, those in mi-
nor industries competing against vastly
larger counterparts in other countries,
will get hurt. But this is unavoidable.
These people must either gravitate to the
major European centers of their industry,.
or change their fields to those in which
their area of Europe is best. When their
problem is solved, a major roadblock to
Europe's economic integration will have
been removed.
tal unification is its older leadership.
This leadership served its purposes well
in the initial post-war recovery, but must
now make way for new blood. The unity
of Europe could not be accomplished with
Adenauer in Germany, and will not be-
come a reality with de Gaulle in France.
The new blood-the younger generation
-such as Reginald Maudling of Great
Britain, the up-and-coming Gaston Def-
ferre of France, and Ludwig Erhard and
his successors in Germany, must ascend
to leadership in order to complete Eu-
rope's economic integration, and oversee
major steps in her political and social uni-
It is necessary that Europe face the
changes in its economic processes and
challenges of political leadership in the
near future. Only then can her dreams of
solidarity become a reality.


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Ck 1i'na~,o is(J,-T[wv r

.Polarizaton , DividesU
3 By Ronald Wilton, Editor

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WEDNESDAY night, in an effort to get
the campus more interested in itself,
Student Government Council decided to
hold a couple of its meetings each semes-
ter in a dormitory, sorority house, frater-
nity house or the Undergraduate Library.
At the same meeting, faced with an im-
portant motion to urge the Regents to
stop administrating scholarships whose
qualifications I n c lu d e discriminatory
clauses, Council cut it in half, and rushed
the aborted form through in half an hour.
This cursory, almost frivolous treat-
ment of a complex conflict of moral and
practical considerations by SGC demon-
strates a lack of responsibility. Members
of Council recognized that it is very pos-
sible that Regents Bylaw 2:14 is in oppo-
sition to regental policy of administering
scholarships which are earmarked spe-
cifically for minority groups, but decided
that practical consequences of refusing
scholarship money was more important.
T EY COULD not possibly have explored
the issue in depth in one night. Their
attempt to do so indicates a lack of un-
derstanding of SGC's own potential sig-
If SGC really wants the campus to be
interested in what it is doing, it should
first take its work more seriously.

vers Subtle

POLITICS HAS often been called "the
art of the possible." That it can just
as easily be "the art of the subtle" was
readily demonstrated by the way in which
Republican legislators have changed the
provision of Gov. George Romney's tax
reform program that deals with property
tax relief for senior citizens.
Under Romney's original plan, "each
single-family dwelling unit, owned and
occupied by a person over 65 would be
eligible upon application for tax defer-
ment of up to $200 per year." So far, so


good. But the governor's plan also in-
cluded the stipulation that the state
would step in and take the amount of
the back taxes from the heirs upon the
senior citizen's death. This is not so good.
In their attempts to solve the dilemma
of whether to grant total tax exemption
(with the state ultimately accepting the
revenue loss) or go along with Romney's
idea and dun the heirs later, the legis-
lators have hit upon a way out which can
only be construed as an obvious attempt
to achieve the original goal by more
subtle methods. They have substituted a
"local option" plan for Romney's, so that
each community would decide for itself
whether to defer, exempt, or do neither.
THE SUBTLETY is obvious. What com-
munity can afford to give outright
property tax exemptions to senior cit-
izens, or any other large category of peo-
ple, when it knows full well that such an
exemption will not be reimbursed by the
state? Certainly few small cities could;
and if the way Detroit's Mayor Jerome
Cavanagh reacted when Romney asked
that that city's revenue from local in-
come taxes be halved is any criterion of
how the larger cities would react, they
can't afford to lose the money either.
Thus the cities will have no choice but
to pass whichever plan would cause them

THE IDEAL ideological base for
the operation of the University
is a unified community of stu-
dents, faculty and administrators
linked together in the search for
truth and knowledge. Yet an anal-
ysis of the existing campus situa-
tion reveals little similarity to
the ideal. Instead, there is a mark-
ed comparison to the polarization
theory of international relations,
which is often used to explain
causes of conflict in the existing
nation-state system.
The theory sets up two mutually
opposed nations or blocs as the
foci of the system. These two-
the United States and its satellites
opposing the Soviet Union and its
satellites-have conflicting goals.
The newcomer to prominence
in the world community is in-
terested in extending his influence
and control to as large a portion
of the world as possible. The
other, a world power for a longer
period of time, is concerned pri-
marily with maintaining the sta-
tus quo and stabilization of the
existing political line up. Once
this is achieved, then it will give
thought to extending its influence
Floating between these two
super powers at various distances
on the continuum are the non-
aligned nations. Their influence
in the world community is greater
than their present level of ma-
terial influence. Realizing their
lack of military and economic
power, they substitute for these
an emphasis on the necessity for
moral and ethical judgments as
opposed to materially influenced
judgments. Since both super
powers are working to extend the
amount of support they receive
from this non-committed group,
the appeal to morality is often a
weighted lever.
We can extend this model to
the University community: stu-
dents and their "satellites" rep-
resent the newcomer, the ad-
ministration and "satellites"
play the status quo power with
the faculty being the non-
aligned group. And just as in the
political world, the University
polar groups try to gain faculty
support while occasionally being
swayed by the latter's moral
The one place where this model
can be attacked is in making the
students one of the polar powers.
Their present position in the Uni-
versity would seem to rule them
out as a power group. But the
rationale for making them a power
is based on their having obtained
a greater degree of responsibility
and respect than was due them
in formertimes. and the fact that
their basic objectives seem to be
opposed to those of the admin-
istration. In this case, the polari-
zation is based on opposite goals.
Non-alignment can be defended
on the world scene in terms of
both self interest and ethics. But
when applied to the campus, both
these considerations dictate some
form of faculty alliance with the

then his personal qualities, rather
than the education he received,
usually get the publicity and
credit. If he fails the same is
People who are successful in,
society, often for non-academic
reasons, feel that they have the
formula for producing others of
their kind. Society, respecting suc-
cess, often unthinkingly agrees,
and puts these people in charge of
institutions of higher education.
This usually applies to regents
and trustees rather than admin-
istrators, although it must be re-
membered that Columbia once
hired a general named Eisen-
hower as its president.
Once these people are in
power, they are forced to draw
upon their experience in private
life rather than educational
theory to shape university pol-
icy; or they may Just abdicate
the decision-making responsibil-
ity that goes with their posi-
tions. When the former occurs
there is a parroting of society's
values and procedures to the
detriment of the ideal goal, that
of producing broadly educated
people. {
Thus, the administration, con-
forming to its role as the status
quo power, goes up to Lansing at
appropriation time with the same
idea year after year: to sell the
University on the basis of its con-
tribution to the state economy
and the value of its research ef-
forts to the national defense pro-
duct. The liberally educated, con-
cerned student cannot be used as
a selling point. His education is an
intangible which cannot be quan-
tified in terms the Legislature can
The faculty, if they are comi-
mitted to their occupation, should
not have to judge the student in
terms of material value. Their
job will have provided them with
a value system which considers
this intangible education a desir-
able and essential human oom-
ponent. Professors are prone to
say that nothing pleases them
more than a student who is gen-
uinely interested in his classwork
and who follows this up by con-
tacting the professor outside the
classroom. They bemoan the rarity
of such students and generally lay
the blame -on an inherent laziness
and dilettantism among the stu-
dent body in general.
Criticism of any role the ad-
ministration and society in general
might have in fostering this stu-
dent apathy is either neglected or
softened, if made at all. Admin-
istrators are content to bewail
the lack of student initiative,
piously proclaim their own good
intentions and, like some under-
developed nations, neglect the
needs of the people (students) by
turning to policies designed to
draw more financial aid (doing re-
search which will benefit the ad-
Quiet Boy

ministration's position in selling
the University).
Yet why should the faculty ex-
pect all initiative to come from
the students? In a community
whose atmosphere does its best to
disparage the concept of student
responsibility, the initiative de-
sired by the faculty can only be
the exception rather than the
rule. Besides, even if the students
did take the initiative, just what
would they accomplish?
It is true that they could de-
velop a personal relationship
with another person which could
be immensely stimulating and
exciting. However, personal re-
lationships are not enough. The
conditions under which educa-
tion is carried out are also im-
portant. Yet what can a profes-
sor do about such things as mass
lectures, an inadequate grading
system or the student's limited
knowledge about decisions to be
made which will affect his edu-
Faculty power in this University
is considerably less than one
might expect from the faculty's
essential role in the educational
process. Except for some teachers
in the literary college and a few
other schools, most professors are
satisfied with this relationishp.
That this does not present the stu-
dent with an inspiring picture of
leadership and commitment to the
educational process seems obvious.
The last time students demon-
strated real initiative was two
years ago when they tried to form
a student-faculty lobbying group
to study University problems and
work for their solution. Some fac-
ulty members were interested in
getting together with the stu-
dents for philosophical discussions
but, except for one or two, felt
that action was out. Some did not
consider the problems worth
bothering about; others had been
fighting for some time and were
discouraged and embittered. The
experience left the participating
students discouraged and embit-
An aura of creeping financialism
is pervading the University. The
serious consideration being given
by the Legislature to a "match-
ing fund" budget increase, which
would mean another tuition raise,
is only one example. Another is
the desire by certain administra-
tors for more financial control
over organizations such as the
Union and League, as well as the
desire to make such institutions
individually self supporting, no
matter what the result.
The growth of this atmosphere
will see a serious undermining of
tne remaining intellec ual unnate
left at this University. Adminis-
trative policy seems to be com-
mitted to this undermining. Fac-
ulty and students have a direct
interest in seeing that this trend
is countered and reversed. The
student voice is weak and damp-
ened in the immensity of the Uni-
versity's decision-making struc-
ture. So, the faculty must leave
their lofty, moralizing post and
get down into the muck that is

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
second of a three-part series on
the proposed expansion of Flint
College itO a four-year institution.
The proposal brings up an impor-
tant question in state higher edu-
cation expansion: should large state
institutions branch out or should
the community college system be
M. French abhors the term
When he took his position in
1956 as the administrative head of
the two-year institution at Flint
-the University's 16th college and
its first outside Ann Arbor-he
became painfully aware that many
Ann Arborites felt the University
was opening an inferior "branch"
Dean French took no such view.
FLINT COLLEGE holds now-as
it did in 1956-an equal status in
the University structure as any
of the other colleges hold, he ex-
This means the faculty members
receive the same salary levels as
those in Ann Arbor, the enroll-
ment procedures are handled sim-
ilarly and students have their own
stadent activities.
"We like to think of oou'we. s
as one 'campus' of the University-
while calling Ann Arbor another
'campus'," he observes, summing
up his attitude.
to action in 1956, French aimed at
maintaining the "high standards
expected of University colleges,"
while adapting to the "special
conditions and needs in Flint."
It was these needs which had
led Flint citizens, working with
University officials, to create Flint
College, after years of planning,
as a supplement to what the citi-
zens considered a highly inade-
quate two-year program of junior
college post-high school educa-
This program was the curriculum
offered by the Flint Community
College since 1923.
FRENCH thus set to work with
an institution created by two
partially conflicting sources, the
University and Flint citizens. He
tried to fit Flnt into the Univer-
sity structure while fulfilling spe-
cific, autonomous needs and wants
of the Flint community.
But these creators-the citizens
and administrators-probably have
envisioned, although with faint
hope, the day when Flint could
break away from its stifling two-
year junior-senior program and
stand alone, not considered a
branch or community institution,
but as a full-fledged four-year
operation affiliated loosely with
the University.
Only recently has the prospect
of materializing those hopes come
to the fore as an inquiry group
investigates the possibility of.
Flint expansion.
IN THOSE opening days of 1956,
Dean French had no time, for
future, hopes. He had the im-
mediate task of organizing a
strong program in libeal arts
b u s i n e ss administration and
teacher education for the 167
A nima ted
WALT DISNEY can get more
mileage out of a movie than
any other producer I know. Take
"Fantasia," now showing at the
State Theatre for example: here
is a picture that has been around
several times since its debut about
20 years ago, playing to packed
houses each time.
"Fantasia" is a tour dle force

in its own special ,category, that
of demonstrating Chow - beloved
pieces of music might serve as
hallucinogens to a group of Disney
cartoonists who must have had as
much fun making the movie as
audiences have watching it. The
dioramas they depict range from
the whimsical to the bizarre, from
the miraculous transformation of
a group of thistles to wildly whir-
ling Russian dancers (in the "Nut-
cracker Suite") to the grotesque
orgy of carnal sinners in the
"Night on Bald Mountain" (ef-
fectively juxtaposed with Schu-
bert's "Ave Maria").
* * *
THE MOVIE was made before it
was generally realized that stereo-
phonic sound does not mean hav-
ing any given solo instrument
show up on one side of the stage
for half of the performance and
then scoot over to the other side
for the coda.
Nevertheless, the idea was to
match the music with the car-
toons; and in this everyone was
successful, even if the "Rite of
Spring" did end up something of
a bodge-podge. I would not bother
about the many liberties Leopold
Stokowski takes with the score,

juniors that were to enter as the
class of '58.
That French performed his task
masterfully is attested to by the
considerable growth of the col-
lege--from 167 to a current popu-
lation of 600.
But more important than the
numbers is the quality of those
educated which French views with
* * *
STARTING OFF with a stu-
dent body with over half its mem-
bers coming from homes without
a parental high school graduate,
the college produced some start-
ling statistical results.
An account of its 1963 graduat-
ing class shows that 20 per cent
went to graduate and professional
schools while another 52 per cent
became teachers or involved in-
sciehtific training. The remainder
went into business management.
The significant point, French
observes, is the tremendous bene-
fit that the college has given to
the community through its huge
supply of competent people for
teaching and business.
* * *
IN SUMMING UP Flint's im-
pact, French notes that the sig-
tificance was much more than
local. As the only degree-granting
college institution within 50 miles
of Flint and affecting 370,000
people, the college enabled stu-
dents to qualify for medical
schools and professional training
who might never have received
any college education at all.
Further, it has permitted over
200 students enrolled at other.
higher education institutions to
enroll for summer sessions.
In total, French estimates that
more than 20f0 individuals from
all over the state have participat-
ed in an educational experience
originally intended for local con-
sumption only.
IN ACHIEVING the prescribed
task of educating Flint students,
Flint College professors and
French himself have begun to see
how limited this task was.
As one Flint professor put it,
"I came here because I thought
Flint was a small college-man's
dream. In one institution there
existed both the high velocity of
ideas created by a big university
and the intimacy of contact found
only in a small school."
But six years at the institution
dimmed his dream and has left
instead an attitude of discourage-
ment over the "extreme inbred-
ness" of the students.
What is most aggravating, an-
other professor reveals, "is the
fact that we, as an institution of
ideas and stimulation,' are unable
to knock out the students' old
prejudices and bring in some new
ideas in two short years."
proceeding cautiously through the
dictates of his position, acknowl-
edges that much feeling of limita-
tion could be erased by expansion.
Viewing the college structurally,
he renounces the one-man depart-
ments, the difficulties of grinding
out an expansive program from a
25-man staff and the lack of hous-
ing which forces commuters to
travel increasing distances or not
come at all.
Although as cautious as French,
the visions of University admin-
istrators and local citizens are
also on expansion. But they see
with apprehension the major bar-
rier-the Flint Community Col-
lege, Flint College's touchy little
brother. Tlie fear of arousing sib-
ling jealousies comes from the
current rapport which the two
schools have.
* * *
under the "two-two" plan, Flint
Community College educates the
local studentry for their first two
years and then sends them on to
Flint College to take the final
two years and receive a bacca-

laureate degree. Over 70 per cent
of the current Flint College en-
rollment was once registered at
the community college.
But the schools also have more
,immediate structural affiliations,
including a "cross-over" plan
whereby a student may in special
cases supplement the education
he is receiving at one institution
by enrolling in courses at the
In addition, the colleges share
many facilities such as the ap-
plied sciences building, an athletic
building and the library.
* * *
IN THEMSELVES, the structual
ties would not preclude a sensi-
ble expansion plan.
Even overriding past agree-
ments to maintain a "two-two"
plan, expansion of Flint College
into a four-year institution might
be accomplished with a minimum
of friction..
But what must be resolved-
and this is the task of the inquiry
group investigating expansion pos-
sibilities-is whether the Flint
community can supply enough
qualified students to stock two
freshmen post-high school classes.
More fundamentally, University
administrators, Flint citizens and
junior college officials must eval-



MAYBE IT'S JUST a coincidence, but
the three top contenders for the presi-
dency in 1964-Gov. Rockefeller, Sen.
Goldwater and President Kennedy - are
all millionaires.
It seems more than a coincidence when
one considers that experience in a public
office is an unwritten requirement for
the presidency and that the inherited for-
tunes of these three men enabled them to
run effective campaigns for office. In
this era, money may be a new kingmaker,
and poor boys may no longer be entitled
to Lincolnesque dreams.


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