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USSR spurs Wheat Trade
IUMEBACK FOLLOWING WAR:
By FRANCIS STILLY_
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
The world's great staff of life
-wheat--is being moved aroun
the glome in the greatest quanti-
ties in history.
Russia, because of immense crop
failures, suddenly found it neces-
sary to buy upwards of 400 mil-
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON - The number
of Americans with jobs increased
350,000 to a total of 69.1 million in
October, the labor department
The number of unemployed re-
mained at 3.5 million, unchanged
from September, but reflected a
slight drop percentagewise as the
total labor force grew 300,000 to
76.1 million, the Bureau of Labor
* * * N
cratic and Republican leaders
teamed up yesterday to try to
head off deep cuts in President
John F. Kennedy's $4.2-billion
foreign aid bill by offering a com-
promise amendment to reduce the
total by $385 million.
ROME - The Roman Catholic
Bishops of Italy issued a warning
to the Italian people last night
against atheistic Communism.
It was the first such joint dec-
laration by the Italian Episcopacy,
since the Church, starting in the
reign of Pope John XXIII, began
seeking a new relationship with
Communist governments behind
the Iron Curtain.
UNITED NATIONS-The main
UN political committee approved
yesterday a resolution calling on
the 18-nation disarmament com-
mission to resume negotiations
"with a sense of urgency" on a
total test ban agreement.
By a 97-1 vote, with three ab-
stentions, the committee adopted
the resolution sponsored by 30
SAIGON-A Vietnamese officer
spurred the hunt today for three
missing United States army men,
believed to be prisoners of the
Communists, by offering his units
$3,000 for their rescue.
* * *
NEW YORK - The stock mar-
ket weathered some additional
selling yesterday and recovered
enough to show a mixed pattern
at the close. Dow-Jones averages
showed 30 industrials up .04, 20
rails up 1.36, 15 utilities up .44'
and 65 stocks up .64.
lion bushels. Some of the Soviet
satellites also are in dire need.
eRussian purchases are expected
to total nearly $1 billion.
S Japan too has experienced a
shortage because of poor crops
and will have to increase its im-
- ports from the United States, Can-
- ada and Australia by about 50
per cent. The import total for the
year will be 2.5 million tons at
a cost of about $190 million.
South Korea is another country
which will need a large quantity of
foreign wheat. About a million
tons, or some $55 million worth
will be sent from the United
States, $5 million worth from Can-
ada and a lesser amount from Aus-
Other large purchasers of for-
eign wheat will be India and Paki-
'But by far the greatest purchase
--and the largest transaction of its
kind in the history of the world-
is that just negotiated by Russia
It calls for 240 million bushels
or 6.8 million tons, at a cost of
Shortly afterward, President
John F. Kennedy authorized a
United States sale to the Soviet
Union of about 160 million bush-
els, or some 4 million tons, which
would cost the Russians around
Russia's need evidently is a des-
perate one. It also turned to Aus-
tralia for another deal which even-
tually may involve purchase of
another 1.8 million tons or more
at a cost of about $200 million.
As if that weren't enough, Rus-
sia also has gone to West Ger-
many, France and Italy to buy the
equivalent of 100 million bushels
of wheat already milled into flour.
This wheat came from the United
States and Canada.
Russia not only needs wheat to'
cover its own large needs but ap-
parently in addition to take care
of commitments to East Germany,
Czechoslovakia, Uoland and Cuba.
These commitments are believed1
to total about four million tons.
It has been reported that Czech-1
oslovakia, Hungary and Bulgaria
are also seeking to buy sizable
quantities from the United States.
Russia's wheat deals alone al-'
ready have produced some sweep-
ing effects and could produce somex
important others. They include:
-A huge shot in the arm to
-The possibility of even greater
trade, including many other com-
modities, between Russia and the
actions. This has been running
about $2.5 billion annually.
--A possible propaganda vic-
tory, in which wheat deals could
be held up alongside previous So-
viet claims that Communism of-
fers a better system for producing
the necessities of life than the
West's free enterprise.
-A tremendous outlet for huge
United States and Canadian sur-
pluses of wheat.
Record Breaking Harvest
The .Canadian wheat harvest
this year was a record breaker-
720 million bushels.
The United States already has
in storage enough wheat for its
own use for the next two years,
and th"s year's crop would be suf-
ficient to meet needs for another
Storage of America's surplus
wheat has been a costly affair.
The tab for fiscal 1963 is $290
million. Therefore any unusually
large extra sales abroad would
materially reduce this cost.
Secretary of Agriculture Orville
Freeman says United States wheat
sales to Russia may boost ex-
ports to a billion bushels thisl
Shipments to Russia under the'
deal approved by President Ken-i
nedy would save the United Statesi
$200 million in wheat storage costs,1
North Korea's economic recov-
ery since the end of the Korean
War has been so impressive that
it makes United States-backed
South Korea look bad in com-,
Although not much is heard
about North Korea, from all re-
ports the Communist regime has
staged a remarkable comeback in
the ten years since the end of the
Reports from the Japanese and
other intelligence agencies, claim
North Korea is better off in many
respects than any other Commun-
ist country in Asia.
North Korean Premier Kim II
Sung has been boastful about his'
country's progress: pig iron pro-
duction in 1962 was at 1.3 million
tons, up five-fold from 1956; steel
production exceeded 1.1 million
tons in 1962 compared to 850,000
tons in 1961; coal production was
14.5 million tons in 1962 com-
pared to 13 million tons in 1961.
No Crop Failures
Unlike Communist China,
North Korea seems to have had
no crop failures in recent years.
The North Korean regime says it
is self-sufficient in food, which is
is now able to export trucks, trac-
tors, machine tools and other
equipment to Red China.
when North Korea's only exports
were raw materials, such as iron
ore, coal and fishery products.
North Korea also claims that
98 per cent of all its farm fami-
lies have electric lights.
However, North Korea's econ-
omic gains have been achieved by
concentrating on heavy industry
at the expense of consumer goods.
In Pyongyang, North Korean cap-
ital, necessities such as shoes and
clothing are scaitce and expen-
sive. Meat is hard to find as is
fruit. However, these items are
Wages in the country are low--
from $46-$50 a month for a skilled
worker in a steel plant: but hous-
ing, electricity and water are
Several factors have contribut-
ed to North Korea's growth.
One was the huge infusion of
economic aid from the Soviet Un-
ion, Red China and East Europe.
Another was a highly disci-
plined Communist leadership that
enforced political stability even
though the regime had been
shaken by repeated purges.
South Korea, on the other
hand, has suffered from chronic
political instability since the over-
throw of the Syngman Rhee re-
gime in 1960.
Also, South Korea has had
problems which the North didn't.
First, it has nearly 27 million
mouths to feed, whereas the popu-
lation of North Korea is only
about 11 million.
Much of the $3.5 billion dollars
in economic aid the United States
has poured into Korea since 1953
has gone to keep the people alive.
Large sums also were used for
reconstruction. For example, it
cost $300 million to restore South
Korea's rail system.
Another enormous drain on the
South Korean economy is the
600,000-man ROK arn'y, the big-
gest armed force in Asia outside
Red China. By contrast, North
Korea's armed forces amount to
only 380.000 men.
only 380.000 men.
North Korean Recovery Outshines Southern Rival
.. outshined country
a remarkable accomplishment, be-
cause 75 per cent of its area is
hilly or mountainous.
The Japanese sources also say
that North Korean industry has
moved ahead so fast the country
This is a switch from the days
HELD WITHOUT BAIL:
Georgia Attorney Backs 1871 Insurrection Law
By The Associated Press
-Perhaps a further improve-
ment in East-West relations and
a further reduction in Cold War
-A drop in the United States
"balance of payments" deficit;
that is, thu difference between in-
come and outgo on foreign trans-
AMERICUS, Da.-State prose-
cutor Stephen Pace Jr told three
federal judges yesterday that four
out-of-state integration leaders
encouraged resistance to lawful
authority in street marches last
This put them in violation of an
1871 Georgia law, attempting to
incite insurrection, said Pace, who
is Solicitor General for this area.
Pace was asked if a group pro-
testing school segregation would
be offering combined resistance to
"Possibly so, yes sir," Pace re-
plied.. But he said there would
have to be more than a simple
The prosecutor said five men,
including the four held under the
insurrection statute, had encour-
aged breaches of the peace and
had resisted arrest. Some of them
had assaulted policemen, he
Pace was the first witness in a
hearing on petition for an in-
junction against state, county
and city authorities to block
further prosecution of charges or
other interference with integra-
The prisoners are Donald Har-
ris, of New York, a Negro grad-
uate of Rutgers University, John
Perdew, of Denver, a Harvard
tudent; Ralph W. Allen, of Mel-
ose, Mass., a student on leave
rom Trinity College, and Zev
Aelony, of Minneapolis, former
tudent at the University of Min-
nesota - all charged with trying
o incite insurrection-and Thom-
s McDaniel, an Americus Negro
held in $12,000 bond on lesser
Petitions filed by attorneys for
he men seek injunctions against
Pace, State Safety Director Lowell
'onner, the mayor and city coun-
;ilmen, Police Chief Ross Chain-
liss, Sheriff Fred D. Chappell and
,he City of Americus.
The officials are charged in the
omplaint with depriving citizens
softest oxford that ever cradled a foot.
CAMPUS MAST'S SHOP .
New glove-lined Clinic, so light - so right for young
women in white. Get arch-cushioned comfort in the
JAILED WITHOUT BOND-These four men are currently facing trial on charges of attempting to in-
cite insurrection in Georgia. They are (from left to right): Donald Harris, Ralph W. Allen, John
Perdew and Zev Aelopy.
619 East Liberty
NATURE OF SCRIPTURES
In order to maintain its
identity as the community of
the redeemed, t h e Church
needs an objective link between
its contemporary self and \the
original Church. This link is
provided in the ' Scriptures,
which are the Divine witness
to the origin and development
of the Church. These docu-
ments were inspired by the
Holy Spirit during the period
of the early development of the
Church, and bear witness to
God's communcative acts, and
to the conditions under which
they were given. Thus, the
Scriptures are the Church's
source of understanding the
basic theological scene as it
prepares for worship. The
Scriptures' also provide the
Church with insights into God's
perspectives. They further in-
dicate the direction the Church
may take in fulfilling its mis-
sion and preserving its identity.
Is the Bible the verbally-in-
spired Word of God? Can the
Church conceive of its Scrip-
tures in other terms? How are
the Scriptures to be employed
by the Church?
Members of the Northside
Presbyterian Church, w h i c h
of constitutional rights and corr-
spiring "to injure, oppress, threat-
en and intimidate" them.
In his testimony, Pace said he
considered an insurrection charge
against John Barnum, local Ne-
gro leader, because of material
distributed by the integrationist
Sumter County Movement, of
which Barnum is an official.
The prosecutor said he himself
had sworn out a warrant against
Barnum but destroyed it after de-
ciding to pursue the matter be-
fore a grand jury.
He termed as insurrectionary a
printed appeal to Negro parents
and pupils urging a school boy-
cott because truancy violates a
Although he 'estified he had
not intended to prosecute the in-
surrection charges, Pace said he
opposed bond for the four out-
of-state men "as prosecuting at-
torney for the state." He said he
felt he should take the strongest
position in behalf of the state.
Purpose To Deny Bond'
He confirmed published reports
that the basic purpose in filing the
capital charge was to deny bond
to the prisoners. 4sked if he had
expressed hope of then negotiat-
ng with attorneys for the youths,
Pace said "We tried to convince
them this was not the right way
to go about this."
Pace testified he had voiced
bjections to Negroes being regis-
ered for voting in groups be-
cause he believed it was not in the
best interest for them to be
marched down by someone from
outside of our area."
Earlier attorney Morris Abram,
representing Aelony, charged
hat actions by Pace and other
fficials were "a scheme to de-
prive these people of rights se-
cured by the constitution."
"The point is that these state
courts are operating as a sham
and that what has happened here
is that this is a 20th century ran-
At the University, Voice in
protest of the unlawful arrests
of civil rights leaders in Ame-
ricus, is planning a rally and
picket of the Federal Building
in Detroit on Nov. 7. In an at-
tempt to encourage similar ral-
lies across the nation. Voice
has sent letters and articles to
200 college newspapers. Several
other schools are staging ral-
lies on Nov. 7.
The demonstration is co--
sponsored by the University
Fri dti of thw Stnnn d
that is. leave the county, leave
As attorneys fought to prove
state, county and city officials
had conspired to deprive citizens
of constitutional rights, Sallie
Mae Durham, a 14-year-old Negro
girl, testified she was struck by
a policeman when arrested in a
civil rights demonstration more
than three months ago.
The Federal Court of Appeals
for the Fifth Circuit is presently
hearing suits against interference
with integration activities as well
as the suit attempting to free the
She said police officers at the
city and county jail refused to
give her a bandage or an aspirin.
FRIDAY, NOV. 1, 8:00 P.M.
FIRESIDE CHAT led by Tom Marony,
"Wherever White' and Black Meet,
There is a Denial of Christian Justice."
SATURDAY, NOV. 2
after the Northwestern game.
5:30 P.M. HOMECOMING DINNER
SUNDAY, NOV. 3
after 9:30 Mass.
Speaker-Rev. James Sheehan,
What is the Catholic Impact in the
Struggle for Civil Rights."
O . y
0 O "
[nenus or theL1A! tuUa LNon- Miss Durham said she was con-
violent Coordinating Commit- fined in a small place which was
tee. not big enough to lie down in.
"She has not been permitted
som system." Abram said in an to make bail," County Attorney
argument to the court. Warren Fortson told the judges.
"These people are being held He explained that she was in cus-
and offered bail only if they give tody of the juvenile court and the
up their Constitutional rights - judge had been sick.
Y'esN .. ,.Say