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October 20, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-10-20

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' ml-dygau Batty
Seventy-Third Year
'Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

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Fate of Democracy
At Stake in India

Y, OCTOBER 20, 1963


Regents Erode Basis
Of Proposed U' Center

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PHE WORST FEARS of the Union and
League were confirmed Friday as the
egents called the concept of student par-
cipation in governing a new University
enter "inappropriate" and "ineffective."
Unfortunately, however, nowhere in the
egents' seven page statement could one
nd their reasons for thinking this way.
nd University President Harlan Hatcher
as evasive when asked this very question
t a press conference after the Regents'
ieeting. He said the reasons were "ob-
3RIEFLY, here is the basic issue: the
Robertson Report sketched a general
itline of the need for a University Cen-
r, which would not only merge the pres-
at operations of the Union and League
it also envisions other important serv-
es-such as a faculty club and a con-
rence center-to make it a completely
ew facility.
The crucial point was that the Univer-
ty Center would be governed by a stu-
mt-faculty-administrative board. Re-
)onsible to it, but in practice autono-
.ous, would be a completely student-run
ctivities board.
The overall board was proposed because
ie University Center would be "an orga-!
ization serving the entire University
>mmunity," the Robertson Report says.
For that reason, the major segments of
le University, students, faculty, and
.umni ought to be accorded equal repre-
"This board takes into account all the
Lried interests of the University in a

R11 - all

T THIS WEEK'S Student Government
Council meeting, it was asked if there
; any written prohibition against publi-
izing the way Council members vote in
fficer elections. Outgoing President
'homas Brown replied that there is not
ut that it Is an unwritten usage to keep
Liis matter secret.
This is a usage that should be changed.
y the nature of his position, the presi-
ent of SGC is the foremost spokesman
>r the student body; when speaking for
GC, he speaks for the student body. If
tudent government organization is to be
emocratic, the lines of representation.
eed to be clear. They become fuzzy when
ae votes of SGC members are kept secret.
'HE STUDENT who voted for Thomas
Smithson or for Sherry Miller is repre-
ented by them but particularly by the
ouncil president who is elected by Smith-
an and Miss Miller and the other Coun-
i1 members. But if this student doesn't
now wtom Smithson voted for or whom
Liss Miller voted for, he is denied a meas-
re of democracy. For democracy involves
esponsibility of the governors to the
overned and full knowledge about the
overnors by the governed.
If the student approved Smithson's,
holce and disapproved Miss Miller's
holce, he has the opportunity of support-
ig Smithson and opposing Miss Miller for
e-election. But if the student does not
now how either voted, he cannot vote
'ith as full a wisdom as a constituent
hould have.
'VENTUALLY SGC should have popular
election of the president and vice-pres-
dent. But in the meanwhile it should ini-
ate a roll-call vote in officer elections.
cial document has declared it wrong
nd harmful to blame the Jews for the
.eath of Jesus.
It asserts that the guilt for his death
3lls more properly on all humanity; fur-
iermore, that hatred and persecution of
ews is abhorrent to the Roman Catholic
hurch, and that those guilty of either
ierit the strongest possible repudiation
y ecclesiastical authority.
The European director of the American
ewish Committee praised the proposed
ction, hoping that it will "represent an
istoric breakthrough of unusual dimen-
on and be a decisive step toward the re-
ioval of a fundamental cause for the
ostility against Jews that was perpe-
ated for many generations."
T IS USELESS, now, to question and pro-
test because this statement was so long

more equitable way, and gives no single
interest majority control . .. (These in-
terests) would come together with a com-
mon purpose: to work for the individual
and collective interests of all segments of
the University."
THE REGENTS lauded the proposal to
merge the student activities wings. And
that was all.
Instead of seeing a University Center
serving the University community as a
responsibility to be shared by all segments
of that community, the Regents decided
that "an attempt to consolidate and
bring together these functions under a
single governing board is inappropriate
and would be ineffective in carrying out
these functions."
Throwing in a couple of red herrings
for good measure, the Regents did not
"believe it desirable for students to be in-
volved in the management and operation
of a faculty center and of a conference
center." The various functions envisioned
for a University Center "will be success-
fully carried out if they have separate
and specific operating units with atten-
tion and effort directed to their particular
objectives rather than being organized
under a single governing board."
SO IT IS AN ISSUE of going it alone or
working together, and the Regents like
the first idea. More importantly, however,
is the fact that they would like to give
exclusive control over finances to the ad-
ministration. The University Center would
have to ask for funds like "any other part
of the University."
Also, the student activities could occupy
space in the present Union and League
buildings only "so long as such spaces
continue to be effectively used"-in other
words, as long as the student programs
suit the fancy of Vice-President for Busi-
ness and Finance Wilbur K. Pierpont.
Some day, perhaps, the Regents will
understand that students and faculty are
the heart of a university,.and that admin-
istrators "exist only to implement their
policies. Giving Pierpont's office exclusive
charge over finances is a rather frighten-
ing first step towards a business-oriented
University in which educational and aca-
demic goals would be subsumed to ones of
cost and efficiency.
THE IDEA of the Robertson Report was
not that students would be dabbling in
financial details. The present Union and
League officers work up to 50 hours a week
for their respective organizations already
-why should they want to bother with
figuring out hotel rates? The answer is
simple-they don't. And neither do stu-
dents wish to dictate to the faculty how to
run their club.
What they do want is to be part-and a
minority part at that-of the general pol-
icy formulation for 'a University Center.
The policy questions and broad financial
decisions, they feel, should be settled by
faculty, students and administrators. In
attempting to be of service to the entire
campus, these groups should work togeth-
er rather than separately, simply because
serving the campus is not the exclusive
feudal barony of the administration.
PERHAPS SOME of the above is too
harsh. The Regents, after all, were sim-
ply doing what was requested of them:
the Union and League governing boards
asked the Regents for their comment on
the Robertson Report, and they got it.
But if the Regents do have sound-
rather than expedient-reasons for tor-
pedoing the concept of a common concern
and shared responsibility for an all-cam-
pus service center, then let's hear them.
The Union and League officers, for their

part, must analyze the Regental state-
ment thoroughly and be sure of all its
implications. Then, if there seems to be
room for compromise, they should propose
alternative plans which might be accept-
able to both sides.
However, they must under no circum-
stances back away, from the basic princi-
ple of the Robertson Report. In addition,
they should solicit student support and, if
possible, faculty support in any way they
can. And if it turns out that the Regents
will not accept a plan based on this prin-
ciple, then the Union and League officials
should forget about a merger and keep
things the way they are-with each build-

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NEXT TO THE United States,
Soviet Union, and Red China,
India is the most important coun-
try in the world. In an era torn
between democracy and totalitar-
ianism, India is the testing ground
on which will be determined if de-
mocracy can meet the challenges
faced by the underdeveloped na-
tions of the world.
In trying to win the allegiance
of the underdeveloped nations,
democracy is at the disadvantage.
It must show that it is possible
for a politically unsophisticated,
largely illiterate population with
no democratic tradition to elect
wisely intelligent and dedicated
Equally important, it must show
that democratic methods can
overcome inherent disadvantages,
relative to totalitarian methods, in
the area of rapidly improving the
economic status of ah underde-
veloped country. Being unable to
dictate policy, faced with fluctu-
ations in leadership and incapable
of forcing strongly repressive
measures or forced labor upon its
citizens, democracy's disadvantage
is great.
* * *
INDIA IS attempting to suc-
ceed despite these disadvantages
through a number of novel eco-
nomic and political systems. One
of the foremost is the Community
Development Program. Under this'
program, broad national economic
goals are established by the cen-
tral government in a Five-Year
Plan although implementationsis
ca.rried out with a great deal of
freedom by local Panchayat,
small units of village government.
A seconds unique Indian system
involves the close relationship be-
tween economic and political de-
mocracy. The 'Panchayat decide
questions related to both political
and economic issues. Basic indus-
tries are owned and operated by
the national government, though
the economy does have a private
sector open to smaller businesses.
In addition, the government is
attempting to establish a cooper-
ative sector in the economy in
order to balance the political pow-
er of the other sectors and be-
cause such a system is the natural
complement to the function of the
Panchayat. Cooperatives are also
naturally democratic forms of or-
ganization. As such they promote
both education in democracy and
serve the interests of the people
better than private industries or
government-owned industries.
A third important feature of the
Indian system is its method of
practicing while at the same time
teaching political democracy. At
the local level, Gram Sabhas, con-
sisting of all the members of a
village, have been created to stim-
ulate direct democracy, working
side by side with the representa-
tive Panchayats. Members of
Panchayats' elect the governing
representatives on the block and
district levels. Direct elections pre-
vail above this level, the people
directly choosing members of their
state government and the Indian

'} , I


WHAT HAPPENED to political
criticism and dissent in this
country? As one of the most lit-
erate populations in the world, we
should be working to stimulate
this country with conflictink and
controversial social ideas. Yet the
American political scene is limited
and tame rather than dynamic as
should be expected.
Until two years ago, the student
movement could have been called
a dynamic social force. However,
since its issues have been taken
over by the political establishment,
students have dropped back into
the non-political mass population.
The co-option of the student
movement's issues by the nation's
political establishment is in keep-
ing with one of the major goals
of the Kennedy administration.
This is the creation of a national
consensus among the American
people on the limits within which
our political struggles will be
fought out. Concurrent with this
idea is another to the effect that
the Kennedy administration is
filled withbright competent peo-
ple who are interested in handling
the nation's business in a prag-
maticnway for thebenefit of the
American people.
The main idea behind the po-
litical consensus is that nobody
should push too far and too fast
on important issues. Furthermore,
if opposition to an issue or policy
is not raised blatantly or in a
manner which would put themAd-
ministration in a bad light, it
will be taken into consideration
and probably accommodated.
WITHIN THIS circumscription
of action there is also circum-
scription of issues. We are sup-
posedly committed to a modified
capitalist economy with govern-
ment intervention, creeping to-
ward some form of the welfare
state. This latter is deemed nec-
essary for the preservation of the
basic system by administering to
the symptoms of the system's
faults rather than their causes.
We 'are also labeled as a middle
class nation with a relatively
small upper or lower class.
In foreign affairs we have
learned to live with neutralism
while maintaining our support of
anti-Communist autocrats where
strategic considerations deem this
necessary. With the Russians we
are tough but flexible. The Chi-
nese are still in the international
out-house where they have re-
cently been joined by the Cubans.
We are still trying to maintain
our position as the leader of the
Western camp and protest indig-
nantly against any of our allies
who question the dedication of
our committment to them.
This is not to say that this
country is unified in its support
of the above issues. Certainly the
Republicans attack Kennedy on
most of them. However, after care-
ful analysis it can be seen that
most of GOP protests are on the
speed of goal achievement or issue
implementation rather than basic
content. This is part of the two
party consensus myth. Oly Gold-
water and his followers make an
attempt to question content, al-
though this has to be deciphered
through a maze of contradictions

problems which this country must
A case in point is that of the 20
or so per cent of Americans who
live on'the brink of poverty. This
group includes unemployed miners
in Pennsylvania and West Vir-
ginia, Negro sharecroppers in the
South, migrant workers all over
the country and others.
We don't hear very much about
this group from the Administra-
tion. They are the outcasts of our
society and it seems to be the
desire of the consensus seekers to
relegate them to that position
permanently. It is only through
the efforts of adult "radical"
groups and some students that
these people receive the minimal
attention they do.
* * *
A DIFFERENT kind of example
is the civil rights controversy.
The Kennedy administrationhas
no basic ideological commitment
to civil rights. When the Southern
student sit-ins spread across the
nation and escalated into a move-
ment by the national Negro com-
munity, the Administation sud-
denly became concerned about its
image in the field. Federal troops
forced integration of the Univer-
sities of Mississippi and Alabama
and Kennedy made a pro-civil
rights speech and had a civil
rights bill drawn up.
At the same time he urged the
Negro community to have faith
in the Administration and the
Negroes' problems would be solved.
The President's brother deplored
the use of little children in dem-
onstrations and counseled modera-
tion. Most civil rights groups ac-
cepted this establishment support
at the price of their militancy.
Only groups such as the Student
Non-Violent Coordinating Com-
mittee and the Black supremist
groups protested that the problem
was too vital for moderation and
its quick solution more important
than the administration's image.
can people are making it easier
for Kennedy to get his consensus
across. Most people are primarily
concerned with daily bed and
board decision and are anxious to
leave social problems to someone
willing to handle them-in this
case the federal government. They
feel that their only national duty
is to vote in elections and pay
income taxes.
The natural outcome of this
abdication of the duties of citizen-
ship could be covert totalitarian-
ism. In the past totalitarian lead-
ers have used force, oppression
and exile to surpress opposition
ideas. In this country, however,
the people are coming to accept
the word of the political estab-
lishment and follow in its foot-
steps. Opposing ideas are not
eliminated by force; rather they
are accepted by the establishment
and modified and tempered to
suit pragmatic political purposes.
TO COUNTER this trend to-
ward possible totalitarianism, it
is vital that individuals and groups
with opposing ideas be encouraged
to speak out as widely as possible.
Organizations such as the Black
Muslims, the local Direct Action
Committee and pacifist peace
aonnlhflmy advocate solni. c,,1ifi c ~t

outside the consensus and be
ready to criticize our society and
advocate solutions in the areas
needing them.
TWO YEARS ago I attended an
Overseas Press Club conference in
New York which brought together
student journalists to inform them
on foreign affairs. One of the
speakers was a student leader from
Malaya whose remarks went
something like this:
In my countries and most others
students are looked to as leading
contributors to society. You have
given up this responsibility by
becoming concerned with panty
raids, new cars and the kind of
house you will live in. Some day
in the future you are going to
have to sit down across a confer-
ence table from me and convince
me that you have something to
offer both to myself and the world.
I wonder if you will be able to.
* * *
THE TROUBLE in this country
is that too few people are wonder-
ing with him.

. India's problems

Reviewer Elucidates
Opinion on Cane'

To the Editor:
RICHARD SIMON'S criticism of
my review of "Mondo Cane" is
significant for it points up the
great failure of the film and of the
entire "this is life" school of
Indeed, a graduation ceremony
might havebeen included in the
film. For that matter, anything
and everything might have been
included. The result would still be
"life," but life is not necessarily
art. The essence of art is the
selection and arrangement of ex-
perience and it is these two quali-
ties that "Mondo Cane" most evi-
dently lacks.
WHAT YOU say is in "Mondo
Cane" is only potentially there.
A great deal of experience has
been assembled, but Jacopetti has
given no meaning to it.
The only virtue of the film is
randomness; but randomness is
not art. If I strike the keys of a
pianoat random, is this music? If
I take a pen. and begin scribbling
randomly, is this literature? Like-
wise, if I take a camera and
photograph the world at random,
is this art? No, not until I invest
this myriad of experience with
meaning through conscious selec-
tion and arrangement.
I OBJECT to the sex and scat-
ology in "Mondo Cane" because
Jacopetti has invested it with no
meaning. In the hands of a James
Joyce scatology can be signifi-
cant. Under the direction of a
Federico Fellini sex can be sig-
But Joyce and Fellini are ma-
ture artists, creating for a serious
audience. "Mondo Cane" is for
the adolescent, learing and drool-
ing, suddenly discovering the ugli-
ness of life and wallowing in it.

munity Development Surenora
Kumar Dey, '31E. is quite pleased
with the success of these programs.
Nevertheless, there are prob-
lems, which is why he came to
the University. He found many
people here who did not share his
In many cases these problems
are too technical to permit solu-
tion by anyone other than experts
in the field. Yet the questions
which Dey presented in the work-
ing papers for the symposia last
week with members of the Uni-
versity faculty offer a valuable
insight to problems faced by an
underdeveloped country trying to
be a democracy.
* * *
THESE ARE a few of the more
interesting questions posed by Dey,
-Can the cooperative sector de-
velop a balancing force between
the public and private sectors in
a mixed economy?
.--How can the cooperative prin-
ciple of self-help be reconciled
with the current need of cooper-
atives for state aid?
-How can the 35 million mem-
bers of Indian cooperatives be ed-
ucated in the principles of man-


These seem to be a defense
against bewilderment, uncertainty,
confusion and anxiety, rather than
an honest attempt ot constructive
IF MR. WALKER had looked
up the meaning of "chronicle," he
would have found: "A historical
account of events in the order of
time; a history." For the verb, "to
chronicle," he would have found:
"To record in a chonicle; to re-
cord." There is no mention of
"the duty of the chronicler to
give form and substance (whatever
that means) to his work."
If Mr. Walker had observed
more objectively, he might have
enjoyed the experience and found
that "Mondo Cane" does exactly
what it states at the beginning-
it reports objectively, and does
very much consider the phenome-
non of time, of past and present,
and the often unbelieveable com-
monalities between the two.
* * *
INCIDENTALLY, accurate re-
porting does depend on zooming in
on life, and, unlige superficial con-
siderations, "can never zoom in
too close." This is exactly what Mr.
Walker failed to realize when he
said that "there is absolutely no
purpose in this random collection."
Randomness may have been the
subjective experience of the re-
viewer; it was not a quality of
the scenes juxtaposed so as to
impress one with the notion that
sex and sadism is inherent in all
cultures at all times, and that
bewildering and bizarre behavior
is the mark of humanity.
Modern man is as happy, clever,
frightened and bizarre as his
primitive brothers in the bush-
he merely expresses these qualities

-Can the direct participation
Gram Sabha coexist with the' rep-
resentative Panchayat?
-Would it be desirable to have
either direct or indirect elections
for all representatives, or should
a mixture like the present one be
-Can the two processes of local
and national planning be harmon-
-Is the current system of de-
velopment from below, slowing
down development as it does, too
great a price to pay for its demo-
cratic advantages?
-Is the participation of poli-
tical parties, with deeply en-
trenched vested and caste inter-
ests, desirable on the local level?
-What is the fastest method for
training both office-holders and
voters in a democracy?
* * *
ing Dey's general optimism, came
up either at the: symposia or in
the course of one of Dey's many
discussions or talks on campus.
-Have the social sciences ad-
vanced to the point where they
can contribute enough to make
the Indian experiments a success?
-Are cooperatives actually effi-
cient enough or even organiza-
tionally possible in more than a
few areas considering their large
percentage of failure in India' to
-Is the current growth rate of
the Indian economy, 2.5 per cent
'per capita, high enough to satisfy
the rising expectations of the
-Is even this increase being
equitably distributed in the face
of somtestatistics that claim that
it is not?
-Will the threat of Red Chi-
nese aggression which is forcing
great increases in defense spend-
ing cause the end of advances and
perhaps even the collapse of the
Indian economy?
FROM THESE lists of questions,
it is clear the outlook for India
is not assuredly bright. Only with
a great deal of technical and eco-
nomic assistance can India even
hope to succeed.
Opress iont
THEY (sHE Chinese people)
have no interest in promoting
revolutions in Asia, Africa and
Latin America. They want more
food and more clothing. They
want less regimentation and
slave-driving. They are terribly
afraid that if Mao Tse-tung should
mean what he has said, the
scarce resources of the country
would be diverted towards the ob-
jective of promoting world revo-
lution. Mao naturally hopes, that
in challenging the Soviet Union,
he could rally the Chinese people
around him.
... He will find that his stand




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