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September 15, 1963 - Image 3

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-09-15

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SUNI

SEP'T

].5,1963

SUN SPI 15 1963T MICHIAN TBAIL

P!

Attempt To Push
S enate Near Vote
On'A-Ban Treaty
WASHINGTON (')-The bipartisan Senate leadership-balked
in two previous tries-will make new attempts this week to bring the
limited nuclear test-ban treaty to the voting stage.
Democratic majority leader Sen. Mike Mansfield of Montana
conceded yesterday that unless the opposition cooperates, the debate
may extend into its third week.
He and GOP minority leader Sen. Everett Dirksen of Illinois made
twoefforts last week to advance the parliamentary stages of the
treaty to move from debate on the pact itself to the resolution of
ratification.
Necessary Preliminaries
Until that is done, reservations and understandings which have
been offered to the resolution can not be called up for debate and
votes. Sen. Strom Thurmond (D-SC), a foe of the pact, twice blocked
"the bipartisan leadership's joint
requests for unanimous consent to
bring up the resolution. But he
.refused to say whether he plans
to offer an amendment to the
treaty, which would be barred by
the motion.
Mansfield, asked the prospects
for a change of attitude by Thur-
mond, said "I just don't know."
"There's no agreement," he
" " said, "and no way to force one."
Wlile the motion could be of-
fered to advance the treaty-and
the leadership has the votes to do
it-it would be subject to unlim-
: - ...: . ited debate.
* The Next Step

Governors
Call For
Cut in Tax
DENVER (M)-Republican gov-
ernors of the nation called yester-
day for a cut in federal income
taxes coupled with action to hold
federal spending at present levels.
The call came in the first policy
statement issued by the new Re-
publican Governors Association,
which held a one-day meeting in
Denver.
Although the official discussions,
which took place behind closed
doors, were limited to issues, in-
formal discussions around the
meeting centered on presidential
candidates. Also considered was
the rise of extreme right wing ele-
ments.
'Menace'
Gov. Nelson Rockefeller of New
York said he considered groups
seeking an end to federal income
taxes a menace to tho country,
because repeal of taxes would re-
move revenue necessary to pre-
serve the nation in its struggle
against Communism.
Status of minority groups can
best be improved by extended job
opportunities, the income tax
statement declared. It contended
the administration of President
John F. Kennedy has failed to lay
groundwork for 20 million jobs
which will be needed within five
years.
Committee Named
The Republican governors nam-
ed Govs. William W. Scranton of
Pennsylvania, John A. Love of
Colorado and Robert E. Smylie of
Idaho to serve on the executive
committee.
Their efforts will be coordinated
with those of the national com-
mittee and the two Republican
congressional campaign commit-
tees.
Smylie said they plan to con-
centrate on 10 states-he did not
name them-where Democratic
governors won election by less than
three per cent of the total vote.
Optimism
A note of optimism about GOP
chances pervaded the meeting.
Rockefeller called the outlook for
election of a Republican presi-
dent in 1964.bright.
Scranton said there has been a
tremendous upsurge in Republican
chances paitly because of the
"backlash" on civil rights, which
he said harmed President John F.
Kennedy. He said Kennedy also
lost popularity because of the ad-
ministration's role in Viet Nam and
its handling of the threatened rail-
road strike.

Civil War Shakes Iraq

x

B'NA I B'RI TH
HILLEL FOUNDATION
announces

EDITOR'S NOTE: A bitter civil war,
little reported to the outside world,
is being fought in Iraq, the area of
ancient Mesopotamia. Correspondent
Alex Efty is back from two months
on that front and tells in this dis-
patch how the war is affecting the
Kurdish minority of Iraq.
By ALEX EFTY
Associated Press Staff Writer
NICOSIA-A pall of gray smoke
from the blazing countryside hangs
over the mountains of northern
Iraq, where the Iraqi government
is trying to crush the two-year-
old Kurdish revolt with a scorched
earth policy.
Government planes bomb vil-
lages to ruins, set fire to vast
tracts of the green countryside
and machine-gun anything that
moves.
The 11/2 to 2 million colorful,
turbaned Kurds live in a mountain
region about the size of West Vir-
ginia. Their leaders demand self-
rule in terms the government says
it cannot grant. Fearing that self-
rule by the Kurds threatens Iraq's
rich northern oil-fields and could
lead to an independent Kurdish
state, the government has decided
to settle the Kurdish problem
once and for all.
War Horror
The horrors of war have hit
hardest on the plans and in the
central section of Iraqi Kurdistan,
in the remote valleys near the
Turkish border, inhabited by about
1000 families from the tribe of
rebel leader Mullah Mustafa Bar-
zani.
Driven back by incessant air
and artillery attacks, some Barzani
families have fled to the border
and reportedly sought asylum in
Turkey.
Kurdistan is about 250 miles
long by 100 miles wide. This cor-
respondent spent eight weeks on
foot a n d horseback traveling
through more than 400 miles of it.
Many Die
Rebel leaders told me 20,000
Kurds-mnainly women, children
and noncombatants - have been
killed since the fighting began in
September, 1961.
They claim 90 per cent of the
crops in the grain-producing low-

ABDEL KERIM KASSEM
... cause of it all

MIKE MANSFIELD
..*tax cut possible
Mansfigeld

Su ports Bill
WASHINGTON UP) - Senate
Majority Leader Mike Mansfield
(D-Mont) expressed hope yester-
day that the Senate .will be able to
take up a tax-cut bill this year
but said it will not be before the
civil-rights bill.
Passage of both measures at this
session of Congress has been
strongly urged by President John
F, Kennedy, but Mansfield avoid-
ed predicting what their fate will
be in the Senate.

Tn other recent developments,
Secretary of State Dean Rusk and
Soviet Ambassador Anatoly F.
Dobrynin began working out ar-
rangements for new high-level dip-
lomatic talks aimed at further
United. States-Soviet agreements
to reduce the '.reat of nuclear
war.
Rusk reportedly believes one of
the best prospects for agreement
is a proposal that Russia and the
United States open up their terri-
tories to international military ob-
servers stationed at key airfields,
ports, and road and rail Junctions.
Since such observers presumably
could detect preparations for any
massive surprise attack, their
presence would presumably dis-
courage preparations.
The military. advisability of,
such an agreement with the Rus-
sians-and Soviet Premier Nikita
Khrushchev himself has shown
some interest-is now being in-
tensively examined by military ex-
perts of the NATO allies.
Dobrynin called at the State De-
partment at mid-morning by his
own request.

lands and half the fields in the
mountain valleys have been de-
stroyed b y t h e government's
scorched earth policy. Hundreds of
precious livestock - cattle and
goats-have perished.
Despite the attacks and the rout
of the Barzani families, tough
tribesmen in the north and a well-
organized, uniformed army in the
south part of Kurdistan appear in
control of almost all the moun-
tain regions.
Small Penetration
The army has penetrated into
the mountain terrain only on five
main roads where its tanks could
spearhead the advances, Armed
with rifles, and some captured
machine guns and mortars, the
Kurdish guerrillas cannot fight
tanks or planes.
The rebels claim more than 90
per cent-40,000 to 50,000 men-of
the Iraqi army is in the battle
against- them. The rebel force
totals about 15,000 expert moun-
tain fighters. Their guerrilla tac-
tics and ambushes for the past two
years have confined government
forces to the heavily guarded oil
centers such as Kurkuk, half a
dozen major towns, the lowland

and along the twisting mountain
roads.
D e s p i t e ringing government
claims of victory, the rebels main-
tained they haven't lost a battle
since the government offensive was
renewed in June. They say their
own death toll in battle since
then is less than 100 men, and in-
sist they have killed 20 or 30 times
that many government troops.
Air Raids
I saw scores of villages that had
been hit by frequent air attacks
and long range artillery bombard-
ment, and watched planes straf-
ing the least sign of movement-
a grazing goat, a chicken pecking
in the dust.
I watched planes dropping na-
palm and incendiary bombs, and
saw miles of green mountain land
burned to a blackened wasteland
of windblown ash.
Hundreds of villages are in
ruins, and hardly a hamlet in
Kurdistan is not scarred with
bomb craters. In some areas every
village is deserted. The men are
fighting the government and the
women, children and the elderly
have moved to the slopes.
Cave Dwellers
There they live like primitive
cave dwellers, sheltering in caves,
beneath the trees or in the shadow
or big rocks on the boulder-strewn
hillsides.
The government offensive was
started in 1961 by dictator Abdel
Kerim Kassem. The Kurds de-
clared a cease-fire last February
when Kassem was executed in a
revolution by the Ba'ath Socialist
Party. The Ba'ath resumed the
attack in June.
Kurdish leaders claim that the
death toll of civilians in the three
months of war since June is as
high as the number killed during
18 months of war under Kassem.
High Morale
Kurdish morale appears high
despite the bloodshed and the de-
struction of villages ' and crops.
Rebel leaders say the harshness of
the government assault has forged
the strongest national unity the
tribes have known in 50 years of
Kurdish uprisings,
"If we had more rifles our army
would be far bigger," said one
officer, "and if we had antitank or
antiaircraft guns, we would con-
trol all Kurdistan, including the
lowland cities."
They note it took twocomplete
government army divisions with
armored support, plus aircraft, to
push along the mountain road into
Barzan, reoccupying villages the
guerrillas said they did not try to
hold.
Take Years
At that rate, the rebels main-
tain, it would take the army years
to occupy the hundreds of moun-
tain villages, many inaccessible
to tanks.
"We are getting stronger every
day, and the government is get-
ting weaker," said rebel chieftain
Barzani. "The strain is too much
for the government. Time is on
our side."
As he was speaking, two Russian
MIGs of the Iraqi air force flew
overhead.
Glancing briefly at them through
the foliage of an old maple tree
under which he was sitting, Bar-
zani declared, "It is true that
planes can go anywhere and bomb
villages and kill women and chil-
dren, but all the same they can
never defeat us in the mountains."
Barzani's headquarters is in a
narrow, rocky canyon in the foot-
hills of towering Mt. Piris.
Asked whether he hand any ob-
jections to mention of the location,
the 61-year-old leader replied: "On
the contrary, go ahead and write
where we are. We have no secrets
here. If the army decides to come
after us they are welcome. We are
anxious to meet them ourselves."

WEDNESDAY evening, September 18, 7:30 p.m.
Rackham Auditorium (Lecture Hall (
Address: Dr. Abraham Kaplan, Professor of Philosophy
"WHY BE VIRTUOUS?
The Ethics of the Book of Job"

Thursday and Friday
Sept. 19, 20
TRADITIONAL SERVICE
9 a.m. in
Rackham Aud.

Thursday
REFORM SERVICE
10 a.m. in
Zwerdling-Cohn Cha
at HILLEL

PETI TIO

1429 Hill St.

NOW

Tel. 663-41

AVAI'LA'BLE

GOP Asks for Selection
Of State College Boards,
MACKINAC ISLAND-Michigan Republicans called for early
selection of individual governing boards for the state's four regional
universities yesterday.
The GOP, assembled here for its biennial fall conference, was
requested by the state central committee's resolution committee to
_>recommend legislation which would

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By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-General Chiang Ching-Kuo, son of Nationalist
China's President Chiang Kai-Shek, said yesterday Communist China
has reached its "weakest moment" since the Reds seized power in 1949
and the Peking regime is now at its most vulnerable point.
"Anti-Communist uprisings on a small scale have been occurring
in various parts of mainland China. Our problem now is how to or-
ganize these sporadic actions into a large and organized revolt," he
noted.
WASHINGTON-The Democratic majority of the House Ways
and Means Committee yesterday described its proposed $11.1-billion
tax cut as the key to the nation's economic well-being.
In their report on the measure, the Democrats said the biggest tax
cut ever handed United States citizens would spur investment, help
balance the budget, cut unemployment and reduce the balance-of-
payments deficit.
MOSCOW-The Soviet Union has imposed a virtual blackout on
news of this year's grain harvest, which Western specialists here pre-
dict is going to be another agricultural disappointment for the Krem-
lin.
The prediction was backed up yesterday by a report the Soviet
Union will shell out about $500 million in scarce foreign currency for a
record order of more than 200 million bushels of Canadian wheat. In-
formed sources in Ottawa said Canada is expected to announce the
deal in a day or so.
MOSCOW-The Soviet Union demanded again yesterday that
United States forces get out of South Viet Nam. It charged that
American troops "are conducting active military operations against
the South Vietnamese people."
The Kremlin position assailed 'the South Vietnamese government
of President Ngo Dinh Diem as reactionary and denounced the United
States for the help it has given Diem in the war against the Commu-
nist Viet Cong guerrillas.

enable Gov. George Romney "to
quickly appoint the members of
the governing boards for Eastern
Michigan, Western Michigan, Cen-
tral Michigan and Northern Mich-
igan Universities.
It asserts that quick action
"should make possible continued
progress in the development of
Michigan's educational system."
As of this morning, there was
no report on the GOP's final ac-
tion on the proposal.
The party regulars also took of-
ficial note of the work of James
F. O'Neil, lone Republican mem-
ber of the present State Board of
Education.
"His recommendations to in-
sure improvement in administra-
tion and improvement of state.
educational institutions, practic-
ularly those of higher education,
are to be commended," the resolu-
tion said.
NSF Reports
Research Cost
WASHINGTON UP) -Industrial
firms accounted for nearly three-
fourths of the $16 billion spent in
research and development work
during 1962, according to the Na-
tional Science Foundation.

Monday---Friday
September 16m,20-

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when looking for
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SOLID

Research and development by
private industry totalled $11.6 bil-
lion during 1962, up six per cent
over the -$10.9 billion of the pre-
vious year and more than triple
the $3.6 billion total in 1953.
Industrial firms employed 339,-
400 scientists and engineers in re-
search and development during
1962, compared to 319,800 the pre-
vious year.
In other news of science, after
more than seven months of trans-
mitting experimental data, the
Explorer XVI satellite has ceased
broadcasting from outer space.
Dr. Raymqnd L. Bisplinghoff,
director of the National Aeronau-
tics and Space Administration's
Office of Advanced Research and
Technology, said yesterday the
satellite "yielded the first statis-
tically significant data on the pen-
etration of meteoroids."
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