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September 14, 1962 - Image 13

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-09-14

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FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14,1962

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

IDArlip IMMUM4

..DYSPEME 4,162T E MIHG N Al

PAGTHREE i,.

Spotlight on Research
with Mlinda Berry

cU

Bendix To Host

Arms Symposium

The Pathology Laboratory is the
final and indispensable link in the
medical chain which seeks to iden-
tify and uncover the nature of a
disease and its effects on the
cells, tissues, organs, and fluids of
the body.
Without the clinical pathologist
and his microscopic, chemical,
:bacteriological and other labora-
tory tests and procedures, the phy-
sician would often be at a loss to
make precise identifications con-
cerning certain diseases-diabetes
and leukemia, for example, can be
positively identified only by lab-
oratory tests.
Major Functions
The Department of Pathology at
the University performs three ma-
jor functions-teaching, service
and research:
1) All medical and dental stu-
dents take certain required courses
in pathology. In addition, the de-
partment maintains its own four-
year residency program.
2) The department is adminis-
tratively responsible for many of
the clinical pathology tests at Uni-
versity Hospital, and last year over
half a million clinical tests were
performed. It has built up a li-
brary which has been storing and
maintaining slides since 1895.
3) A recent report from the
department shows 67 research
projects currently underway.
Experiments Chosen
To show the diversity of the
work conducted in the various lab-
oratories three experiments have
been chosen.
A number of interlocking re-
search projects, sponsored by the
Atomic Energy Commission, the
United States Public Health Serv-
ice, and United Cerebral Palsy Re-
search and Education Foundation
have been taken on by the neuro-
pathology lab.
Malformations
Because cerebral palsy, mental
retardation, and some kinds of
blindness are associated with mal-
formation of the brain, laboratory
work was undertaken to produce
malformed brains in albino rats
by radiation. These abnormal
brains can thus be used as labor-'
atory models for study.
The brains of all these animals

are removed and sectioned for mic-
roscopic study, which makes it
possible to see the cellular se-
quence of events from the first
injury to the final malformation.
Radiating Rats
Dr. Samuel P. Hicks, of the
pathology department, has done
research showing that radiating
rats at various times in the em-
bryonic and fetal development of
the nervous system kills certain
cells and stops them dead in their
tracks. Staining sections of brain
tissue shows the cells that are
stopped, thus demonstrating which
cells are doing what at the time
of radiation.
The ultimate goals of this re-
search in neuropathology are to
find out more about the kinds of
brain malformations in certain
diseases and to correlate kinds of
brain malformations with behav-
orial abnormalities. But before re-
search can attack malformations
and anomalies with any hope of
success, behavorial patterns for
normal animals must be worked
out.
Definite Results
Over the years that Dr. Hicks
has been carrying out this re-
search at Harvard and the Uni-
versity, certain definite results
have emerged. It is now known
that the adult, fully developed ner-
vous system is not radio resistant,
and that radiation damage may
occur past the early embryonic
stages.
Research on human, testicular
cancer, particularly teratomas, is
being conducted by Dr. G. Barry
Pierce, Jr., of the pathology de-
partment.
His project, along with those
engaged in by several associates,
is supported by the Public Health
Service, the American Cancer So-
ciety and the University Cancer
Research Institute.
A cancerous teratoma is a malig-
nant growth occurring most fre-
quently in the ovaries and in the
testes. The. growth is composed
mainly of a disorganized array of
brain, bone, muscle, and glandular
cells. Dr. Pierce's laboratory has
shown that these cells, which are
not themselves malignant, are de-
rived by a type of embryonic de-

velopment from highly malignant
cancer cells also present in the
tumors.
May Be Incorrect
Since the normal-appearing tis-
sues derived from the cancer have
been shown to be benign, the
theory that "once a cancer cell
always a cancer cell" may be incor-
rect. This could feasibly have im-
portant applications in other can-
cer work.
The pathology labs have worked
out an apparatus which elimiates
all bacteria from the food and at-
mosphere within it. Thus they are
able to produce germfree animals,
such as the guinea pigs they are
currently working with.
Gastrointestinal Tract
The bacteria normally living in
the gastrointestinal tract of ani-
mals are absent from these raised
in this germless world. As a re-
search tool, germfree animals are
becoming more and more impor-
tant in experimental pathology.
Germfree research is now con-
ducted by Dr. Gerald L. Brody,
professor in the medical school,
and Jane E. Bishop, assistant in
research in the pathology depart-
ment.
Since it is manifestly impossi-
ble to eliminate all bacteria from
laboratory animals, the guinea pigs
used in germfree research must be
born germfree. This is accomplish-
ed by caesarean section. Because
these animals then live in a con-
trolled environment and because
the otherwise uncontrollable vari-
able of bacterial flora is removed
from them, they present a highly
standardized, uniform research
subject.
Germfree animals can be used
for determining the role of bac-
terial flora in the ordinary life
processes, such as in nutrition.
Germfree animals can also be used
as a "culture medium" to study
the ecology of microorganisms in
the living body.
The pathology department, with
its 67 1962 working projects, is in
its 125th year at the University.
It was written into the Organic
Act of 1837 which established the
University at Ann Arbor, that the
Medical School should have one
professor of pathology.

By MALINDA BERRY
An International Arms Control
Symposium, which will receive the
attention of Washington and for-
eign officials will be held Dec. 17
through Dec. 20 at the University.
It will be the first known sym-
posium of its type to be held in
the world and could be an asset
to U.S. foreign policy on disarma-
ment.
Russell D. O'Neal, vice president
of Bendix Corp., and Roger W.
Heyns, vice president for academ-
ic affairs are co-chairmen of the
symposium.
Major Academic
The purpose of the International
Arms Control Symposium is to
"assemble specialists from major
academic and industrial research

The main speakers are expected
to define broad arms control pol-
icy problems, recommend solutions
and suggest possible roles of gov-
ernment, industry, and universi-
ties in relation to arms control.
The symposium will also high-
light the research necessary in po-
litical science, the social sciences
and the physical sciences ". . . to
provide an adequate system for the
formulation, verification and com-
pliance with possible agreements
for international arms control and
disarmament," Heyns and O'Neal
said.
Research Contracts
The symposium is an outgrowth
of two research contracts the Ben-
dix System Division has with the
recently formed United States
Arms Control and Disarmament
Agency.
University faculty have been
consultants on the first contract
and the University itself is prime
subcontractor on the second con-
tract.
The first contract-worth $150,-
000-calls for the "consideration
of the production of strategic de-
livery systems such as long-range
missiles and bombers capable of
delivering nuclear weapons," said
Louis B. Young, general manager
of Bendix Systems.
Techniques To Detect
The Bendix study will include
"techniques for detecting possible
'clandestine production' of stra-
tegic nuclear delivery systems,"
said William C. Foster, director of
the ACDA.
The ACDA, according to Foster,
contemplates a substantial re-,
arch program -through govern-
ment agencies
The second contract concerns a
$95,000 allotment for the analysis
of the verification requirements
associated with specific arms con-
trol and disarmament proposals.
Ernest S. Van Valkenburg of
Bendix Systems and Norman Tho-
burn of the Institute of Science
and Technology are assistant co-
chairmen of the symposium.
Details of the contracts and the
work to be undertaken are not
available, Thoburn said, because
much of the work is classified.
"Because of the possible ramifica-
tions in Geneva, extremely close
security checks are understandably
required by the Agency."
One symposium objective re-
volves around a search through
which basic and applied research
can be brought to bear on the
technological, strategic and politi-
cal aspects of arms control and
disarmament.

9o M

t.

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ROGER W. HEYNS
. .. arms symposium

centers as well as representatives
from various national and interna-
tional organizations."
It will provide a current sum-
mary of the status of arms con-
trol and disarmament, and offer
an opportunity for the participants
to present international objectives
compatible with their national se-
curity."
Names of the key speakers are
to be announced later. They will
feature eight major addresses -
two a day.

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