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January 12, 1963 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-01-12

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.r 4 a,
Seventy-Third Year
Enrrmo AND MApNAGED BY STUDENTS OF THi UNIVERSITY of MICHgAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CO4NTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATxONS BLDG., ArN ARBOR, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. Thh must be noted in all reprints.

ATURDAY, JANUARY 12, 1963

NIGHT EDITOR:

GAIL EVANS

"Gee, That Was Exciting.- Some Day, Let's
Actually Go In"
s s
wS w
- :00w : -
*
- 4

TEACHING TOOL:
TV May Meet Needs
Of Enrollment Rise

Short Examination Period
University ailure

V JUST a few more days, students at the
University will begin to take their final ex-
ninations. This. three-hour' test is very often
e' most important single factor in determin-
g a student's grade. In addition, the final
amination can play an extremely important
e in one's education.
After 15 weeks of tudy, there is a definite
ed to review all the material that has been
sorbed and to look at the subject in its en-
ety.
Eere for the first time in five months is an
portunity to'see what the course was really
out. The test itself can clear up any doubts
student may have about which points in
e course a'e essential and which are sub-
linate. Graded or not, final examinations
ich cover a whole semester's work are po-
itialy an invaluable teaching aid.
f ,the final exam is to be of use, however,
ae must be given to the student so that he
y think over the material. Clearly, it would
:e days and days to reconsider in general
at it took 15 weeks (and often a good part
one's vacation) to learn in detail. Once

rushed from class to class,
now be allowed just to sit
his course as a whole.

the student must
back and look at

Dixiecans

BRUCE K. EDWARDS, vociferous editor of
Harvard's "Advance", which has now moved
o Washington where it hopes to stir up the
ruddy Republican waters, is not trying merely,
o put a new conservative face on the Repub-
ican. Party, or what he calls "the Party of
ivil rights',, in its certain bid to tap the rich
ode of discontented anti-segregatiorist votes
f the Southland.'
The youthful editor insists not only that
'resident Kennedy was obliged. to uphold the
ederal court order in the recent Ole Miss
ase with federal troops, but also that civil
ights are within the sole province of the
ederal government to enforce and preserve,
hat -the states have failed and thus have for-
eited all jurisdiction' in the matter.
The move for Southern votes is only the'
ogicalPextension of successes scored by former
ice-President Richard Nixon, in his presiden-
ial campaign throughout the South. Votes}-
vinning votes 2.. are now possible for "Dixie-
ans". New guard Republicans, ravenous after
hie long famine, hope to snatch them up by'
bandoning white supremacy to history, where
; seems irrevocably headed, and playing up
pparent Democratic hypocrisy. The startling-
conservative" assertion by Edwards in such
ositive federal terms is an indication Hof how
ar the new guard is willing to go.
The Edwards example also goes to indicate
hat no matter how funny the jokes, those
epublican Harvard men can't seem to stay,
ut of Washington either.,'
--THOMAS HUNTER

UNFORTUNATELY, things don't happen
like this at the University. Classes end
Wednesday and following a one-day study
period, the student is often expected to take
five examinations in 11 days at the most.
First of all, the University could not have
set aside a shorter study period if it had wanted
to - and there is a good question as to whether
or not the term "study period" was applied to
the 24 hours of grace in a joking matter. .
Second, the examination period is in itself
too shiort; the 11-day period could not have
been determined by anything but the idea of
getting exams over with as quickly and effi-
ciently as possible. Obviously, no consideration
has been given to the amount of time neces-
sary to review adequately the meaning and
significance of one's courses.
Students should not mistake the symptom for
the disease though. The symptom is a brief
examination period; the disease is an admin-
istrative mentality which does a good job in
hindering much learning that could go on in
the University. At an institution dedicated to
teaching- the young in the best way possible,
is it really fair that questions of administra-
tiorU and time-saving should take full prece-
dence over those of studying and learning?
IWHAT ANSWERS can be made to these
charges? The administration might be
tempted to say that students would desire a
longer examination period only to cram for
their courses, which they have not adequately
studied in the first place. This would, in fact,
be true for a great many students. Neverthe-
less, the University should still give prior con-
sideration to those who are genuine in their
desire for a longer period of time in which to
reconsider a semester's work. Colleges were set
up for such students, after all.
Another answer to the charges would be that,
in spite of the University's sincere desire to
offer a lengthened examination period, such
a move would be an administrative impossibil-
ity. The present calendar is already longer
than those of many other colleges across the
country and any additional length would be
impossible.
If this really is the case, then the administra-
tion should seriously consider shortening the
duration of courses - perhaps to 13 weeks. It
is almost certain that a student would learn
more in a 13-week semester with a three- or
four-week examination period rather than un-
der the present system.
With next year's new calendar, the Univer-
sity will be setting up the mechanism by which
more and more students can rush through a
college education. Let us hope there are some
compensating factors at exam time.
-RICHARD KRAUT

'4Z

I';

t4 s
"Tte; cJ,rt-str Irjy"1 AJO~ p,.7

..
ye

vo

By BARBARA LAZARUS
THE USE of television in teach-
ing college courses has peen a
highly controversial area for the
past few years. Within that time,
many colleges and universities
have begun using educational TV
to teach lecture ^,ourses in the
social sciences, humanities and.
mathematics.
Growing pressures of over-
crowded lectures, inadequate fa-
cilities, high costs ard a lack of
teachers have nec ,sitated the de-
velopment of new teaching meth-
ods and techniques. Television,
with its increased use of visual
aids, a single "good" lecturer and
relatively low costs, has helped to'
ease the pressures for some insti-
tutions.
In 1957 the Ford Foundation
made a $330,000 grant to San
Francisco State College to conduct
courses on both a closed and open
circuit TV system. In order to test
TV's value, the college took three
well-matched groups of sopho-
mores and taught them a general
economics course, using three dif-
ferent methods. One group used
a conventional classroom, offering
teacher-student contact and open
discussion. Another had semi-
weekly lectures on TV in a college
classroom and were required to
have regular classroom attend-
ance. The third group viewed lec-
tures at home, having freedom
to turn the dial if they didn't like
the program. Both television test
groups had supplemental discus-
sion sections. All three groups had
the same exams and texts, and at
the end of the semester showed no
significant difference in their
amount of learning. In fact, if
anything, the home TV group
tended to do better than the oth-
ers.
* * .
WAStINGTON University of-
fers a freshman math course on
TV, providing a coordinated pro-
gram of discussion and lectures.
It is highly satisfied with the re-
sults, experiencing only a ,'two
per cent drop-out during the se-
mester. The University of Miami
teaches philosophy, American his-{
tory and some social science
courses via a large movie-sized TV
screen located in a large and com-
fortable lecture hall. These uni-
versities all express great satis-
faction with these programs and,
in general, student response has,
been good.
There are many educators, how-
ever, who oppose educational TV,
claiming it creates an automatic
and conforming mind. TV, they
claim, creates a mind which is
cluttered with irrelevant facts and
which loses its creativity through
lack of discussion and challenge.
They believe that only inr a small-
er classroom can the student learn
to judge, evaluate and think clear-
ly. There are many universities
which refuse to schedule TV'
courses, even though existing con-
ditions demand it.
These educators believe that
test conditions for previous stu-

BILL OF RIGHTS ANNIVERSARY:
Rededication Necessary Today

dies are far from ideal in provi
that TV actually teaches as n
or more than regular classes.TI
propose schemes where the sa
group would be used for the ti
experiment, eliminating the vs
able of differing groups. Howev
they meet the problem of havi
to offer.different course mater
which may differ in difficulty fr
the first course material. It isa:
possible that some students f
more adaptable to TV, while 01
' ers require intimate teacher-st
dent contact. They argue that I
"shock" technique of unorthoc
discussions on highly controvers
subjects may disappear with te
vision. TV, as evidenced by ma
commercial programs, tends to 1
come a bland diet of unstimulati
and uncontroversial topics.
* * *
TELEVISION, like tho teac
ing machine, might also do aw
with teachers, and some educate
go as far as alleging that it a
provide college administratic
with means of "cowing or suppre
sing teachers."
Television might also result
a "TV-type" personality wh
only qualification for teaching
a toothy bright smile, good loc
and nice clothes. It may also
difficult to evaluate what cons
tutes a top quality television
structor.
As yet many institutions,
cluding the University, have r
adopted wholesale TV instructi
but the day might not be f
away when it may happen. Te
vision can be and has proven
valuable tool for certain colle
courses, especially where visi
, aids are employed. TV is used
the University on a limited sc
as part of the zoology laboratc
program as well as in the L
'School which pipes in live bros
casts of actual Ann Arbor cot
proceedings. Whether it wot
work well in large scale cours
however, is still an open questli
TELEVISION will definit
help perpetuate large lecture 84
tions, perhaps making college lc
some of the personal studer
{teacher contact that still exis
It may also bec'ome a means
merely filling student minds wi
automatic spoon-fed facts, killi
off the creative spark colle
should help inspire. It is doubt
that it will ever reach the sta
where its instructof is merely
popular personality and that
will completely replace teachers
smallertdiscussion sections.
TV can develop into a good ti
for teaching, as evidenced by 1
good professors and programs c
- fered by many educational te
vision stations in cities all om
the country. One thing is certa
If the University's enrollment co
tinues to rise and its costs go
so that the trimester cannot mE
the needs, then it too may be fac
with the decision of using edue
tional TV. Whether this is a c
sirable trend can only be answer
in the future after continued r
search, good program planni
and further tests.

By ROBERT SELWA
ECENTLY many Americans
celebrated the 171st anniver-
sary of the ratification of the
United States Bill of Rights and
the 14th anniversary of the ratifi-
cation of the United Nations Uni-
versal Declaration of Human
Rights.
Many -- but not all, because not
all Americans think too extensive-
ly, if not very highly, of these
bills of rights. Too many are blase
and apathetic and uninterested,
and this is unfortunate because
the Bill of Rights is one of our
most sacred possessions just as
the Universal Declaration of Hu-
man Rights is one of the world's
most sacred possesrsions.
The United States was not first
with the Bills of Rights - the
English people got theirs 122 years
earlier - nor have we been in
recent years as true to the spirit
of the Bill of, Rights as the Eng-
lish have been to theirs. Nor is,
our Bill of Rights as complete as
it should be or as is the United
Nations Declaration.
YET A Bill of Rights is a unique
thing not only in the world today
but throughout world history.
Slavery has always existed ever
since peoples began conquering
each other thousands of years ago,
and still exists today though to a
much lesser extent. The whites of
the South and of South Africa
have not been first with apar-
theid and discrimination -- the
Romans were. If Communists are
being prosecuted and persecuted
for heresy today, Socrates and
Jesus and the Christians were per-
secuted for heresy yesterday.
If you say that the idea of a bill
of rights is more widely accepted
in the world today, then you still

have to account for nations like
the Soviet Union which put pro-
visions for individual rights in
their constitutions but hardly live
up to them.
And if you say that the spirit of
a bill of rights has been solidified
today through tradition in the
United States, then you still have
to account for affairs like the two
great periods of intolerance in this
century.
* * *
EVERY American should occa-
sionally reread the 10 articles of
the Bill of Rights and should'
memorize the first article:
"Congress shall make no law re-
specting an establishment of re-
ligion or prohibiting the free exer-
cise thereof; or abridging the free-
dom of speech, or of the press; of
the right of the people peaceably
to assemble, and to petition the
Government for a redress of griev-
ances."
Supreme Court Justice Hugo
Black says he is a simple man with
a simple mind that takes these
words for exactly what they say-
Congress shall make no law
abridging these freedoms. His
mind' may not be simple, but his
interpretation is good, because
that is what the words say, It
takes a fantastic imagination, as
some other Supreme Court Jus-
tices have seemed to possess, to
justify this mandate that Con-
gress shall make no such laws, in
reference to the Smith and Mc-
Carran Acts.
NOR CAN anyone say justly
that the Bill of Rights is and
was not needed. The states were
hesitant about ratifying the Con-
stitution because it did not already
contain a bill of rights, and several
states approved that document by
narrow margins only after some

STUDENTS,. f
around andf
bpd ad'ministra
vays requested
unity to parti
naking which i
;roups.
T THE CLOS
Governmentt
old the body ti
hould be annu
edures.
Council Presi
nitted at the tin
feld an absentee
he vote. This '
te used to insur
This action, th
rounds to hold
neyer interrupte
Stockmeyer d
nstead, he said
iad done it, int
how its hand.
Stockmeyer sm
EN MILLER,
groaned, and
elligible. Bob R
y, staring intos
ir, and said,
very day."
Stockmeyer h
cience". Wheth
ther question -
wered.
Stockmeyer is
evably clever. M
is talents on SG

Student Decision Making
or as long as they have been But the yearly requests, beginning enthusias-
for as long as faculty members tically enough, generally peter out to mere
ters can remember, have al- mutterings by the end of the term, as the stu-
and crusaded for an oppor- dent sinks back, dejectedly and almost asham-
cipate in University decision- edly, into his tiny hole in the University com-
s usually left to the other two munity.
However, recent events have shown that
as the University expands, so the role of the
student expands. The student more and nmore
=T y r often is being listened to, and increasingly
C lv er bbeing treated with the serious respect he de-
serves. The excellence of such groups as the
5E of last Wednesday's Student Graduate Student Council and the Student
Council meeting, a constituent Government Council Committee on the Uni-
hat the recent officer elections versity cannot be ignored, nor simply consid-
fled --because of illegal pro-' ered patiently, courteously, and then tossed off.
dent Steven Stockmeyer ad- ONE OF THE most exciting groups to emerge
ne of the election that he had as a potentially articulate voice is the
e ballot up to a light and seen Honors Steering Committee, composed of 10
Was crucial information which students elected by their fellows in the Honors
re his re-election. College.
he constituent maintained, was In a meeting this week with the Honors
I a new election. But Stock- Council, a faculty group headed by Prof. Otto
ed. A. Graf, the honors representatives approached
enied that he had done this. intelligently and maturely two matters before
, all he .did was imply that he the joint group: the general concept of an
order to get the opposition to honors housing unit and the credit hour system.
Here was a .meeting for which the banality
riled. of the word "meeting" proves utterly inade-
quate to express its excitement, vigor, and,
of the opposition, hit himself, sometimes, brilliance. It was heartening to hear
d muttered something unin- the exceptional eloquence and enthusiasm of
oss of the opposition sat calm- the speakers and to view the kind of stimulat-
space, blowing smoke into the ing exchange between faculty and students
"You learn something new that should become a more regular part of
University life, even at an institutioi of "cor-
as cleared his political "con- poration size."
er he did what he said is an-
- one that will never be an- THE RESULT of the meeting was the forma-
tion of a joint student-faculty group to
a very clever person, unbe- study the honors housing unit idea. But more
Much too clever -to be wasting important for the campus, the meeting pro-
3C. vided an example of a student-faculty coop-
RICHARD KELLER SIMON eration and shows that such a group need not
just talk, but can also do some hard thinking,
.aily and take action on problems of mutual concern.
jt fjI a It is fitting that those recognized by. the
University as its most intellectually gifted

delegates changed their minds aft-
er they were promised that the
first order of business of the new
government would be enactment
of the Bill of Rights. The key
states of Virginia and New York
were narrowly swung over to ap-
proval because of this promise.
In his inaugural address'Presi-
dent George Washington urged
Congress to act o the Bill of
Rights at once When Congress
opened, James Madison arose to
introduce the 10 articles. They
were considered so important that
they were enacted with scant op-
position or even discussion in the
House and Senate and ratified
without delay by the required
three-fourths of the states. This
is all the more amazing because
Congress was so nationalistic and
each article of the Bill of Rights
circumscribed the powers of the
national government in relation
to the individual.
They were important then be-
cause the memory of the oppres-
sions of the old world was heavy.
Maybe this memory has dimmed,
but can the Bill of Rights be less
important today considering' the
oppressions of the New World?
CAN THESE stated guarantees
of individual liberty be unimport-
ant when laws are passed that
punish Americans for their. be-
liefs and associations, when the
House Un-American Activities
Committee hunts down heretics,
when controversial persons are
banned from speaking on college
campuses, when' attempts are
made to halve the free circula-
tion of mail, when broadcasters
are subjected to economic retri-
butions for presenting all sides of
an issue, when censors go to work
on book suppliers, when police use
the third degree on suspects, when
persons are assumed to be guilty
until proven innocent, when trials
are made to take place in areas
that are prejudiced, and when ex-
cessive bail is required, excessive
fines, imposed and cruel and un-
usual punishments inflicted?
"We conceive," said the town
meeting of Concord in 1776, "that
a Constitution intends a system of
principles established to secure
the subject in the possession and
enjoyment of (his) rights and
privileges, against any encroach-
ments . .
The encroachments are evident
today. Americans can halt them
with a more true and more vigor-
ous realization of the Bill of
Rights. Peoples of all the world
can do likewise with the Univer-
sal Declaration of Human Rights.
The malaise of oppression in the
world and in the United States
can be healed by the vitamins of
individual liberty.
Lantguage
CONFUCIUS once was asked
what he would do first if he
were to administer a country.
"It would certainly be to correct
language," he replied.
His listeners were surprised.
"Why," they inquired.
The Master replied: "If language

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:

Defends GRE Program

'GYPSY' REVISITED:
Rosa lind Makes It Pay
"SOME PEOPLE got it and make it pay;' some people can't ev
give it away." Well, Rot Russell's got' it, and she's certair
spreadin' it around.
"Gypsy," the story of the most terribly wonderful stage motlh
of all time, has transcended the gulf from Broadway to Hollywoo
And in spite of all their efforts, one finds that Warner Brothers wi
unable to change it much.
Oh sure: the motion picture has a flavor all its own, Don
expect Madame Rose to be Ethel Merman; she's not, she's Rosalt
Russell. Don't expect Gypsy to be
Sandra Church; she's not, she's CINEMA GUILD:
Natalie Wood. ___________
If you liked "Gypsy" because "
of Ethel Merman, you may be
disappointed, but if you liked Synt s
"Gypsy" because it was "Gypsy,"
the second time may be even bet- A -t
ter than the first. O f A
THE COSTUMES, the scenery, IF YOU SAW the Cinema Guild
tle make-up, the props-all are showing of Sir Lawrence 0
more flashy than the Broadway vier's cinematic rendition
play, but they aren't out of place. Shakespeare's "Henry V" when
And the Acharacters - Madame was here in December a:
Rose, Louise, June, Herbie, Tulsa thought that it was a great moti
-the lot: They're more wonderful picture, I guarantee that yot
than ever before. feel the same way about anott
And whits every moment is re- play put on film.
warding-often at the same time The Comedie Francaise's PI
funny and sad - the favorites duction of Moliere's "Le Bourgeo
stand out: Wistful Louise listens Gentilhomme" (The Would-:
as the strippers tell her, "You've Gentleman) uses a striking sy
gotta have a gimmick, and Gypsy thesis of ebullient acting, brillia
girl, then you too can be a star;" costuming and set decorati(
Rose forestalls eviction by locking beautiful music by ,Jean-Bapti
herself: with the landlord In the Lully (Moliere's friend who wro
bedroom and screamning to blue music for some of his plays) ar
blazes; Herbie (Karl Maldin), of course, the wonderful play
Rose's ever-faithful suitor, watches Moliere to bring a 300-year-c
horrified as she saves the scraps play freshly and spontaneously1
and pockets the silverware in New the screen.
York restaurant. * * :
And the warm moments are THE MOVIE begins at t
there: Louise sings "Little lamb, I Comedie Francaise's home for t
wonder how old I am;" the girls last 150 years, the Palais Roy
regret that "Mama gets married as thopgh we were there ourselv
and married and married, but seeing the play today..The can
never gets carried away;" and the,' eras move, in on the actors, 't
finale, as 'Rose wanders on tie stage seems to lose its proscenit
darkened stage, asks "Will some- arch and the farcical misadve
one tell me when is it my turn, tures of M. Jourdain come e
when do I get a dream for my- grossingly to life. The camer
self?" neve~ mnvP a fro the or

To the Editor:
IN THE November 20, 1962, is-
sue of The Daily there appeared
a signed editorial which carried
the heading: "0raduAte Record
Exams: Insult to Intelligence".
The opinions expressed by Harry
Perlstadt, the writer of that edi-
torial, are presumably based on
the reactions he experienced when
taking certain of the Graduate
Record Examinations in the na-
tionwideuadministration which
was conducted on November 17,
1962.
Quite naturally, we do not share
Mr. Perlstadt's low opinion of
these tests. One reason why we do
not is that we know how much ex-
pert scholarship goes into the de-
velopment of these tests. It might
be useful for us to present a brief
description of the procedures em-
ployed to assure the development
of high quality tests for the pro-
grams in which Graduate Record
Examinations are administered.
* * *
IN EACH major field of study for
which an achievement test is to
be developed, a committee of sub-
ject matter authorities is estab-
lished- he immbersa'of tht conm-

the University of Michigan, have
served on these test committees
and have made notable contribu-
tions to their development and
improvement.
The test committee, usually
comprised of ive members, has
responsibility for determining the
content of the test. Often the in-
diyidual members of the commit-
tee prepare the test questions.
Members of the ETS test devel-
opment staff provide technical'
and editorial assistance. All of the
questions' to be included in the
test are reviewed r.nd approved by
the conmittee which also. deter-
mines the correct response to each
question.
FOLLOWING the administra-'
tion of the test in GRE testing
programs, a detailed statistical
analysis is made of the results.
This is based on a study of answer
sheets marked by the examinees
and includes an analysis of the
responses selected for each ques-
tion. No question that is ambig-
uous in the eyes of capable stu-
dents, or %wrongly keyed, is likely
to pass undetected through this

fir

?TG'I'1 C A- CL * *4..

ISver Illu v y mJ4Ai U , J
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