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January 10, 1963 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1963-01-10

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ri

Seveny-Third Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS Of THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY Of BOARD IN CONTROL OP STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Ae Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG., ANN ARBoK, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail",' '
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. Thh must be noted in all reprints.

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VAN GOGH EXPOSITION:
Extraordinary Painti
Express Developre

IURSDAY, JANUARY 10, 1963

NIGHT EDITOR: GERALD STORCH

John Birch Society:
Retreat from Complexity

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HE JOHN BIRCH Society is a retreat from
complexity. It attempts to redefine the con-
flicts of the twentieth century into a dichotomy
of good and evil. It attempts to simplify the
American political scene into conservative,
liberal and comsymp. It attempts to shy away
from grays and retreat into blacks and the
whites.
This is why it is difficult to fit the Birch So-
ciety into contemporary politics. The label
Facist, with its connotation of anti-Semitism,
is not applicable. The members of the Birch
Society do not necessarily believe in a police
state; but they do believe in a world of order
and clear cut relationships in all phases of
life, including the political.
The society consists of individuals who are
desperately afraid of chaos and who are un-
able to recognize subtle shades or distinct
classifications. They are worried about atomic.
war, foreign aid and the. economy just as all
politically concerned individuals. Their answers
to these problems are always dogmatically
simple, direct and clear cut.
For example, Birchers claim that either the
United States or the Soviet Union must emerge
triumphant from the cold war. The Commun-
ists, the Birchers say, are evil, the United
States is the representative of Christian-style,
capitalist society.
IN SOME WAYS, the Birchers are right. The
Communists have been brutal. The squelch-
ing of the rebellion in Hungary and the death
of Ukrainian farmers who refused to collec-
tivize in the late 1920's and early 30's cer-
tainly attest to this.
But to say that either the United States or
the Soviet Union must emerge triumphant from
the cold war is pure nonsense. The only tri-
umph will be in the radioactive ashes of a
nuclear war in which civilization and perhaps
life itself can no longer exist as we know them.
Most notoriously, the Birchers have charged
that certain government officials are Commun-
ists or in sympathy with the Communists.
These officials, either because of their overt
connection with Communists or their mis-
guided sentiments, have put the United States
into retreat and compromise with the Soviet,
Union. More concretely, the Birchers cite gov-

ernment officials who they claim were once in-
volved in Communist organizations or who
have done such things as backing the revolu-
tion of Fidel Castro when he first came to
power<
THIS IS A difficult charge to answer because
there is so much difference of opinion
among the Birchers themselves. Some will say
that government is overrun' by Comsymps,
others soft-pedal the charge.
The charge dwindles when one realizes that
in all the cases of Communist associations
that the Birchers claim, these ties were in
effect in the 30's and early 40's when few
people realized what Communism was and even
fewer had any idea of what a Communist-
infiltrated organization was.
But perhaps the point that is most telling
about the society is" the charge that the press
and the Republican party are dominated by
liberals. They fail to see the distinction be-
tween individuals and newspapers who believe
in limited social welfare and those who believe
in a welfare or socialistic state.
These illustrations show the driving force
behind the Birch Society. It is a need for order
in a seemingly chaotic world. They cannot
accept society as a pragmatic working ar-
rangement. It must be postulated completely
on the basis of capitalism and free market..
MOST JOHN Birchers are afraid. It is almost
undeniably true that they are right when
they say that the citizen has been deprived of
any meaningful political choice in the area of
foreign affairs. In many' ways, the manage-
ment of foreign affairs is in the hands of "the
Establishment" no matter what administra-
tion is in office.
But despite their justification for wanting'
a spot in the political arena, the Birchers
simply do not have solutions that :relate to
present-day problems. In a day of complexity
and fantastic diversity, simple solutions and
clear dichotomies do not always work. And
above'"all, in the days of new frontiers, new
nations, and the advent of the space age, we
cannot afford to retreat into a narrow, closed
system.
-DAVID MARCUS

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By GLORIA BOWLES
DETROIT, the Automobile City,
has been attempting in recent
years to "make itself over" and
to bury the image of a grimy, col-
orless industrial town. The result
has been a plea for beauty, and
interesting experiments in modern
architecture, especially on the
waterfront, complemented by a
drive "to bring culture to Detroit."
The city has succeeded well in
recent years: the prominent and
wealthy auto families promoted
the first appearance of the Metro-
politan Opera Company, and the
Met's spring productions have now
become an annual event; and in-
terest in theatre in Detroit has
been greatly Intensified with the
completion of the Fisher Theater,
this fall.
However, the drive underway to
put Detroit on the- American cul-
tural map has -reached great
heights the past weeks with the
current exhibition, at the Detroit
Museum of Art, of 142 paintings
and drawings of Vincent 'Van
Gogh,the Dutch postimpression-
ist.
* * *
THE TABLEAUX are from a
private. Dutch collection, which
was seen in Pittsburgh, and will
go-to Kansas City after its Janu-
ary 27, closing in Detroit. Many,
students here should have an op-
portunity for an after or in-be-
tween exam look at this outstand-
ing exposition, certainly one of
the most exciting artistic'events
in the country.
The collection, with examples of
work from all of the Van Gogh
periods, gives a vast panoramic'
view of the painter, and his de-
velopment.
There are a large number of
drawings from the early years, as
Van Gogh struggled desperately
to capture on canvas that which
he felt so deeply; he was seldom.
satisfied with the results of these
initial explorations. The drawings,
especially those of the human'
form, are sometimes overworked,
and unsuccessful, but still show
promise. Through the exposition
one may trace the progress of the
artist's struggle, moved by his
slow, steady improvement.
"THE POTATO Eaters", paint-
ed at Nuenen, is the outstanding
result of the influence of Millet,
and his "Angelus" and Van Gogh's{
passionate understanding of pea-
sant misery.
Van Gogh left Nyuenen for,
Paris; several of the paintings
show the influence of the impres-
sionists, as his palette lightens.
But the great excitement is yet
to come:tits intensity is startling.
From the short years at Arles,
and then in the asylum at Saint
Remy come the boldness and dar-'

ing in color and ideas with some
of the most torturous of paintings
in the world of art: these are the
work of armadman, who, paintin
under the hot sun of the south
saw nothing but brilliant color
Several of the pictures are world-
famous, and quickly recognizable
the sunflowers, one example o
the many he painted, a self-por.
trait, the interpretation of hi
room at .Arles.
THERE ARE several other pic
tures that most veteran Van Gogh
fans have never seen, not even in
reproduction.
And, as an interesting backdrop
to the exhibition, the Museum
shows a 20-minute film based on
some of Vincent's letters to hi
brother, Theo.
The exposition is an extraordin
ary opportunity to see some o
the best that modern Europe ha
to offer. Detroit shall not be so
blessed again for a very long time
LETTERS
to the
EDITOR
To the Editor:
rIIS IS not a letter in the broad
sense, this is merely to practic
my English ... According to th
English Language Institute, it i
not sufficient for any foreign stu
dent here to fulfill successfully the
acadenlic requirements to get hi
Ph.D. He is still "Englishly under
developed" until he passes a sor
of "divinely" inspired test in
carnated by the E.L.I. The mos
shocking thing about this test i
the fact that it is the same wheth
er the "victim" is looking for ad
mission as a freshman or lookin
for graduation as a doctoral stu
dent. The foreigner's mind should
be disciplined by the same od
English words and medieval gram
matical rules whether he is an en
gineer, mathematician, psycholo
gist, educator or anything else.
Whether this test is reliable
valid or neither, whether it i
functional, instructional or neith
the experts in both measurement
er, I leave ,this to the judgment o
and contemporary methodolog
for teaching foreign languages
What I am looking for, beside
practicing my English, is to re
quest the authorities In the Uni
versity to channel the English lan
guage requirements for the' for
eigners to their respective depart
ments. The people in these:depart
ments are. the best authority tc
judge Ithe English capability of
their students as related to thei
specializations.
-William Ebeid, Grad.

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THE KATANGA CRISIS:
Development of Conflict

Co-Ed Housing Unnatural

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first
of a two part article outlining the
history of recent events in Katanga.)
By DANIEL SHAFER
THE KATANGA crisis, recently
brought to a head by the Unit-
ed Nations action in that troubled
secessionist province, began on
July 12, 1960, when Moise Tshom-
be declared that Katanga was
henceforth to be considered a
province independent from the
relatively new Republic of the
Congo.'
This move came as no shock to
most news analysts and other in-
ternational affairs experts who
had been watchiiig the Congo sit-
uation for some time.
The province of Katanga was
the wealthiest portion of the en-
tire Republic of the Congo and
could survive in'dependently from
the large republic. The question
was, could the Congo get along
very well without the financial
support and aid of the province of
Katanga?
On July 19, Tshombe asked the
United Nations to recognize Ka-
tanga as an independent and sov-
ereign province. This was his logi-
cal next move. Obviously, the Con-
go would not recognize the exist-
ence of a province of such stature

as Katanga as an independent na-
tion. Tshombe needed support and,
recognition to run his government,
so le turned to the UN..
* * *
THE FIRST hint of any ex-
tremely serious trouble in the
province of Katanga itself that
the world saw was on July 26,
when Prime Minister Lumumba,
of the Republic of thehCongo, an-
nounced that he felt the secession
of the Katanga province was
caused entirely by the presence
of Belgian troops in that province
and that the situation would be
rectified and peace restored after
the Belgian troops had been with-
drawn..
The next big event in the 'de-
velopment of the Congo crisis took
place July 31, when the Congolese
Cabinet demanded that United
Nations troops, already in the
Congo at the time, take immediate
action in Katanga to. end the se-
cession, despite heavy Belgian op-
position to such action. This de-
Mand can be called the beginning
of the crisis which exists today in
the province.
* * *
WHEN DAG Hammarskjold an-
nounced that troops would soon
move into Katanga, Moise Tshom-

ASSEMBLY-IQC Co-eduational Hous-
ing Study Committee has surreptitiously,
produced a six paragraph broadside informing
the campus of why it (the campus) wants co-ed
housing.
What the co-ed housing proponents have
gathered up is, in essence, this:
We want co-ed housing because it is a "more
natural living arrangement which permits you
to, get to know students of both sexes in an
informal living situation. It removes the ten-
dency for you to think of women only as poten-
tial dates. . . . Working with women who ap-
Intimidation
ARECENT letter to the editor in a national
magazine explained the supposed difference
between democracy in America and democratic
centralization in the Soviet Union.
The letter stated that whereas in the Soviet
.Union decisions are handed down from the
omniscient ruling clique, in the United States
everyone can debate an issue, though once the
top authorities make a decision, all dissension
should cease.
This is, of course, an entirely erroneous view.
The crux of democracy is that debate about
an issue does not stop . .. ever. We have the
Constitutional privilege of expressing ideas
contrary' to those of the President, Congress or
the majority of public opinion. The decisions
of the administrations should in no way affect
this right.
IN THE Soviet Union the ideal, as ,conceived
by Lenin, is to allow the lower ranks of
Communist Party members to discuss issues.
Their debate supposedly affects the ultimate
decision, which is uniformly applied to all.
However, it isn't considered wise to speak out,
because of the distinct possibility that one's
views will later be used as damning evidence.
It is necessary to guard against the encroach-
ment of the majority opinion onto the domain
of private convictions.
Especially in times of crises, the difficulty
of this and the inevitable uproar about "un-
Americanism" and "a united front" is magni-
fied. But if we allow ourselves to be intimidated
into mouthing platitudes we don't believe, how
different is this from "democracy" in the
Soviet Union?
-BARBARA PASH
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL OLINICX, Editor
JUpITH .OPPENHEIM MICHAEL HARRAH

proach problems much differently than you do
is helpful to you, for the' ability to work out
these differences will stand you in good stead
in later years." (Natural living arrangement.
Rmm!)
E WANT co-ed housing because it will "re-
move the feeling that you are competing
with women. . . ." (Where did that one come
from?)
We want co-ed housing because it will enable
us "to extend (our) academic life, which in-
cludes 'coeducational classes, to the residence
halls. . . ." (You can draw your own conclu-
sions with regard to 'the ultimate extension
there.)
We want co-ed housing because it would
"widen the housing choices available to stu-
dents." (That may prove to be the understate-
ment of the year.)
CO-ED HOUSING committee, the uninformed
campus thanks you. At least we know why
you have done this to us. Our only regret is
that you neglected to ask us why, or indeed
whether, we even wanted co-ed housing before
you committed us to it..
And don't tell us about that Bursley Hall
business either. We've looked forward to that
for years and it now seems we'll still be looking
for years to come. We'd finally realized it was
a 'fairy tale, n'er to come true.
But co-ed housing now upon us is a reality-
and to some, a monster. We only regret we
weren't all consulted.
-MICHAEL HARRAH
City Editor f
Indifference
STUDENTS of botany 101 and chemistry 104
write periodic hourly lecture examinations.
In botany each of these counts one-eighth of
the total semester grade, in chemistry one-
ninth. One of these chemistry hourlies was
scheduled for 7 p.m. Tuesday. At the same time
a botany make-up exam, was scheduled for
students with legitimate excuses for having
missed a previous exam. People taking both
courses who were unfortunate enough to have
missed a botany hourly could not, of course,
take both tests at the scheduled times. But
the botany department refused to offer another
make-up, and the chemistry department de-
clined to schedule any make-up. Therefore
students were compelled to decide in which
course they could best sacrifice at least half
of a grade point, due to circumstances beyond
their control.
Lest the botany and chemistry departments
desire reputations of indifference, they should
arrange to offer, before the semester ends,

GOVERNMENT PROBLEM:
Immigrant Laborers'

By BARBARA PASH
EACH YEAR approximately 500,-
000 immigrants and temporary
laborers enter the "United States.
Their impact on the domestic la-
bor force, numbered at more than
70 million, is minimal.
Many of the immigrants in re-
cent years come from Hungary
(especially during 1956) and Cuba.
They bring to America badly-
neededbskills as doctors, nurses,
scientists and other professional
and technical workers. Govern-
ment officials point out that im-
migration is under substantial
selective controls.
Several hundred thousand for-
eign workers, mainly laborers in
agriculture, are admitted each
year to handle 'seasonal crops for
'restricted periods.
THE GOVERNMENT, unions'
and farmers feel that transient
labor is a valuable -supplemental
force when necessary. Abuses of
immigrant laborers are being curb-
ed and a more rigorous policing of
contract provisions requiring pay-
ment of specified wage standards,
provision of housing and meals
and medical care is being, imple-
mented.
A recent Labor Department re-
port states that it collected and
turned over to transient Mexican
workers $286,000 in 1962 that em-
ployers had tried to avoid paying.
Robert C. Goodwin, administra-
tor of the Bureau of Employment
Security of the Department of La-
bor, noted that although immi-
grant labor is causing no great
amount of trouble on the domestic
labor scene, "there is the other as-

numbers of workers are admitted
annually from the British West In-
dies, Spain, Canada and Japan.
Agreements are also negotiated
bringing in laborers from Puerto
Rico, but the Puerto Ricans are
American citizens and thus have
as much right to move to the con-
tinental United States as any citi-
zen has of moving from one city to
another.
In 1955, approximately 500,000
Mexicans entered America. This
number declined to 188,000 in 1962,
partly because of government
measures, but also because of in-
creased mechanization of agricul-
ture.,Themgovernmentalso launch-
ed a campaign to reduce the num-
ber of illegal entries of "wetbacks."
By encouraging the employer to
hire domestic workers for transient
labor' before contracting immi-
grants, the government has tried
to minimize the displacement of
American workers.
* * *
AN AFL-CIO spokesman noted
that governmental protection of
foreign laborers in the United
States has operated as a force to
increase the wages and improve
the conditions of domestic work-
ers.
The entire structure of Ameri-
can employment has changed,
however. This will necessarily af-
fect immigrant labor, as it'has
already altered domestic labor. The
United States Census Bureau re-
ported that the number of agri-
cultural workers dropped 37 per
cent from 1950 while industry em-
ployed 21 per cent more workers
than last year. The number of
-1 1 ta rinfein .. e la fr

be replied that he would regard
any UN move to intervene in Ka-
tanga as aggression and would
oppose it with military force.
Hlammarskjold, faced with Immin-
ent bloodshed if he went ahead
with his plans called off the ac-
tion and requested an emergency
session of the United Nations Se-
curity Council.
After this all-important Secur-
ity, Council meeting, Hammar-
skjold decided to send his troops
in. On August 13, UN troops en-
tered Katanga in the face of
heavy opposition and open defi-
ance of UN orders by Tshombe.
THE NEW YEAR was hardly
under way before Lumumba-sup-
porting troops from the Congolese
Army invaded north'ern Katanga.
This move probably did more than
any other single military action
in this area to heat up the crisis.
Tshombe, understandabl$, was
furious. He shouted loud and long
about the grossness of such unpro-
voked attacks upon his little coun-
try, but not so long that he didn't
find time 'to capture Lumumba,
who had accompanied his troops'
move into Katanga, and two of his
top aides.
Less than a month; later, -Ka-
tangan news sources announced
that Lumumba and his two aides
had escaped,and, several days
after this announcement, reported
that they had been killed by vil-
lagers. Much mystery shrouded
this action. There was much spec-
ulation in Europe and the United
States that Tshombe had actually
ordered the killing of the three
Congolese leaders and that, in
fact, they had never escaped jail
at all. The United Nations later
decided, after a thorough investi-
gation some time later, that this
rumor was indeed the truth and
severely condemned Tshombe for
his part in the "unnecessary and
unwise" killing of Lumumba and
his two aides.
THE CRISIS calmed, with very
infrequent and very. small flare-
ups until mid-April, 1961, when
Tshombe went to the Congolese-
requested conference to discuss
the secession on friendly terms.
The terms turned out to be not
so friendly and, on April 27, it
was announced that Tshombe and
two of his aides were captured by
Congolese soldiers.
A few days later, the Congolese
Government reported that it
would try Tshombe for "treason,
assassination of Lumumba, sedi-
tion, counterfeiting, and misap-
propriation of Government prop-
erty."
Not much came of these charges
however, and on June 23, the
Congolese gov.nment announced
that Tshombe and his two aides
had been freed.
** .*
THIS WAS a little hard to com-
prehend. In the first place, it was
a contradictory move when con-
sidered with the Conolese gov-
ernment's long-standing policy of
being tough and dealing hard with
the secessionist province of Ka-
tanga.
In the second place, it was a
seemingly ridiculous move. To let

-Daily-Ed 'Arnos
REALITY VS. ILLUSION-The characters mock the actors' at
tempt to recreate on the stage the reality of the characters' ex
periences in the University Players' production of Pirandello's "Si:
Characters in Search of an Author" last night at Trueblood Aud
troduction compliment
Fine Pirandello Drama

ESTERDAY EVENING, the
University Players began what
should prove to be a very success-
ful four day run of Luigi 'Piran-
dello's play, "Six Characters in
Search of an Author."
Generally regarded as the Nobel
Prize winner's masterpiece (1934),
the play is an intensely provocative
drama which in itself would en-
gage the interest' of almost any
audience.
Very much influenced by the
Hegelian method of dialectical ar-
gument, Pirandello effectively uses
it in arguing about subjective real-
ity and moral relativity through'
his characters. Almost phantom-
like he seems to -move from one
personage to another, erecting a
subtle, difficult, and frequently
persuasive case.
* * *
YET HIS WORK is never aridly
intellectual and dispassionate. Pir-
andello is a playwright with an ex-
traordinary dramatic sense and a
frequently poetic faculty of ex-
pression. The play moves swiftly

cision to emphasize the trag
quality of the play, and then,
well chosen intervals, to contra
it with surprising, but well tim
humor. The fact that the audien
was gripped throughout, and ne
em reacted out of place, attests
the success of the direction.
** *
THE ACTING is'generally s
perior. Jack O'Brien, known a
ready as a playwright for h
adaptation of "Bartholomew Fai
reveals himself to be a capal
actor in the role of the Direct
Judith Propper, as the step-daug
ter, carries the burden of t
drama together with Robert 1
Kee, as the father. While her pe
formance is a fine one, often ou
standing, it would profit were sl
to more carefully determine a
vary the dramatic intensity of h
performance. Because she attemp
to sustain a high degree of te
sion throughout, she sometin
fails to effectively convey the emr
tional crises of the play. The cris
tend, in consequence, to be strai

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