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December 19, 1962 - Image 2

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-12-19

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..aavuavta i .v ra L - y r


Study To Probe Public Health

Tupper Cites Challenges
Facing Medical School

Speaker By-Law Arouses Controversy

How effective are public health
What makes people heed their
doctor's advice?
The community health service's
department of the public health
school will attempt to answer
these questions in a seven-year,
$2.2 million study that began this
Noting that there are few means
to evaluate the effectiveness of
various public health programs,
Prof. Vlado A. Getting, chairman
of the public health department
and co-director of the study, said
the project is designed to develop,
test and apply standards of eval-
uating public health projects.
The study will also investigate
the major, but lightly-researched
area of motivation for seeking
medical treatment and following
medical advice, Prof. Getting said.
"The present proposal focuses
generally on research to develop
methods for evaluating public
health programs with specific em-
phasis on behavioral factors that
influence public health programs,"
Prof. Getting wrote in a prospec-
tus submitted to the Public Health
Service, which is financing the
The document stated that there
is little information on whether
public health methods are based
on sound evidence. Also lacking is
data on why people reject mea-
sures that would benefit them.
Thirdly, the extent of health de-
partment leadership in a commun-
ity needs to be redefined in terms
of popular needs and conceptions,
the prospectus said.
New Methods
Specifically, the research pro-
ject plans to devise methods for
Cites Overlap
In Education
"An important long-range prob-
lem for education, both within the
state and on a more regional bas-
is, is whether state universities
should be all things to all men or
should divide up responsibility and
specialize more," Prof. William
Pierce of the Law School said re-
At present, there is much over-
lapping of functions by institutions
such as Wayne State University
and the University, both having
medical schools. A more efficient
and effective method of education,
especially important in face of
population pressures, would be to
consolidate forces and specialize
more, primarily in technical and
graduate areas.
Prof. Pierce has consulted with
Prof. Ayers Brinser of Harvard
who at present is concerned with
a study of six New England col-
leges which have overlapping cot-
leges of agriculture.
The New England Board of
Education is exploring possibili-
ties for gearing these six institu-
tions to specialization in specific
areas of agriculture. Since these
schools are all land-grant colleges,
there is the problem of how to al-
locate various specialties to each,
especially since students and pro-
fessors must be relocated in the
Prof. Pierce commented that it
is in the area of highly technical
and specialized studies that the
program of regional consolidation
would be most valuable. While all
schools can have a liberal arts
college, not all can have medical
schools or nuclear reactors.
This system coud solve the
universal trouble of cost. B con-
solidating, a specialized institu-
tion could give a better program
because there would be enough

students in one place to warrant
an expanded Faculty and curricu-
Less Waste
The elimination of overlapping
educational programs. thus, would
also eliminate wasteful spending
and allow the available money to
be more profitably used.
Prof. Pierce believes that limit-
ing non-residents in state schools
is an unrealistic approach to the
problems of overcrowding. The
concept of "common effort" with-
in a regional area such as the
Midwest would allow a state school
to specialize in a ceirtain techni-
cal area and take students from
other states, while other states
would, conversely, take students
for their specialization,

determining the objectives of se-
lected health programs, revising
the programs on the basis of the
initial research and then re-evalu-
ating the programs.
By this method, the study hopes
to sharpen evaluation methods,
Prof. Getting said.
On the behavioral side, the
study hopes to devise methods for
identifying psychological factors
in personal public health decisions
such as smoking.
Study Children
It also plans to study the devel-
opment of these factors in chil-
dren and to adapt group dynamics
theories to persuade people to fa-
vorably alter public health atti-
As public health administration
considers many aspects of public
health from the medical to the
sociological factors, an interdisci-
plinary team will be engaged in
the project, the prospectus stated.
The project staff will include
research in medicine, nursing,
public administration, biostatis-
tics and behavioral sciences, with
emphasis on psychology and pub-
lic health engineering.
No Cross Research
"No attempt will be made to
require strict interdisciplinary re-
search. What will be attempted is
a set of parallel though independ-
ently directed investigations, each
oriented toward the same specific
goal," the prospectus explained.
Considerable communication be-
tween researchers will be encour-
aged and joint planning of proj-
ects may be undertaken. However,
responsibility will lie with the spe-
cialist and his staff to avoid the
frictions of a mixed group, the
document said.
The evaluation project will be
carried out in four phases, total-
ing seven to ten years.
Phase one, which began in Sep-
tember, involves selecting public
health agencies and projects for
About Phase One
In this phase, researchers will
help agencies develop methods to
evaluate the ultimate and work-
ing objectives of selected public
health projects. It will assist In
the evaluation of sub-objectives
and the programs for meeting
these objectives and sub-objec-
"The emphasis in this phase
will be not on the substantive data
obtained, but on methods for ob-
taining it. The aim will be to de-
velop the minimum number of
standard procedures that can be
used within various health agen-
cies to set criteria of effective-
ness against which achievement
can subsequently be measured,"
the prospectus said.
In phase two, the methods of
the first phase will be applied to a
program and it will be revised to
meet the new standards.
Third Phase
The revised program will be re-
evaluated in the third phase not
only to test its effectiveness, but
to test the original evaluation
The University has created a
2.5-5 million dollar industry for
Ann Arbor merchants.
This "industry" is the educa-
tional conferences held at the
University. T h e s e conferences
bring over 50,000 visitors annually
to Ann Arbor.
Prof. Alfred W. Storey, assist-
ant director of lectures, confer-
ences and institutes of the Univer-
sity Extension Services conference
department, estimated that there
were 350 conferences held last
year. He predicted that if a con-
ference center building were built,

the number would rise to 400 a
Such a building is visionary
only, although there have been
joint University-city-business dis-
cussion in reference to the feasibil-
ity of a conference center. Gen-
erally, the conferences are held
at Rackhem Bldg., the Michigan
Union or the Women's League.
Prof. Storey said that confer-
ences could usually be kept with-
in a single University building, but
added that because of scheduling
on the use of buildings, some con-
ference sessions are split between
several buildings. He thinks that
a conference center would bring
additional groups into the city and
stimulate the local economy.

Phase four will be essentially a
repetition of phase two, the pros-
pectus noted.
The behavioral science aspect of
the project will attempt to fill psy-
chological gaps about the indi-
vidual's health outlook. It will at-
tempt to find the factors that mo-
tivate a person to seek medical aid
and accept recommended treat-
ments. Ways of measuring these
factors will also be researched, the
report said.
The document noted that indi-
viduals will take public health ac-
tion if they believe the disease
will seriously effect them and if
the action will reduce the disease's
Subjective Factors
These factors, the prospectus
continued, are subjective and a
function of his world view.
The phase of the behavioral as-
pect will involve determining the
way psychological beliefs build up
in children.
A study of children from three
to 18 years old will be set up to
determine: 1) the ages children
begin to accept health beliefs;
2) the means by which beliefs
stabilize; 3) the events and per-
sons that cause the beliefs to be-
come accepted; and 4) other psy-
chological factors involved.
Change Attitudes
Further, the knowledge gained
from this study will be used in
attempting to change children's
health attitudes and measure cur-
rent group dynamics methods for
doing so.
The project will not be operat-
ing at full potential until the
third or fourth year, the prospec-
tus noted. The recruiting of re-
searchers and the selecting of
communities and programs to
study will delay its full function-
At full strength, the project will
employ 28 researchers, adminis-
trators and clerical help. Approxi-
mately $175,000 will be spent the
first year and approximately $327,-
000 in the six following years of
the initial grant.
The project will also train vi-
tally needed community public
health researchers, Prof. Getting
said. Noting that trained person-
nel are "scarcer than hen's teeth,"
he said that graduate students in
public health administration and
the social sciences will be used in
the project.


(Continued from Page 1)

Applications to the Medical
School are increasing while "se-
vere space problems" continue, As-
sociate Dean Charles J. Tupper
noted yesterday.
The rising applications are con-
trary to a nationwide decline in
the number of students seeking to
enter medical schools, he said.
A major factor in the national
drop is "the continued existence

. . applications, space
of fallacious ideas about admission
to medical schools," he declared.
A student need not be a genius,
campus - leader, son-of-a-doctor
type to gain admission, Dean Tup-
per asserted.
B' Students
"Any college man or woman who
likes science and people and is a
"B" student should be able to get
into medical school," he said.
Dean Tupper also cited the in-
creasing number of other profes-
sions which require less time and
cost for education. Space age fields
are particularly attractive.
He attributed the University's
bucking this trend to "the recog-
nition of the quality of the Uni-
Facilities Problem
Turning to the problem of facili-
ties, Dean Tupper said that when
the Medical School expanded to
accept a freshman class of 200 in
1950, it was based on the premise

of two new medical science build-
ings, he explained. To date, only.
one of these buildings has been
The school mainly needs class-
room and teaching laboratory
space, Tupper said, but it also can
use a children's hospital. Current-
ly, a children's psychiatric unit
has been built, but the general
children's hospital is a ward in.
University Hospital.
"The administration has been
helpful. I do not think that the
space problem results from a lack,
of University appreciation of Med-
ical School needs," he declared.-
Dean Tupper noted that the
Medical School has been able to
expand some facilities through
federal matching and private
foundation grants.
Among buildings recently built
by private funds was the Kresge1
Hearing Research Center. How-t
ever, this building is used mainly
for medical research.-
Constantine Poulos, editor and
publisher of the Jamestown Sun,,
a New York newspaper, will speak'
on "International News: A Weap-
on for World Peace" at 3 p.m. to-
day in Aud. A. The lecture is spon-
sored by the journalism depart-
Student Play...
The speech department's Stu-
dent Laboratory Theatre will pre-
sent a medieval mystery play, the
"Second Shepard's Play," at 4:10
p.m. today in the Arena Theatre,
Frieze Bldg.
Hillel Presents.,.
Prof. Donald Hall of the English
department will lecture on John
Yeats, T. S. Eliot and James Joyce
at the Hillel Foundation at 8 p.m.
ZoologyTalk ...
Prof. Tahir M. Rizki of the
zoology department will discuss
"Distribution Patterns of an In-
ducible Enzyme during Develop-
ment" at 4 p.m. today in Rm. 1400
Chemistry Bldg.
Library Hours-.. .
The University libraries will be
closed Dec. 23:25, Dec. 30 and Jan.
1. The General and Undergradu-
ate libraries will be open from 8
a.m.-6 p.m. during the remainder
of the Christmas vacation. Other
libraries will post their schedules.

Therefore, following a study re-
port by Prof. Samuel Estep of the
Law School, the Regents at last
month's meeting revised the bylaw
to restrict only the inciting of an
audience to illegal action.
Sponsoring student organiza-
tions are obligated to inform h-
coming speakers of the rules, and
would be penalized, if any infrac-
tion occurs. There is no prior cen-
sorship of speechs, however.
A committee will be set up to put
on, if necessary, a lecture series, in
order to ensure that all points of
view on a given topic are ade-
quately presented.
Schools Follow Suit
Similar speaker policies have
been approved by the Michigan
Coordinating Council for Higher
Education and MSU.
8) Legislative displeasure with
the amount of out-of-state stu-
dents at the University brought
about a complete survey on the
question last May.
Each school and department is
considering such things as number
of out-of-state students, their im-
portance in maintaining the stan-
dards of the school and depart-
ment and enrollment pressure
from qualified in-state students.
Out-of State Enrollment
Three days after the survey was
announced, Rep. William D. Ro-
mano (D-Warren) claimed that
the University had informally ag-
reed to cut down the number of
out-of-state students. University
officials, however, refused to com-
ment on Romano's statements.
9) The Daily was faced with a

....speaks out
crisis last spring when the Board
in Control of Student Publications
for the first time in 20 years
changed the personnel appoint-
ments recommended by the out-
going senior editors.
In protest of the Board's in-
clination to create co-editorial
directors and to shuffle around
three of the new appointments, all
of the outgoing seniors resigned
their positions (which they nor-
mally would hold officially until
June), and seven of the eight
incoming seniors threatened to
quit, as did a vast majority of the
After a month of considerable



DIAL 5-6290


the Voice of
and the Voices of Red Buttons - Robert Goulet - Paul Frees
8 Friendly Merchants Show

Economists View Market;
Discuss May-June Slump

Stock market prices ended in a
"precipitous" drop last May and
June after a steady decline which
had begun the previous December,
Prof. Wilford J. Eitemann of the
business administration school said
in a recent interview.
The Dow Jones Averages had
recorded a high of 734 last De-
cember. The decline which follow-
ed ran for five months; in June
the Dow Jones Averages were
down to a low of 530, a drop of
over 200 points.
Prof. Philip J. Wernette of the
business administration school
wrote in an article for the Septem-
ber issue of "Banking" that the
May-June slump was caused by a
"return to common sense" of stock
He agreed with Professors Eite-
mann and Thomas G. Gies also of
the business administration school
that the Cuban crisis at the time
had no effect on the market and
did not cause the fall in stock
SEC Official
Prof. Gies, official consultant to
the Securities Exchange Commis-
sion study on the security market,
pointed out that "the SEC had
initiated a study in November, 1961
to survey securities market poten-
tial worry spots. The SEC had
known that a break in the mar-
ket would eventually come, but it
was impossible to know the exact
time it would happen," he added.
Prof. Eitemann attributed the
fall to the fact that "stock prices
were out of line with reality." He
explained that stock prices, "which
depend on the economy's rate of
growth, were geared to a rate of
growth that was impossible for our
The drop in stock prices "had
little effect on the economy," Prof.
Gies said. He substantiated this by
the fact that this year was the
second best year for automobile
sales in history. Also, he added,
"business set an all-time record
for spending this past year." This
was caused by "optimism of con-
sumers and business that the
slump wouldn't last."
Rise Since June
Since last June the stock mar-
ket has risen over 100 points; re-

covering half of its previous loss
Prof. Eitemann ventured two theo-
ries on whether this rise is per-
manent. "It might represent the
reaction of the overly pessimistic
investor of last May." If this is
true "we could have a 30 point
drop in the present level without
a long-range decline."
Prof. Eitemann's second theory
was that "it was a purely tech-
nical rise (re-adjustment)" an
in this case "we would still be it
a bear market which might ever
go lower than last summer." He
added that "All depends on how
earnings are next year."
It would be "pretty unusual" if
the stock market "showed a sig-
nificant rise next year unless we
had something like a tax cut,"
Prof. Gies added.
DIAL 8-6416




The night life
of Europe
comes to
town t

- r
d .4
8 DAYS in
Over spring vacation. First class
transportation provided aboard a
B.O.A.C. Britannia Turbo-prop as
Swell as a hotel room in a
downtown hotel with a swimming
pool for $175.00.
SStart Diannina now!

FROM 00 LA-AATO .001
Candid Comment-Henry Morgan



TODAY 4:10 P.M.
Arena Theatre, Frieze Building

"Second Shepherds' Play"
A Meivl Mvstervv Plav




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