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November 28, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-11-28

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Airc an Daily
Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"s s
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Denial of Academic Freedom:
It Can, and Did, Happen Here

AS DISTURBING as it may be, one gets used
to hearing about professors being fired for
advocating free love, Communism, Facism or
refusing to answer questions posed by Congres-
sional committees. We are told that professor
X is being fired because he is a security risk
or because his beliefs would lead to the sub-
version of the American way of life. Those who
back such firings always say with great em-
phasis that their actions cannot lead to the
suppression of legitimate dissent.
But at a little place in Illinois called Lincoln
College, the board of trustees has informed
Prof. Joseph Leston that because of his picket-
ing against the United. States blockade of
Cuba a month ago, his contract will not be
renewed next June. The trustees claim that
Prof. Leston violated the proper constraint
obligation of academic freedom.
Now nobody contends that Prof. Leston is
a Communist or a Facist or an anarchist or
somebody who wants to overthrow the gov-
ernment of anything by violent means. He is
a professor of religion, a Quaker, who acted
in protest aaginst the actions of his govern-
ment. He was merely expressing his own
opinion. And while his opinion was doubtless
a minority view during the Cuban crisis, it
was not "subversive."
ACCORDING TO Harold F. Trapp, chairman
of the board of trustees, Prof. Leston's
error was that he did not consider the effects
of his views on the reputation of the institu-
tion. This, Trapp said, is part of the respon-
sibility involved in proper constraint.
Trapp's views and Prof. Leston's actions
point to two of the major problems of academic
freedom: First, if one grants that certain views
should not be expressed, how is it possible to
draw a line between that which is subversive
and that which is merely dissent. Second, how
far can the institutional schizophrenia go
which constantly forces boards of trustees to
worry more about public relations than about
the problems of education.
The first of these problems-whether and
where a line can be drawn-is the most dif-
ficult. The contention that "it can't happen
here" is belied by Prof. Leston's firing. If one
attempts to circumscribe the expression of
opinions to deter those who are subversive in
some sense, then there are grave problems.

Fof example, can such a policy exist without
damping the opinions of those who agree
with the Communists on one issue, for a
rationale completely different than that of the
Communists? In addition, as exemplified by
Prof. Leston's firing, how can any limits be
set up without retaliation toward those who
disagree with an overwhelmingly popular pol-
ANY LIMITATION of free speech is artifi-
cial. There is no way of preventing only
Communists or only Facists from expressing
their opinion without leading to the gradual
encroachment of all freedom of speech and
academic freedom. Prof. Leston's case demon-
strates this.
Prof. Leston has said that he felt he exer-
cised proper restraint by not violating the law.
What other standard can be imposed in a case
like this? He did not identify himself as a
Lincoln college faculty member when he pick-
eted, nor did he exhibit disrespect for the.
opinions of others. These are the standards set
by the American Association of University Pro-
fessors as guidelines for academic freedom.
As for the public relations phobia, it is clear
that Lincoln College-a private institution--
is worried about what the public will think.
But it is both hypocritical and stupid to mold
a college into an image. Eventually, there is
only image without substance.
IT IS AS RIDICULOUS for a university or
a college to worry about "image" as it would
be for a board of trustees to force a faculty to
vote Democratic or Republican. Public rela-
tions programs ought to convey what a college
or university is rather than molding the in-
stitution into what a fickle public thinks it
ought to be.
Unquestionably, the trustees of Lincoln Col-
lege, by discharging Prof. Leston, have done,
a better job of telling the public what the col-
lege is really lige than many a year of public
relations work could. If the trustees think that
Prof. Leston has violated the AAUP standards
for academic freedom, they need only look at
the four faculty members who have resigned
in protest and the fact that the AAUP itself
is protesting.
Above all, the whole incident points out that
it has happened here.

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Castro's Prestige Fall
May Aid Latin Reform

LATIN AMERICAN response to
the attempted placement of
nuclear weapons in Cuba and the
threat of Communist subversion
may remove many obstacles from
the path of the Alliance for Pro-
gress and the $20 billion United
States aid program.
Western ideology is on trial in
Latin America. Prof. Martin C.
Needler of the Political Science
department said recently, "Change
and reform must come to the
economic and social structure in
South America. Various current
factors are increasing the unrest
among the disadvantaged."
Traditional unsettling factors
in South America are illiteracy,
poverty, and an acute division
between the economic upper and
lower classes. Prof. Needler com-
mented that a current danger to
Latin America is falling world
market prices for the produce of
the one-crop economy countries.
* * *
CASTRO HAS great appeal in
Latin America, as the father of a
revolution that would free the
poor from the economic exploita-
tion of the foreign capitalists and
set up social equality. Communist
stock went up all over Latin
America when Castro pronounced
himself to be a Marxist-Leninist.
The placement and withdrawal of
nuclear weapons in Cuba has low-
ered that stock considerably.
Centering the decision-making
power of a country in Moscow is
contrary to the spirit of a people's
revolution. Non-Communist left-
ists may hestitate to conduct sub-
versive activities that would ben-
efit Communism as opposed to
The camp of violent reformers
has been split. The organizational
structure of the Communist party
can no longer be trusted by mem-
bers of the left other than hard
core Communists. This faction
may be without a leader if Cas-
tro's popularity can be measured
by his performance in protecting
Cuban soveriegnty. The division
of the enemy camp, however, does
not alter the susceptibility of La-
tin American countries to violent
. *
TO REMOVE this susceptibility,
the governments of the American
continents (except Cuba) signed
the Alliance for Progress into
being at Punte del Egte, Uruguay
in 1961. The Alliance is supposed

to provide for constructive stabili-
zation of democratic governments
through economic reform,
Prof. Needler explained the Al-
liance in this way: "It is an ex-
perimental aid program. At other
places and other times we have
given balance of payment assist-
ance or sponsored a project here
and there. The Alliance for Pro-
gress was designed to develop the
whole economy of the country. It
is intended to be a more rational
system of aid."
Specific goals of the Alliance in-
clude raising of life expectancy,
wiping out adult illiteracy, wiping
out malaria and raising per capita
incorme. To attain these goals, a
participating nation will set up
a program of development which
shows that the country is moving
towards economic and social re-
form consistent with the ideals of
the Alliance. The United States
then provides the capital and
technical assistance where neces-
* * *
AFTER A LITTLE more than a
year of operation, Prof. Needler
summarized the problems of the
Alliance in this way:
"The Latin American countries
have so many short term problems
that the Alliance has been primar-
ily a bail out operation. In order
to prevent momentary deteriora-
tion, long term progress has been
"Some prerequisite objectives for
aid are easier to fulfill than others.
All countries have public health
programs. Some have started edu-
cation and housing projects. Little
has been done, about land and
tax reform."
* * *
THOUGH LAND and tax re-
forms are the most needed change,
special interest groups which are
hurt by them block their passage.
Though the alliance still has
major obstacles to surmount, con-
ditions for reform are more fav-
orable now than just a few weeks
ago. Plans and capital for non-
violent reform have been made
available. Interest groups may per-
mit the passage of specific reforms
un'der public pressure and fear of
renewed association of the left
with Cuba armed as a base of sub-
The Russian miscalculation in
Cuba has given the direction of
change in Latin America a sig-
nificant push in the direction of
the Alliance for Progress.





* W E CM,1 G --T Ag DA"'RN>

1 , - vi e vwRgY P

Views Language Programs

Housing Edict Opens Doors

To the Editor:
THANK YOU for publishing
Gerald Storch's thought-pro-
vokingreditorial on theugraduate
language requirements. Although
I am not certain that I grasp all
the implications of his arguments,
I should like to comment upon
the most striking ones.
The justification of any skill
"on purely scholastic grounds," as
he says, haskalways seemed to me
rather shaky. If the graduate
language requirements areto be
upheld, it must be, I think, be-
cause languages are valuable tools.
If correct translations are (or
soon will be) available of all for-
eign publications that a schalor
might wish to persue, one has to
agree that doctoral candidates
need no language training. How-
ever, if I have learned one thing
in my own study of language, it
is that "correct" translations do
not exist.
Machines (and even people) can
do a creditable job of translating
facts, and if all research consist-
ed of learning facts, scholars could
rely with confidence on transla-
tions to keep abreast of foreign
work in their fields. But much re-
search (even in technical fields,
and especially in such disciplines
as history, literary criticism, phi-
losophy, or history of art) con-
sists of coming to grips with an
original or unique interpretation
of facts. Translations of such in-
terpretations, if not completely
erroneous, are always distorted to
some degree.
equivalents exist, from one lan-

guage to another, for interpretive
words. Secondly, translators are
rarely specialists in the specific,
specialized area that forms the
subject of the material they. are
translating. Therefore, it seems to
me that a specialist in the sub-
ject matter treated, using a dic-
tionary which gives him the whole
spectrum of English near-equiva-
lents for each foreign word, is
better equipped to understand in-
terpretive, expository foreign prose
in his field than is a translator
(or a machine programmer), pro-
vided that the subject-matter
specialist has a solid grounding in
the foreign grammar and idiom,
and provided that he has some
knowledge of the peculiar work-
ings of the French or Russian or
German mind, gleaned from ex-
perience in reading both general
and specialized works in the lan-
guage. Removal or weakening of
the graduate language require-
ment seems to me, therefore, tan-
tamount to entrusting the profes-
sional translator with more re-
sponsibility than he deserves.
* * *
IN THE PAST, a few scholars
have claimed that nothing exists
of value in foreign publications
about their speciality. Now this
is a difficult fact to assess with-
out a knowledge of languages;
furthermore, if such people failed
to require language training for
their students, they would be as-
suring the young generation of
American scholars of being the
last to discover future foreign
"break-throughs." Besides, it would
be regrettable, I believe, if pro-
fessors ever decided their doc-
toral candidates were to keep

N A LONG-AWAITED and long-overdue
step, President Kennedy last week issued an
executive edict which opened many new doors
to minority groups by prohibiting discrimina-
tion in housing built or purchased with federal
Of the various available methods for ob-
taining equal right' and opportunities for
minority groups, from the usually ineffectual
picket lines to the more effective boycotts,
sit-ins and other resistance movements, the
tool of legal authority is the most powerful
and irrefutable.
It carries with it the strength to change, in
actuality, existing social conditions; it can
thereby affect inner habits of prejudice by
exposing people to racially mixed situations.
It expresses to the public the socially accept-
able moral position, thus weakening the moral
righteousness of the discriminators.
However, the order must be strongly en-
forced-a matter of no small concern-and
immediately. Time enough has been wasted
between Kennedy's original campaign promises
and the institution of the order.
ALTHOUGH KENNEDY must be praised for
decreeing the ruling, he also must be con-
demned for allowing the situation to exist so
long uncorrected. While the number of states
who had passed fair housing as well as fair
employment acts added up, the executive
branch waited.
For what? Kennedy explained he was wait-
ing for the time when it would be "in the
public interest," presumably a time after a
building boom when the economy will be able
to ease into the new conditions.
The order, unfortunately for the cause of
eliminating discrimination, was not made retro-
active. In other words, all those huge projects,
lining the walls of big city slum areas, and the
other housing already built with federal aid,
are not touched by the ruling. The President, in
an optimistic statement, said that "I have
directed the housing agency and other ap-
propriate agencies to use their good offices
to promote and encourage the abandonment
of discriminatory practices" (in the existing
To this end, the executive order establishes
the President's Committee on Equal Opportun-
ity in Housing to help federal agencies carry
W1 1A~ijr4, t t E4ztiIy

out the anti-discrimination policy for existing
ALTHOUGH A positive step in the right di-
rection, the move could have been more
encompassing. For example, loans given by
banks under protection of the Federal Deposit
Insurance Corporation could have been in-
cluded in the order. There exists several ex-
cellent precedents for rulings of this kind, so
it is not as though the order was a radical,
unheard of step, unexpected nationally. Pre-
viously, in a similar executive order, segregation
was eliminated in the armed forces. The execu-
tive branch has also acted to promote fair
employment opportunities in public works pro-
jects, in organizations receiving defense con-
tracts and in jobs with the federal civil
The president's power, as a weapon even
more effective than state or federal legislation,
can and should be used to extend present
civil rights legislation to a new depth. How-
ever, certain easily definable factions have
already yelled "foul" in expectation of the
order's presumed consequences.
In the South, builders have lambasted the
move, no doubt quaking at the thought of
rapidly erroding Southern property values. In
the North, builders, as well as all people with
an economic stake in the construction area
and all its related business to uphold, also
suspect that mixed neighborhoods are dan-
gerous-but, that all-Negro neighoborhoods
are fatal for property values. "Block-busting,"
a favorite occupation of realtors who know
how to make an avalanche out of a few
dribbles of dirt, certainly contributes to the
widespread panic to move out of the neighbor-
hood as it becomes integrated.
THESE BELIEFS can be neatly placed into
the general category of rubbish. It is not
true that the influx of minority groups into
a previously all-white area will necessarily turn
that area all-Negro. Nor is it true that this
influx will cause an immediate and permanent
downfall of prices and of property values.
Sociological studies have disproved the myth
of falling property values; at present its best
use is to scare people into moving out of their
neighborhoods. This, paradoxically, will work
best to push, down property values.
However, the extent of the executive order's
effectiveness may hang on the decisions of
home buyers and builders to continue to de-
pend on federal aid. Approximately one-third
of all residential mortgages now are insured
h. h VT n -n1 Wn :- i-nc ,.nitainn nr m.

abreast of nothing but some nar-
row speciality, however practical
or valuable it may be.
I note with pleasure your edi-
torialist's interest in the writing
and speaking skills. It would be
splendid to envision the day when
Americans could correspond and
confer with their foreign col-
leagues in their colleagues' lan-
guage, when American scholars
could share their knowledge
through accurate and comprehen-
sive lectures given abroad in the
language of the country. The pres-
ent "reading only" concept ad-
mits that the graduate students'
programs are already crowded and
is based on the adage that "half
a loaf is better than none," rather
than on "anything worth doing
is worth doing well." Folk wisdom
being what it is, you may pick
your proverb; personally, I should
like to be an advocate of an
academic "one world."
* x a
CERTAINLY, if language learn-
ing is memerly a "valuable ex-
perience" in itself for graduate
students, other solutions might ap-
pear more manageable. Why not
rather a philosophy requirement
for engineering doctors, or a nu-
clear physics requirement for
Ph.D.'s in psychology? The lan-
guage rule, prevalent in most
Ph. D.-granting institutions, can
find its only justification in mak-
ing it possible for scholars to
seek inspiration through contact
with foreign minds.
It must not be a last-minute
obstacle cruelly interposed be-
tween student and diploma at the
end of studies; it must exist only
so long as it is a tool for the
eventual benefit of students and
not principally an instrument for
their torture.
-Prof. Roy Jay Nelson
Supervisor, French 111 and 112
Scholarship ...
To the Editor:
torial on the inflexibility of
"credit hours" is well reasoned and
to the point. However, he might
have gone further and asked why
scholarship should be measured by
sitting time. True, it is a con-
venient unit of measurement. But
it would seem to be more reason-
able to use proficiency as the
criterion. At least it has interest-
ing possibilities that might be ex-
-Prof. William Clark Trow
Mirror .
To the Editor:
THANKS TO Robert Selwa's ar-
ticle, "Periods of Crisis Demon-
strate the Failure of Conserva-
tism," and the work of your mag-
azine editors I have been some-
what prematurely raised to the
Conservative Valhalla.
The honor you do me by asso-
ciating me with Taft, Hoover and
Goldwater is as undeserved and
as ill-founded as many of the
other fatuous and ill considered
remarks of Mr. Selwa's uninform-
ed excursion into thickets of
American history.

The Cuban Aftermath

Chapman Report
98% Impotent

WHILE THE CUBAN question is
~still far from being settled, it
has almost, though not entirely,
ceased to be a major issue between
the Soviet Union and the United
States. Having removed its strate-
gic missiles, which represented a
very large military investment in
Cuba, the Soviet Union has no
interest in leaving 'the bombers in
Castro's hands.
These bombers are dangerous
weapons in the hands of an un-
stablercharacter like Castro. The
bombers are slow and old and
vulnerable, and though they could
do much damage in a surprise raid
if equipped with nuclear bombs,
it was most improbable that the
Soviet Union would entrust nu-
clear bombs to Castro. We must
not forget that the President has
put Mr. Khrushchev on public
notice that a nuclear strike from
Cuba will be treated as a nuclear
strike from the Soviet Union.
On Cuba as a military base the
United States has prevailed, and
what remains is an issue between
Castro on the one hand and on
the other hand the United States,
the Latin American republics, and
the Soviet Union itself.
In any event, the objective is
the disarmament of offensive
weapons in Cuba. Even if the
Soviet Union does not compel
Cuba to give up the bombers, the
United States has the power, if
the power is used under a man-
date from the Organization of
American States, to solve the
bomber problem.
If power is needed to solve it,
it could be a blockade of oil'ship-
ments. But a better solution would
befor the Organization of Ameri-
can States to tell Castro that the
military neutralization of Cuba is
the price of a collective guarantee
against invasion or blockade.
* * *
THE SOONER the Cuban prob-
lem can be made into a problem of
the Western hemisphere, the bet-
ter 'the prespects of making some
progress in East-West relations. I
realize that it is possible that
Mr. Khrushchev will make a sur-
prise move somewhere to recoup
some of the prestige which he lost
in Cuba. But, at least for the
moment, this does not seem likeiy.
Mr. Khrushchev, with Mr. Ken-
nedy's help, has taken the line
that Cuba was not a defeat but
an example of statesmanship to
save the peace of the world.
For Mr. Khrushchev personally,
and for the Soviet Union in its

Russia and China. The combined
effect of these two factors is to
induce Moscow to avoid a simul-
taneous mortal conflict both in
Asia and in the West.
accommodation in the West is
greatly reinforced by the enormous
success of the mixed economies of
Western Europe. It is now certain
that the Communist parties are
not going to take over Italy or
France or any other Western
European state. It is quite the
other way around: the East Euro-
pean Communist states and the
Soviet Union itself will be greatly
attracted and much pressed to
come to economic terms with the
great markets and the great sup-
pliers of the West.
For the Soviet Union this is
the only way to peace and pros-
perity and it is only with peace
and prosperity that Mr. Khrush-
chev and the present Russian re-
gime can hope to flourish. All the
other ways lead only to the in-
creasingly insupportable costs of
the race in armaments and at the
end of it the catastrophic night-
mare of thermonuclear war.
* * *
AS CUBA is being liquidated as
a Soviet-American problem, it
seems likely that the nuclear
powers will get to, or at least get
much nearer to, an agreement to
stop testing. As a matter of fact,
the United States has already
stopped testing and the Soviets
stopped on Nov. 20. The incentive
to resume testing in the near
future is not very strong. There
is probably less and less to be
learned. On the other hand, the
incentive is strong to reach an
agreement in order to stop or to
slow down the spread of nuclear
weapons. We are all afraid of
nuclear weapons in China and no
one* really wants to see them in
If a test ban is agreed to, there
is a very fair chance of some pro-
gress in the reductions of arma-
ments. The most promising path
here is to begin with the reduc-
tion of what are good only for
a surprise attack. Because they
would be wiped out so easily and
so quickly, they are provocative
without being defensive. Both in
the Soviet Union and in the West
there are a lot of such antiquated
but provocative weapons, and the
world would be a much safer place
if they could be eliminated.
The weapons which would re-
main for a second strike after a
munri P n taek world P° t+tan_

BLAZING A PATH of suicides
and seductions across the sil-
ver screen, "The Chapman Re-
port" shoves its way in and out
of the Heart of America forever
(maybe). The movie is a senseless
fragmented adaptation of a best-
selling novel (by Irving Wallace
who ought to have known better),
a two hour peep show in a Holly-
wood bed.
Briefly, the movie, like the book,
is about a national sex-life survey
that sets up shop in an "upper-
class California community"
(which means that the houses as
well as the actors are natural
wood). Naturally, the random
sample of women in town is con-
stituted of a divorced nympho-
maniac (Claire Bloom), a widowed
virgin (Jane Fonda, who through-
out the film wears nothing but
white-a touch of rare symbol-
ism), an unfaithful middle-ager
(Shelly Winters, having an affair
with a dashing young New York
producer-1962's most unlikely
couple), and a pampered pet kit-
ten (Glynis Johns, who tries to
seduce a football player so clean
cut that even hismomther musthbe

private thoughts, a moment of
ultimate psychoanalysis.
Dr. Chapman (Mr. Science him-
self)'s assistant winds up breath-
ing a little fire into Miss Fonda,
who responds by marrying him.
Which brings Dr. Chapman to the
moral of the story. He says, "some-
one must understand that statis-
tics don't make morality.'
Lurking behind the scenes has
been Dr. Chapman's moral an-
tagonist, Dr. Jonas, the town phy-
sician who has warned the com-
munity of the sinister consequen-
ces of letting the interviews inter-
fere with the lives of the inter-
viewees. He calls this theatrical
Heinsenberg principle "the chain-
reaction" and enunciates it with
a fervor which crosses the best
nuances of "God" with "penicil-
* * *
THE INTERVIEW techniques
and other scientific touches are,
if not believable, at least hilarious.
"That young lady, No. 481-J, she
dropped her wallet!" a secretary
exclaims, a-flutter. The inter-
viewer suggests juicy retorts for
the interviewee to use when he
feels she is having trouble. Data

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