THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TIlE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE
In Foreign Aid Program
GENERAL ASSEMBLY SPEECH:
Cuban Demands UN
Condemn U.S. Acts.
UNITED NATIONS (P)-At a tumultuous General Assembly ses-
sion yesterday President Osvaldo Dorticos of Cuba demanded that the
United Nations condemn as an act of war any United States blockade
of his country.
Outside the hall Chief Delegate Adlai E. Stevenson served notice
that the United States would maintain its economic pressure against
the Fidel Castro regime as the "least violent way" of coping with a
BERLIN UP)-Soviet authorities
yesterday snubbed Western pro-
tests that guards of the East Ger-
man regime barred a British Army
ambulance from entering East
Berlin to help a man wounded near
0. S. Panin, Soviet protocol of-
ficer in East Berlin, listened to a
reading of the British=-American-
French protest by Ralph Banfield,
British protocol officer. Then he
told Banfield the matter concern-
ed not the Russians but the "Ger-
man Democratic Republic" - the
satellite East German regime
which the West' does not recog-
So, Panin said, he could- not ac-
cept the protests on behalf of So-
viet Ambassador Mihail Pervukhin.
Banfield drove back to West Ber-
The protests were drafted in
identical terms by the American,
British and French ambassadors
to Germany. They and Pervukhin
still have powers in Germany left
over from the allied alliance that
won World War II. But the Rus-
sians usually try to hand the re-
sponsibility over to the satellite
regime where Berlin is concerned.
The Western powers charged
that the stopping of the ambu-
lance Saturday was a clear viola-
tion of their rights under four-
Mayor Willy Brandt's Social
Democratic party called on them
to stop Soviet vehicles from enter-
ing West Berlin in retaliation. So-
viet buses daily bring a detach-
ment into West Berlin to guard
the Soviet war memorial.
Communist threat to the West-
"The maintenance of Commu-
nism in the Americas is not nego-
tiable," he told a news conference
called after a speech of an hour
and 45 minutes by Dorticos in
which he challenged Stevenson to
guarantee by deed and not word
that the United States would not
Interrupted with Cries
Dorticos was interrupted at the
outset by cries of "murderer" and
"degenerate" hurled at him by
spectators in the galleries. The gal-
leries were closed to the general
public. All those admitted held
tickets issued to them by United
Loud applause also punctuated
the speech. It was led mainly by a
group of Soviet United Nations
At the meeting with correspond-
ents the United States chief dele-
gate described the charges by Dor-
ticos as "neither original nor
He reiterated the United States
would not attack Cuba, but added
"let it be equally clear that the
United States will not tolerate ag-
gression against any part of this
Stevenson took the Assembly
rostrum briefly to explain that he
would violate UN tradition if he
replied directly to a speech by a
chief of state. He said he would
make a statement at a news con-
... foreign aid
Posts to Chiefs
CAIRO (P)-Yemen's revolution-
ary regime tightened its hold on
the newly proclaimed Red Sea re-
public and made a bid yesterday
to tribal chiefs to join in drafting
a social reform program.
San'a radio said a council of
tribal chiefs will be convened Oct.
14 to discuss economic, agrarian
and social problems confronting
the backward Arabian nation.
Col. Abdullah Sallal, strongman
of the revolt that overthrew the
monarchy 13 days ago, offered the
chiefs posts in the National De-
fense Council with salaries of cab-
Associated Press correspondent
David Lancashire, among the first
Western reporters to reach San'a
since the revolt, reported the an-
cient mud-walled capital calm de-
spite reports of skirmishes along
the Saudi Arabian frontier.
Coi. Sallal, prime minister of the
new government, told newsmen,
"the revolution is a success."
To Help Countries
With 'Genuine Need'
WASHINGTON ()-The United
States foreign aid program should
be "relieved from the responsibil-
ity" of mixing cold war considera-
tions with genuine economic needs
when deciding which nations to
aid, Chester Bowles, presidential
adviser on developing areas of the
world, said yesterday.
Bowles proposed denial of aid to
nations which "lack the compe-
tence, organization and will" to
use aid effectively.
Separation of economic needs
and cold war considerations will
help to further public understand-
ing of the nation's objectives in the
foreign aid program. He blamed
the "crazy" quilt of political com-
mitments which we inherited from
the previous administration" for
misunderstanding of the aid pro-
Bowles said that the Agency for
International Development is pres-
sured by ambassadors, visiting for-
eign officials and foreign lobbies.
This hampers an effective aid pro-
gram, he said.
Bowles also advised that the
United States not hesitate "to pub-
licize our differences with those
governments which persistently
stick to outmoded concepts de-
signed to protect the status quo
and which refuse to take the nec-
essary steps to r e f o r m and
strengthen their own economic and
He feels that nations with a
gross national product of less than
$350 per capita which are demon-
strating courage in mustering their
resources should be given aid.
These nations, he feels, should
be able "to put their financial
houses in order." The United
States should suggest corrective
measures and advise them to in-
troduce tax and land reforms.
"We are badly in need of some
dramatic showcase examples of
what outstanding performance by
a recipient nation backed by gen-
erous United States assistance can
Bowles said that "hopeless" na-
tions should be satisfied with the
Peace Corps, the food-for-peace
program and technical aid.
By The Associated Press
CHARLEVOIX - Democratic
candidate for Congressman al
large Neil Staebler proposed thai
the government set up a self-
liquidating loan fund to aid stu-
dents in obtaining higher educa-
Staebler, saying the fund is ne-
cessary because of the Unitec
States' need for trained personnel
called for an arrangement where.
by students would not have to pa
back the money until one yea
after they had left college.
L1 University Hosp
St. Joseph Hos
Africa in EEC?
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first in a two-part series analyzing the re-
lationship of Africa to the European Economic Community.)
By H. NEIL BERKSON
"There is no reason why most of the new African countries below
the Sahara cannot be associate members of the Common Market by
the end of this year," Prof. Henry A. Bretton of the political'science
Commenting on the remarks of Belgian Foreign Minister Paul-
Henri Spaak to the United Nations General Assembly last week, Prof.
Bretton feels, however, that associate membership will leave many
"These negotiations have been going on ever since the. formation
of the European Economic Community," Prof. Bretton notes. "They
involve primarily the former colonies of member countries. The for-
mer British colonies have only taken part informally, and their status
cannot be settled unless 'or until
Britain joins the Six'."~
<";: Full Partners
The possibility of all of the new
~ ~ African countries becoming full
partners in the Common Market
is still very much in the future, he
says. "It's very unlikely that all
of them can afford to become
members if tied to the economy
and politics of Europe.
"Many countries-Mali, Mauri-
tania, or the Congo, to name a few
-are in a great state of flux right
now. Political changes are occur-
ring constantly, and these lead to
altered economic conditions. Such
countries are not ready to commit
themselves to Europe.
PROF. HENRY BRETTON "At the same time, there are
... African economics groups in all the African nations
who view potential associations
with the 'Six' with misgivings. They fear that their inferior develop-
mental status will place them at permanent disadvantage vis-a-vis
the powerful European states.
"They are afraid they will be deprived of their bargaining power,
which is inherent in an independent position. This element is present
in Nigeria, Ghana, and many parts of French Africa."
In the wake of the Common Market's phenomenal success, other
countries are trying to create their own competing blocs. "Egypt is
the focus of this effort in Africa," Prof. Bretton says. "She is trying
to organize her own economic bloc to counterbalance the 'Six.' Yugo-
slavia and India are interested bystanders in this movement. These
countries would eventually like to form a number of loosely associated
world trading alliances"
So far Egypt's efforts have not been too successful. "After all,"
Prof. Bretton says "the African countries are interested in learning to
stand on their osn feet, and Egypt's economy is still largely de-
pendent upon outside aid.
PETER, PAUL, & MARY
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H i-F i
World News* Roundup
By The Associated Press
BRUSSELS-Britain and the six members of Europe's Common
Market last night agreed on an intensified work program to speed
negotiations for Britain's entry into the economic-political bloc.
, . , ,
WASHINGTON-Reports that Fidel Castro is ready to exchange
1,113 Cuban invasion prisoners for food and medicine put United States
government agencies into high
gear yesterday to take care of a
fresh flood of refugees into Miami.
Attorneys for ex-Maj. Gen. Ed-
win A. Walker have called his con-
finement "political" and a "viola-
tion of due process and of the Bill
* * *
BRUSSELS-Irish Prime Minis-
ter Sean Lemass flew to Brussels
from Dublin yesterday with the ap-
parent intention of trying to speed
negotiations for Ireland's entry in-
to the European Common Market.
4~LS ~ * *
Court Agrees To Ryule
On Bible-Reading, Case,
WASHINGTON (1P)-The Supreme Court agreed yesterday to rule
on the constitutiorality of Bible-reading and recitation of the Lord's
Prayer in public schools.
This question of intense national interest was left unanswered by
the varied interpretations of the court's historic June 25 decision that
a prayer drawn by state officials for use in New York state's public
schools violated the Constitution.
Specifically, the court will now deal with 1) a Pennsylvania law
requiring Bible-reading in the public schools and 2) a Baltimore school
board regulation that classes open
each day with a Bible-reading and
recitation of the Lord's prayer.
Both were challenged as a
breach of the wall between church
and state. A special federal court
in Philadelphia found the Penn-l
sylvania law unconstitutional. The
Maryland Court of Appeals upheld
the Baltimore regulation.
The high tribunal refused to re-
view two other decisions touching
on church-state relations:
1) That Oregon may not pro-
vide free school books to church
schools, even though the court
ruled 32 years ago that Louisiana
could provide non-religious books
to parochial school students.
2) That a $400,000 hospital built
with public funds may be leased
to a religious organization in Cov-
CARACAS tom)-President Romu-
lo Betancourt suspended constitu-
tional guarantees amidst gun fire.
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WASHINGTON - The Soviet
termediate range nuclear device in
the atmosphere. over its Arctic
testing site, the Atomic Energy
Commission announced yesterday.
.: \ The AEC said the test was con-
ducted near the Arctic island of
KAMPALA, Uganda-The Union
Jack came down at midnight after
more than 60 years of British
colonial rule and the flag of in-
dependent Uganda went up early
yesterday over the new federated
NEW YORK-The stock market
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WASHINGTON - Sen. Wayne
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