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September 30, 1962 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-09-30

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Degree Programs: Sciences Outpace Hump


With space-age American society demanding an increasingly large
output of professionally-trained scientists, engineers and teachers
from the nation's universities, considerable attention has come to bear
upon the graduate ptograms which grind out the supply of advanced
degrees and rather advanced human beings.
And one of the few alternatives seemingly left to educators is to
shorten the length of degree programs for successful Ph.D. graduates,
who, nevertheless, must command a growing and immense backlog
of knowledge in newly-developed, fast-emerging and highly specialized
This is the context that surrounds an important study made this
summer by the graduate school of the years needed by master's and
doctoral degree candidates at the University to complete their grad-
uate programs.
Science Students Graduate Faster
The most revealing of the statistics reflects the technology-
oriented nature of the new social and political elites: students in the
physical and biological sciences complete their degree programs in
three quarters to half the time taken by students in the humanities.
The survey, taken by Assistant Dean Howard S. Bretsch of the

graduate school of 205 students who received doctor's degrees from
the University last February, makes the following breakdown on pro-
gram-lengths in seven general areas:
(The first figures cited are medians for length of both master's
and doctor's degree programs, the second for doctor degrees only.)
Health Sciences-4.5 years, 3.3 years;
Engineering Sciences-4.6, 3.6;
Biological Sciences-5.6, 4.0;
Arts and Area Studies-5.6, 5.3;
Physical Sciences-6.3, 4.3;
Social Sciences-6.6, 4.6;
Languages and Literatures-8.0, 7.6.
Compare 'Efficiency'
In terms of program "efficiency" (the ratio of credit hours elect-
ed per semester to a full load of 10 credits), the general trend con-
tinues, as humanities students consistently carry less of an academic
work load than science students.
This applies to students earning only their Ph.D.'s here as well as.
to those receiving both their master's and doctor's degrees at the Uni-
versity; the tendency also holds true in relation to semesters enrolled
and to total duration of program, the survey found.

Why this disparity between the technical sciences and the hu-
Vice-President for Academic Affairs Roger W. Heyns has sup-
plied one major answer: the science students get the scholarships, and
the humanities students don't.
"I'm sure there are many more scholarships and fellowships in
the sciences," he said. "The problem is one of adequacy of support,
and we need more support for people in the humanities."
Having reached the age of 21 and, for the most part, with a family
to support, graduate students generally must either receive financial
aid or hold down a job concurrent with their studies.
Employment Cuts into Studies
With scholarship aid, of course, one can devote full time to his
degree program; outside employment, however, often necessitates a re-
duced academic work load and hence a longer period to complete a
Heyns firmly believes that there are "enormous advantages to
completing doctoral work in a compact period and a concerted man-
And Vice-President for Research and dean of the graduate school
Ralph A. Sawyer adds that "things get pretty stale if students stay
See SURVEY, Page 2

. . conducts survey

lack of scholarships

Stanford ......16 Ohio State ....41 Washington ...28 Minnesota .... 0 Iowa .. ......28 Wisconsin.....69 Army......... 9
MSU ..........13 No. Carolina .. 7 Illinois ....... 7 Missouri ....... 0 Oregon St. .... 8 New Mexico St. 13 Syracuse,...... 2
See Page 1MI iwt au t
Seventy-Two Years of Editorial Freedom

Slippery Rock 10
Edinboro St. . 7
Increasing cloudiness,
warming trend








Signs Proclamation
Federalizing Troops
Airborne Military Police Prepared
To Aid Integration If Necessary
WASHINGTON (M)-President John F. Kennedy early this morn-
ing placed the Mississippi National Guard under federal control to
provide whatever enforcement measures are necessary to carry out
desegregation at the University of Mississippi.
The President signed a proclamation ordering an end to re-
sistance, then an executive order'which federalized the state's own
guard units and authorized the secretary of defense to take any
other measures he deemed neces-
,$?":-:"{ ' ' ll ' i{,4;'2t",}sary to carry out the court order.
These naturally include the
power to send in regular troops.
Kennedy's executiverorder em-
powering Defense Secretary Rob-
ert S. McNamara to enforce the
court decrees said his commands
to Mississippi to stop resisting
have not been obeyed.
Consequently, he directed Mc-
Namara "to remove all obstruc-
tions of justice in the state of













ebras a





. . . cease and desist.
Request Court
To Levy Fine
For Contempt
By The Associated Press
NEW ORLEANS - The Justice
Department asked the federal ap-
peals court yesterday to impose a
fine on Mississippi Lt. Gov. Paul
B. Johnson for his part in block-
ing James H. Meredith from the
University of Mississippi.
-At the end of a brief hearing on
contempt charges-with neither
the lieutenant governor on hand,
not a nattorney to represent him
-the court found Johnson in con-
tempt and fined him $5,000 per
day, beginning Tuesday, until he
' r complies with its previous orders.
He is not subject to arrest, al-
though the governor, sentenced
Friday, is.
Similar Action
Ihe brief hearing was almost a
re-play of the legal- maneuvering
in the same court room Friday
that has resulted in a contempt
conviction against Gov. Ross Bar-
Later yesterday several thou-
sand people rallied at the court-
house last night to give Barnett
support in his attempts to keep
Meredith from enrolling.
And Fred Hockett of Miami,
executive secretary of the Florida
White Citizens Council, said he
had pledges from 1,500 men to

No Extras
Acting White House Press Sec-
retary Andrew T. Hatcher said,
however, that "at the present
time it is not contemplated that
any additional units will be need-
Elements of an airborne fed-
eral military police unit, however,
flew into Memphis early today
as part of an army buildup for
possible use in the integration
Kennedy acted in the late hours
of the night and early today.
Television Talk
He also announced he will make
a nationwide television-radio talk
at 6:30 p.m. tonight to explain
the steps being taken in the rap-
idly developing crisis.
The President acted after mak-
ing three seperate attempts, the
White House said, to receive as-
surance from the governor that
"law and order could or would be
maintained" in Oxford, Miss., the
university town, during the coming
Still Hopeful
High officials still hoped that
emergency use of federal troops
would not be necessary.
But ,as one official put it, there
seemed little hope left that Gov.
Ross Barnett would bow to federal
court decrees.

Stays Plans
For College
Planshfor a community college
in Washtenaw County have hit a
Dean of state-wide education
Harold M. Dorr informed a group
of backers for the college Friday
night that they will have to seek
an amendment or exception clause
from the state Legislature before
the question can be submitted to
the voters.
Dorr, who chairs a county citi-
zens' committee on finances and
legal basis, predicted that the Leg-
islature probably would not con-
sider such a request until late in
its 1963 session.
An amendment or exception is
necessary because of a small pro-
jection of the Plymouth communi-
ty school district into the county.
A vote on incorporating the coun-
ty into a schoc! district, as the
proposed college would require, is
thus delayed.
Dorr's survey committee prefers
a county district because it has a
"broader tax base."
India Still Favors
China Admittance
Finance Minister Morarji Desai'
said yesterday recent clashes on
the India-China border have not
changed India's position favoring
admission of Red China to the
United Nations. "Our asking for
Red China to be present in the
United Nations has no relation to
their conduct," Desai said in a
recorded radio - television inter-i

F1ibuster Opposes
Public Works Bill
WASHINGTON (IP)-Sen. William Proxmire (D-Wis) waged a
long and lonely Senate talk last night against a $750,000 item in the
$5.2 million public works appropriation bill.
Proxmire finally ended after talking more than nine hours.
The Senate recessed until 10 a.m. tomorrow when a vote will be
taken on a Proxmire amendment to eliminate the money from the
public works bill.
Only The Beginning
Proxmire protested that the $750,000 to start the Glen Elder Dam
and irrigation project in Kansas was just a first installment on what
eventually would be a federal ex-sr



Claridge Leads Cornhusker Attack;
Raimey, Houtman Sustain Injuries
Sports Editor
The Michigan Wolverines stumbled, bumbled and fumbled
before 70,287 disappointed fans yesterday and finally were
shocked by a good Nebraska team, 25-13.
Despite the expected first game errors and the many
more not-so-expected errors, the Wolverines were still in the
game until late in the fourth quarter when they failed to stop
the Cornhuskers on two crucial plays. The second play was a
fourth and eight on the Michigan 24 and Nebraska quarter-
back Dennis Claridge completed an eight-yard pass for a first
down. Bill "Thunder"' Thorn-?
ton, who wasn't even supposed
to play, scored on the next play e
and that was the ball game. I tQ T T T


penditure of $60 million.
He called the project "a classic
example of wasteful federal spend-
ing at its incredible worst."
Proxmire has offered an amend-
ment-to be voted on tomorrow-
to eliminate the item from the bill.
Much Waste
He said he not only wanted to
make a case against the Glen Eld-
er project but to document "the
general case against the billions of
dollars of waste involved in the
present system of congressional de-
termination of irrigation and flood
control projects."
He was hopeful that perhaps "a
thoroughly documented case made
in depth will dramatize the trage-
dy of this waste and shock sena-
tors awake."
For hours on end, however, the
only other senator in sight was
Quentin N. Burdick (D-ND) who
was in the presiding officer's chair.
Once, Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey
(D-Minn) relieved Burdick briefly
and then disappeared.
-Proxmire said that farmers sup-
posed to benefit from the project
are overwhelmingly against it.

Regents Meet
With Council
The Regents and City Council
yesterday held a rare joint meet-
ing to discuss problems stemming
mainly from construction of the
University's Oxford Rd. housing'
The private, informal gathering
lasted for about two and one half
hours, but no action was taken.)

Wolverines Drop

... scores second 'M' TD

arvrd-Corne Tandem
Finds Ancient Synagogue
CAMBRIDGE (AP)-A Harvard-Cornell expedition excavating the
capital of King Croesus in ancient Sardis, western Turkey, yesterday
reported the discovery of a synagogue dating back to the third
century A.D.
The discovery came when D. G. Mitten of Stow, Ohio, one of
the Harvard group, drove a trench from the main avenue of Sardis
to find the colonnade of the Roman gymnasium. Instead he came

That was Thornton's second
touchdown while carrying nine
times for 40 yds., which wasn't'
bad for a guy with an injured
shoulder. He also proved to be a
ferocious blocker and after the
game Nebraska Coach Bob De-
vaney called him "as good as any-
body in the country."All this de-
spite the fact that Devaney added,
"he can play better than this."
Devaney, incidentally,.is now 2-
0 with his new Nebraska squad
which might very well distinguish
itself in the Big Eight this year.
Elliott Shuffles
Michigan mentor Bump Elliott,
who was supposed to use three
full units, never got the third on
the field and abandoned the sec-
ond unit in the second half. He
ended up using 33 men trying to
find a good combination, but did
not use actual units.
Elliott also ran all four of his
quarterbacks into the fray, some-
what remindful of last year's pro-
fessional San Francisco 49ers.
None met with any great degree
of success and the passing attack
looms as the season's major ques-
tion mark.
- "We've very disappointed in the
team's performance," Elliott said.
"We were concerned about the er-
rors we might make because of in-
experience, but this was more than
we expected. We dropped passes
and missed key blocks in key situ-

vn V, iowa
Win Debuts
By The Associated Press
Stanford, winless and hopeless
only two years ago, yesterday
matched Nebraska's upset of Mich-
iganf with a shocking 16-13 home
victory over Michigan.State.
Illinois became the third Big
Ten team to lose to a non-con-
ference fose, losing as expected to
Washington, 28-7, while Minne-
sota was held to a scoreless tie
with Missouri.
But the other Big Ten teams-
Ohio State, Iowa, Wisconsin and
Indiana-went a long way in re-
gaining some of the lost prestige
with impressive wins over North
Carolina, Oregon State, New Mex-
ico State and Cincinnati, respec-
Stanford quarterback S t e v e
Thurlow riddled Michigan State's
defenses with passes leading the
surprising Indians to a 16-13 foot-
ball upset over the Spartans.
Passes by the 6'3" junior sig-
nal-caller played a major role in
all three Stanford scoring drives
as Michigan State lost to a West
Coast club the first time since
Thurlow and the other stars on
offense shared honors with .a de-
See MSU, Page 6


Supreme Court To Begin Fateful Term

By PAUL M. YOST J. Goldberg as an associate justice
Associated Press Staff Writer to take part in decisions certain
WASHINGTON- The Supreme to add important chapters to his-
Court opens tomorrow a new term tory.
with the swearing in of Arthur The former secretary of labor
, .' senS. s:$t 'iL{

in President John F. Kennedy's
cabinet, confirmed by the Senate
last Tuesday, takes his seat on the
high bench amid speculation
whether the tribunal will now be-
come more liberal.
As the second Kennedy ap-
pointee tothe court, the onetime
labor union lawyer is regarded as
likely to strengthen the liberal
wing of a previously closely divid-
ed tribunal. Earlier this year the

Early predictions of court trends
are hazardous, however, for the
justices do not always divide in
fixed patterns.
For instance, after more than
three years, few observers would
hazard a guess as to how Justice
Potter Stewart will vote on any
particular case. And Whive, in his
first major dissent last June,
voted against the court's liberals.
Some clarification of the court's

across a building nearly 60 feet
wide and more than 120 feet in
length, paved with mosaics and
with a triple gate between two
Marble Evidence
A slab of marble, depicting the
menorah-the seven-armed candle
holder-a tree and the shofar-
the ram's horn used to anounce
the new year, convinced the arch-
aeolo gists the building was the
meeting place of the Jewish com-
munity of Sardis.
Two elegant marble platforms,
perhaps used by readers of the
Bible, projected between the gates
int thn xvncnrn allrf+i iiA

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