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September 18, 1962 - Image 12

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-09-18

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PAGE SIX

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 1962

LOOKS TOWARD MOSCOW:
Haiti Government Threatens U.S.

H 1f

on Aid Cessation

By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
PORT AU PRINCE - Haiti's
government, like a spanked child,
is threatening to kick L'Oncle
Sam in the shins.
Uncle Sam, in effect, has de-
prived him of his candy - and
Papa Doc, according to responsible
people who claim to have heard
him say it, intends to "bring
President John F. Kennedy to his
knees.'"
Papa Doc is the name many of
the four million Negroes in this
French-speaking nation apply to
(Dr.) Francois Duvalier, their
iron-fisted dictator-president. His
regime is rapidly making progress
backward. He is asking for trouble
an seems likely to get it.
Gathering Storm
This storm in the Caribbean,
blowing up for months, is worri-
some because Cuba is only 50 miles
away.
United States economic aid was
suspended when Washington de-
spaired of finding logic in the Du-
valier regime. Military aid also
has been halted. And the regime,
buzzing like an angry bee deprived
of its nectar, rolls its eyes specu-
latively toward Moscow. Rumors
are dropped in Washington, evi-
dently by paid lobbyists, that the
55-year-old dictator, has lost pa-
tience and will punish the Ameri-
cans.
In reality, Duvalier fears the
Communists. Cautiously he grants
'U' Graduate
Holds Reins
In Haiti
Haiti President Francois Du-
valier, '45PH, is one of the
University's most famous alum-
ni, although perhaps not one
of the most beloved.
Prof. Henry Pierce, now re-
tired from the public health
school, recalls Duvalier as a
"very modest and reticent" stu-
dent. "Surprised" when he first
learned that Duvalier had ris-
en to the presidency, Prof.
Pierce noted that the Haitian
did "average work andshowed
no evidence of political lean-
ings" during his one-year stay
on the campus.
Apparently Duvalier did learn
something here, however, as he
directed a yaws-elimination
program in Haiti which gave
him his first taste of promin-
ence.
a little latitude to a few highly
placed men with extreme leftist
leanings. But he remains nervous-
ly alert to any sign of overt Com-
munist activity.
Courageous Talk
Broadcasts berate the United
States with brave, defiant-sound-
ing talk. One gets the impression
that Duvalier is a frightened man.
His sole ambition seems to be to
keep himself, in power. He main-
tains a harsh gun rule, a perpetual
state of seige.
Most Haitians are too involved
with scratching out a living to pay
much attention to politics. The
per-capita income equals about
$70 a year, making Haiti, among
the oldest and smallest republics
El1

UNDER NEW
MANAGEMENT

of the hemisphere, also its poor-
est. Ninety per cent are illiterate.
Opposition is beginning to grow
among the 10 per cent who can
read and write.
A coffee republic with an agri-
cultural economy, Haiti is hardly
ready for modern democracy. Per-
haps the best it can hope for is
a benevolent strongman. The
United States turned sour on Du-
valier not because he is a dictator
but because he attempted to use
United States aid for political ag-
grandizement. He rejected checks
on use of dollar funds for various
aid projects. Today, only the old
Point Four malaria control pro-
gram is continuing.
Continual Chaos
Duvalier reflects Haiti's history
of political chaos. It was so dan-
gerous in 1915 that the United
States sent Marines to restore or-
der. They remained until 1934.
Duvalier became president in a
1957 election denounced as frau-
dulent by his opponent. The phy-
sician-politician, who had close
ties with Americans as a medical
campaigner against tropical dis-
eases, was supported by a military
junta and declared president. Be-

of inviting the Marines to return
,and train his army. Most of the
help was in the noncombatant
field - medical services, trans-
port, communications, repair serv-
ices. Duvalier's own policies im-
peded the program and may be
wrecking his own army, one of the
few stable forces in the nation.
The 57 United States naval mis-
sion remains in Haiti, but it is just
marking time.
Power Network
Duvalier began strengthening
his power network in mid-1959,
after one of many plots against
him almost succeeded.
The organization resembles the
Nazi pattern. The inner core is
his presidential guard, tough, well
armed and well trained, an elite
group not responsible to the army.
It holds the keys to the nation's
arsenal.
The second power ring is the
civilian militia, now reputed to
total 8,000, outnumbering the
army by 3,000. Its armed members
have one mission: suppression of
opposition. It resembles the Hitler
storm troopers.
The outer ring of the structure
is the dreaded Organization of

Tontons Macoutes (Creole for
bogey men). These wear plain
clothes. Their badges are .38 police
spcial pistols. Their services are
spying, violence and repression.
The agents can be as brutal as
Hitler's brown shirts were in their
time.
Duvalier, trusting few around
him, has had five army chiefs of
staff in five years. His militia is
thus a sort of reinsurance, par-
ticularly since Duvalier declared
himself re-elected by a tricky ple-
biscite last year. But the militia
setup hurts army morale. The bit-
terness could explode in palace
revolution or worse.
The United States Naval mission
regards the militia as a menace-
an armed, illiterate mob without
sense of responsibility.
Haiti's economic situation adds
to restlessness among the literate
population. Duvalier persistently
dreams up new taxes. When a
business seems to flourish, his
measures tend to tax it out of ex-
istence. Government policies stifle
enterprise. Money whirls with
centrifugal force into the pockets
of Duvalier supporters. The gov-
ernment takes but gives little.

South

u

Drugs

Formerly

Lumba rd's

1225 SOUTH UNIVERSITY
NO 2-0743
FOUNTAIN DRUGS

FRANCOIS DUVALIER
... Haitian president

ROY SNYDER R.Ph.

JOHN STIRLING R.Ph.

fore long he, like many before him,
took on the trappings of a dictator.
He remained loudly pro-Ameri-
can, however, even to the extent

p1 '.1

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