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December 06, 1964 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-12-06

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SUNDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1964

THE MIC.UIGAN DAILY

PAGE THREV

SUNDAY, DECEMB1~R 6,1904 TUE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE TIIRETI

Oxford Makes

Crucial' Self-Study

Education Leads Poverty War

OXFORD, England-In a white-
paneled examination room on
High. Street, Oxford ,niversity is
conducting a study of itself so
searching and crucial that it may
alter the course of higher educa-
tion in Britain.
In three meetings a week, two
of them public, a commission of
seven university teachers and of-
ficers has read more than 100
statements so far, heard 2-16 per-
sons a session and contemplated
or questioned their criticisms of
patterns of Oxford education that
have been sacrosanct for cen-
turies.
Hand-Formed Mind?
, Is Oxford right to try to pro-
duce the "hand-formed" mind,
the kind of graduate who is steep-
ed in the classics or drilled in a
narrow. field of learning?
Should Oxford try to produce
the "good all-rounder" as was
suggested to the commission by

the Federation of British Indus-
tries?
Should Oxford try to meet in-
dustry's persistent demands for
fewer academic specialists and for
more men and women of widely
ranging interests and learning?
Should it admit more women un-
dergraduates, now outnumbered
five to one by the ,men?
New Ferment at School
Since the commission was ap-
pointed by the university last
Easter to inquire into the role Ox-
ford should play in higher educa-
tion, the university has been in a
new mood of ferment.
Lord Franks, who was provost'
of Worcester College and is chair-
man of the commission, has called
the inquiry a period of reflective
and constructive dialogue. He said
that it might last two years.
It may seem to be more than
that to the rest of Britain 23
universities, which have tradition-

ally looked to Oxford as a vir-
tually unassailable example for
themselves.
The inquiry has brought to the
surface some deep-rooted fears
that Oxford, by believing too fer-
vently in the legend of its own
superiority, was in danger of be-
ing bypassed for lack of some
clear, 20th-century thinking.
A recurrent theme of criticism
is that the weight of teaching at
Oxford should be shifted from the
tutorial system to lecture courses.
Under the tutorial system, each
undergraduate, as regards his
studies, is under the immediate
supervision of a fellow. The fel-
lows are the scholars who form
the governing body of each of Ox-
ford's independent colleges.
Another criticism is that these
colleges should be altered to pro-
vide for more exchange between
them and for a stronger central
authority in the university.

A physics professor, R. E.Peierls,
conceded that in theory the tu-
torial system gives the student the
advantage of individual guidance.
But in practice, the professor con-
tended, the tutor's knowledge has
often narrowed too far for the
student. And the colleges often
find it as easy to offeri a few in-
spiring lectures as a great many
mediocre tutorials.
A botany professor, C. D. Dar-
lington, contended that Oxford
was choking itself by its system
of independent colleges and tu-
torials, and abandoning the pur-
pose for which it was founded
eight centuries ago-the exchange
of ideas among men of different
generations and different dis-
ciplines.
There have been defenses, most-
ly by traditionalists, but two de-
fenses of a different sort were
submitted recently..

One of them, by the student
council, regretted that so much
evidence had been given to show
that tutorjals, especially in the
sciences, were a waste of time.
"It seems unfortunate that the
study of teaching methods has
been divided into arts and sciences
as it has," the council said. "Often
the differences between large and
small faculties are equally im-
portant, and to some extent each
subject has its own peculiar prob-
lems."
D. C. M. Yardley, a fellow at
St. Edmund Hall and.,a tutor in
law, wrote to the commission'that,
it would be a pity to see the
colleges of Oxford lose their in-
dependence. Experience in some
American universities, he suggest-
ed, showed that university teach-
ers there often had to "muzzle
their own views so as not to prej-
udice their careers."
Copyright, 1964, The New Yor1 Times

Anti-poverty programs unveiled
recently by R. Sargent Shriver,
director of the war on poverty, put
the spotlight on the fact that edu-
cation is the heart of the anti-
poverty efforts.
The proposals presented by
Shriver contain these education
elements:
1) Community Action Program.
Approximately $250 million will be,
available for the first year of oper-
ation to help communities to
battle poverty through preventive
action. Education is the chief in-
gredient--estimated at 60 per cent
of the entire community action
budget.
It includes after-school study
centers, summer programs, week-
end instruction., enrichment such
as New York's "Higher Horizon
which sends slum children to con-
certs or theater and-possibly the
cornerstone of all preventive effort'
-- pre-school instruction for 3-
year-old ghetto children and day-
care centers for the most needy.
Cities that have pilot programs
of their own already under way
will be eligible for support-but
only to expand their programs. A
"4maintenance of effort clause,"~
written' into each grant, assures,
that there will be, no relaxation of
local spending.
Significantly, community action
program officials prefer to chan-
nel funds through some body
other than the local Board of Edu-
cation. "Schools by themselves
can't solve the problem," one ex-
pert said.

2) Work -Study Program. Ad-
ministered by the United States
Office of Education, this program
hopes to enroll large numbers of
needy students in colleges and
universities, while providing jobs
for them at the same time. The
limit on outside work is set at 15
hours a week. Some of the jobs
will be subsidized campus em-

by the Department of Labor, this
program will have available $110
to $150 million to help about
150,000, youths between the ages
of 16 and 21 who are either out
of school and unemployed or are
about to drop out of school and
into the chronically unemployed
trap of the unskilled. Some will go
into community jobs-in hospitals,
laboratories and social agencies.
Others will get jobs in school
cafeterias and custodians' offices.
The stress will be on getting
youths back to school, even if only
part-time, and to create lasting
work habits. An official cited a re-
quest by a professor at the Uni-
versity of Maryland f or 8 or 10
youths who would take care of
animals used in scientific experi-
ments. The hope in such work is
that it will get young people inter-
ested in fields they had not even
considered open to them.
4) Job Corps. This may well be
the educationally most revolution-
ary plan. Administered by the Eco-
nomic Opportunity Office, it will
have $150 million for the first
fiscal year ending on June 30.
Aimed also at youths between the
ages of 16 and 21, it will establish
25 'to 30 centers for men, in or
near cities, on such sites as ob-
solete military posts. Each center
will house 1,000 to 2,000 men. An-
other 25 to 30 smaller centers for
about 250 women each will be
established in vacant hotels or
motels.
Copyright, 1964, The New York Times

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION,
New Aency Considers Enrollment Boom

R. SARGENT SHRIVER

LANSING (JP) - About nine
months after Michigan's new
eight-member State Board of Edu-
cation takes office, the state's
college enrollment is expected to
jump by about 17,000-enough to,
populate another major university.
"We've, got all kinds of prob-
lems," according to Peter Oppewall
of Grand Rapids, one member of
the new board created by the
1963 Constitution to take over
policy making duties from the
superintendent of public instruc-
tion.
In addition, the constitution has
given them the new and am-
biguous assignment of coordinat-
ing higher education and advising
the Legislature on education fi-
nances.
No Meetings Yet
The eight members, all Demo-
crats elected Nov.'- 3, have not
held any official meetings yet and
are not sure at this point what
the board's first steps will be and
how it will meet Michigan's edu-
cational problems.
Many feel an important step
will be to alert the public to the

facts about education-facts such
as the expected 17,000 increase in
college enrollment, and the money
needed to handle it.'
"The board will have a very im-
portant educating job of its own
to do," Donald M. D. Thurber of
Grosse Pointe observes.
Thurber, a former Regent here,
believes almost everyone is in-
terested in schools. Thus the
board, he hopes, can "capitalize
on interest which already exists
and turn it into an informed in-
terest, based on facts-not an
easy task.
"If you tell the needs cogently,
truthfully and often enough, rem-
edies do follow," he adds. "You
get nowhere if you hold back
the needs."
Leon Fill of Huntington Woods

suggests a committee of prominent
citizens to do a selling :job on
education's needs.

"If people are told, 'these
the needs,' they'll go for it,"
Fill said.

are
Dr.

"With the board as large as it
is, we hope to get to a lot of
places and meet a lot of people,"
Marilyn Jean Kelley of Albion
declares.
Fill says some 3,400 new class-
rooms are needed and some 5000'
should be replaced at the secon-
dary level. More teachers are
needed, too, he said.
Oppewall calls for reversing a;
trend in which, he said, "costs
have gone up faster than the
state's share," forcing local dis-
tricts to pay a higher and higher
percentage.

In addition, he contends, "most
people don't realize how long col-
leges have put off expansion be-
cause of tight budgets in the
past. Since 1959 they haven't been
getting their share."
Recent Tune
This has been a recent theme
of the University in Lansing. In
1"958, this institution received a,
budgetary cut because of the
state's financial plight.
Gov. George Romney warned
educators last month, though, that
telling legislators about education-
al needs is not enough. Public
opinion must be on the educator's
side if they are to sways legisla-
tors, he said.
"Public relations will be perhaps
one of the biggest problems," the
Rev. Charles Mortonr of Detroit
agrees.-
Morton also indicates another
matter likely to come up for board
consideration - preschool educa-
tion, in which youngsters In cul-
turally deprived areas start formal
education before going to kinder-
garten.
This is "possibly the best attack
we can make on poverty, especial-
ly in urban areas," he says. n
Oppewall montions.'; cases in
which, for example, the mother is
working and the father is not
around, and the child at kinder-
garter age cannot yet count.

The child who already is behind
has less motivation to stay in
school, Morton says, and is more
likely to become the school drop-
out.
'Nowadays, a dropout is almost
sure to end up on relief rolls
sooner or later," Oppewall notes.
And, he added, "society has
changed so much that even a
high school graduate isn't sure
of employment."
Oppewall was among several
board members suggesting more
technical training.
"Jobs in subprofessional areas
are going begging," Thomas Bren-
nan of Dearborn explains.
"We must take care of all our
children's needs in the field of
training," Fill observes.
Brennan brings up another area
-prejudice--which he feels edu-
cation should do more to combat.
"Education hasn't even begun
to meet the challenge of the social
revolution in this nation," he says.
"There are walls built in people's
minds more impregnable than the
Berlin Wall. It's harder to move
from Detroit to some suburbs than
from East to West Berlin.
"We're deluding ourselves if we
don't face these problems," he
said.
A number of members favor
developing 'an education master
1plan.

ployment, but others may actually
be in the community action pro-
gram, such as tutoring.
About $71 million will be av il-
able for payment to the students.
3) Work Training. Administered

W Orl d News Roundup
By The Associated Press
SAIGON-A United States military review board has reported
South Vietnamese troops were lax in taking security measures around
the United States Bien Hoa air base when Communist guerrillas
pounded it with mortars Nov. 1, killing four Americans and knocking
out 27 U.S. planes.,
In that attack on the air base, the Communist Viet Cong moved
into the surrounding jungles, carefully set up and aimed their mor-
tars and lobbed about 100 shells4
in a predawn raid.
Bien Hoa air base is 15 miles STARVING STU
outside Saigon.

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DENTS !

Take That Study Break

UNITED NATIONS-East-West
issues ranging from disarmament
to trade were on the agenda yes-
terday as Secretary of State Dean
Rusk and Russian Foreign Min-
ister Andrei A. Gromyko probed
for possible agreements.
The late afternoon meeting was
the third scheduled this week be-
tween the United States and So-
viet foreign affairs leaders-and
the first aimed at canvassing a
wide variety of cold war issues.

Return Refreshed From
SU NDAY SNACKS
at CANTERBURY HOUSE,
Only two more programs before finals:
CHURCH and SYNAGOGUE,
A Dialogue between Christianity & Judiasm
SUNDAY; DECEMBER 6
ISLAM
A Discussion with Rais Khan from Pakistan
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 13
7:45 P.M. 218 N. DIVISION REFRESHMENTS
Students of all faiths-or lack thereof-welcome
Learn Something You Don't Have To

DONALD M. D. THURBER

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