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October 27, 1964 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-10-27

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4 Atricigan D all
Seventy-Fifth Year

Establishing a Sense o e

:--_ - --Mq

Where Opinions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Truth Will Prevail

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

President Johnson and the
Crisis of Conscienee

LYNDON JOHNSON is offering us in this
campaign neither the bright boy in-
tellectualism of Kennedy, the enduring
smile of Eisenhower, nor the small town
horse sense of Truman. We see instead a
living reincarnation of Franklin Roose-
velt and a living example of how much
our estimate of, a political figure is affect-
ed by the environment in which we see
It was just eleven months ago that
Johnson assumed the office of the presi-
dency. Since then the public has been
treated; to a political performance un-
equalled since F.D.R. served as the na-
tion's chief executive. I term this per-
formance political because Johnson is
the complete politician, just as Roosevelt
To define: It is a principal goal of the
American politician to attain high poli-
tical office and to hold that office
through one or more elections. Given
this goal, the aspirant must generally'
work in the following manner:
-Determine what actions on his part
will garner .him the largest bundle of
support; and
-Implement these actions and collect
the support.
PRESIDENT JOHNSON, as a product of
the Roosevelt era, has had his ear
carefully attuned to a particular politi-
cal wavelength, so to speak. Working on
this wavelength, the same one that re-
sulted' in the governmental revolution im-
plicit in the New Deal, Johnson has
discerned an array of "needs" and desires
within American life.
Naturally the responses he has fash-
ioned, or assumed in Kennedy's name,
are "political," if for no other reason than
that they were produced by a political
system. But it by no means follows that
the civil rights bill, the poverty pro-
gram, and the mass transit bill are not
authentic and valuable responses to the
needs that inspired them.
JOHNSON HAS SHOWN a clear percep-
tion of a series of American problems
and has, even more importantly, shown a
Rooseveltian ability to mobilize the brain-
power and the political force to take posi-
tive action toward dealing with them.
His commencement speech at the Uni-
versity last spring brings both the extent
and the limitations of this perception
into clear focus.
In this speech he detailed explicitly the
country's problems as he sees them: hous-
ing, transportation and decay in our ci-
ties; despoliation of the countryside; rec-
reation facilities crowded by the partici-
pants of the affluent society and the 40
hour week; air, water and food pollution;
and, in education (at all levels), crowded
classrooms, outdated curricula, underpaid
and often unqualified teachers, and in-
sufficient aid to those too poor to afford
son's 11 month record is certainly a
testimonial to both the sincerity and the
force behind this speech. In the com-
mencement address Johnson also said,
"We are going to assemble the best
thought and broadest knowledge from all
over the world to find answers to these
problems. I intend to establish working
groups to prepare a series of conferences
and meetings-on the cities, on natural

Managing Editor Editorial Director
ANN GWIRTZMAN ................ Personnel Director
BILL BULLARD ........................ Sports Editor
MICHAEL SATTINGER .... Associate Managing Editor
JOHN KENNY ............ Assistant Managing Editor
DEBORAH BEATTIE ...... Associate Editorial Director
LOUISE LIND ........ Assistant Editorial Director in
Charge of the Magazine
TOM ROWLAND....... ,,.....Associate Sports Editor
GARY WYNER ............. Associate Sports Editor
STEVEN HALLER .. ...........Contributing Editor
MARY LOU BUTCHER ..........Contributing Editor
CHARLES TOWLE ........ Contributing Sports Editor
NIGHT EDITORS: David Block, John Bryant, Jeffrey
Goodman, Robert Rippler, Laurence Kirshbaum.
ert Johnston, John Meredith, Leonard Pratt, Bar-
bara Seyfried, Karen Weinhouse.
Business Staff
JONATHON R. WHITE, Business Manager
JAY GAMPFL .......... Associate Business Manager

beauty, on the quality of education and
on other emerging challenges."
This promise has been fulfilled; John-
son has established 11 "task forces."
Programs being considered are: increas-
ing the poverty program to $4-5 billion
per year; instituting public works pro-
grams to deal with air pollution, water
pollution and water shortage; broad ex-
pansion of education programs; training
and aid for the vanishing small farmer;
"improving the face of America" with
more urban renewal, mass transit and
an urban affairs department in the cab-
inet; and providing full employment.
WITH THIS PROGRAM and with the
current prosperity and past achieve-
ments to back it up, it would seem that
the opposition doesn't have a chance, Yet
these plans have inspired little adulation
or enthusiasm for Johnson. The idea that
many votes will be cast against Barry
Goldwater rather than for Lyndon John-
son seems to be a dominant feeling in
this campaign. The questions then need
to be asked: What do the voters really
want? What are they looking for? And
why hasn't this Rooseveltian figure stir-
red any of the enthusiasms that both
supported and provided sustenance for
that great American politician?
The only answer that readily presents
itself is the rather obvious observation
that times have changed. In the midst
of the depression people knew what they
wanted; jobs, food, shelter, clothing and
order in a disintegrating society. Such
wants and desires have always provided
the election processes with ample fodder
for long campaigns. Now, perhaps for
the first time in history, calling them up
evokes no response.
Even one of the principal secondary is-
sues, our military defense posture, has
evoked no dispute. There are neither
loud calls for isolation and self-contain-
ment nor claims of missile, bomber or
bomb gaps. It is into this vacuum of pur-
poses and goals that Goldwater-who is
articulating the vacillation and bewilder-
ment over intangibles rather than mak-
ing proposals for doing something about
them-has stepped.
GOLDWATER, TOO, resembles Roosevelt
in several ways. He seeks to upset and
redirect the present system and its Wash-
ington centered ways of doing things,
much as Roosevelt sought above all to do
whatever was necessary within or with-
out of the current conceptions of govern-
ment and society to solve the depression
crisis. Goldwater sees this country in
crisis today. His desperate attempts to
articulate this feeling have evoked lim-
ited response, but they have struck re-
sponsive chords of uneasiness and unsure-
Of course his crisis is different from
Roosevelt's. It is implicit rather than ex-
plicit, and the lack of any well-formulated
response means that the campaign should,
but won't, hinge on an assessment of the
Johnson program. The trouble is that this
Johnson program is of the old Roosevelt-
ian type, hardly designed to grapple with
a "crisis of conscience." If Goldwater is
raising questions that are valid, which he
may or may not be doing, Johnson cer-
tainly isn't answering them. Whether
or not this crisis of conscience really exists
is a moot point at this stage.
THE "CLEAR CHOICE," upon examina-
tion, becomes increasingly muddled by
these considerations. Goldwater has al-
lowed himself to be adroitly maneuvered
into the position of the radical extrem-
ism, a position which has thoroughly ob-
scured the thesis he is trying to put

across. Given a dislike of such obfusca-
tion, the voter is left with Johnson.
Thus, as in all politics, the decision
hinges, not on the acceptance or rejec-
tion of Johnson's program, the only clear-
ly articulated segment of the campaign,
but on the strange and nebulous Gold-
water philosophy and on such irrelevant
and derogatory character assassination
and innuendo as seems to be inevitable
in the American politician tradition.
NEVERTHELESS, it seems a bit strange
that Johnson's record and his "Great
Society" have evoked so little response. To
reject the "Great Society" when it is put
nrm hin mir ra -..u i l. ca..nm t o +n 4n a t

A BASIC ISSUE facing all hu-
man beings is that of estab-
lishing and maintaining an iden-
tity-a sense of self. Questions
such as "Who am I?" "What am
I?" and "What's it all about?"
while posed explicitly only at rare
intervals in our lives, nevertheless
are frequently at the root of a
general uncertainty and discon-
tent which is a common exper-
ience in today's world.
The University experience is
neither the beginning nor the end
of the process of identity develop-
ment. Learning who you are and
what you are about begins very
shortly after birth, continues as a
major issue throughout childhood
and adolescence, and involves
refinements and modifications
throughout the life span. But, as
I shall try to show in detail later
in this article, the University ex-
perience is a particularly crucial
one, and offers unique opportuni-
ties for the constructive integra-
tion of one's identity.
At birth, the infant may be said
truly to be without a sense of
identity. His world is a confused,
disorganized place, which he ex-
periences only vaguely through
imperfectly developed sensory and
neural apparatus. Very shortly,
however, through a repetitious
cycle of need arousal and need
satisfaction at the hands of an
outside agent, the infant begins
to distinguish himself as an entity,
separate from the world "outside'
DURING HIS early childhood,
the human being typically ac-
complishes another important goal
in the struggle to define himself.
Very early, his parents begin to
treat him differently and to have
different expectations for be-
havior, depending on whether the
infant is a male or a female.
Distinctions are made in styles of
dress, kinds of toys, levelsyofeac-
tivity and modesty expected, etc.
Out of these forces which are
exerted differentially on boys and
girls comes a sense of oneself as
a boy or a girl, and later as a man
of a woman. A most important
aspect of the development of a
sexual identity, as this process is
called, is the availability of an
adult model of the same sex, after
which the child is able to pattern
himself, and from which pattern-
ing he gains gratification and re-
To this point, the process of
identity development rests largely
upon the relationships which one
has with one's parents, and, to a
lesser degree, upon certain basic
physical laws. But beyond this
period, the institutions of the so-
ciety and the standards of our
culture begin to play a pre-
eminent role. When the child is
able to move about his neighbor-
hood, the reactions and demands
of his playmates and their parents
tell him something about what he
is. As he enters school, he and
others begin to define him var-
iously as a "first grader," the
"class clown," the fastest run-
ner in school," etc. Still later,
the child will be helped by the
society to see himself as "too tall,
short, fat or thin," "just like
Mickey Mantle," or "the brightest
student who ever went through
Ann Arbor High." Thus, as we
become older, our views of our-
selves rest increasingly upon roles
and reactions presented to us by
the society and its institutions.
A major elment in the develop-
ment of effective institutional re-
lationships and thus in the def-
inition of one's self involves the
acceptance, as a part of one's self,
of certain of the basic values and
standards of these institutions.
When these values are firm, es-
tablished and broadly accepted,
they are incorporated almost auto-
matically, and the individual uses
them as a basis for further state-
ments about "Who am I," and

"What's it all about."
However, if the value systems of
the major institutions are con-
fused or contradictory, or if there
is a disturbance in the relation-
ship between the individual and
these institutions, difficulties arise
in the process of identity develop-

ment. The result of these diffi-
culties is an experience of uncer-
tainty, diffusion and restive
searching for identity and pur-
pose in the individual.
* * *
post World War II era in America
has been one in which the above
conditions do obtain. It is beyond
the scope of this article to probe
these reasons in detail, but some
comments about value systems
within and relations to, for ex-
ample, the family, the church,
and the "older generation" may
serve to illustrate the situation.
The family has been much more
than a kinship group which pro-
vides care and shelter. Among its
traditional functions in American
society have been the defining of
values, the providing of fun and
excitement, and the offering of an
economic base upon which younger
members are first dependent, and
to which they later contribute. To
an important degree, the family
has declined in the performance of
these functions since World War
II. Increased affluence and mo-
bility make higher levels of fun

Thus, except in a totally static
society, there is necessarily a "gap"
between generations. The points
of view of an individual are shap-
ed by the total socio-economic-
technological context in which he
develops. (My father wouldn't fly
in an airplane-I will, albeit
nervously-but unlike my son, I
am not seriously contemplating a
trip to the moon.) So long as the
environmental context is relatively
constant from generation to gen-
eration, this gap does not assume
serious proportions. But the pace
of change in this total context has
accelerated greatly since World
War II, so that the present gen-
eration of adolescents and young
adults, as compared to the next
older one, has a vastly different
framework of experience upon
which to base its view of today's
world. As a consequence, there
exists a serious break in communi-
cation between the "older" gen-
erations and the "younger" one,
and little basis foi the effective
incorporation of the value system
of the older by the younger.
The net effect of this disturb-


77 F <'

PROF. RICHARD CUTLER of the psychol-
ogy department plays active roles in
both academic and community affairs. In
addition to his teaching duties, Cutler is
chief psychologist of the University's Fresh
Air Camp and a research or management
consultant to a number of governmental
agencies and corporations.

and excitement easily available
outside the home. Both parents
and children utilize these gratifi-
cation opportunities, although
typically not as a family unit. A
growing general (pseudo?) sophis-
tication makes for a quicker
"wearing out" of fun sources.
This sophistication, plus broader
.and more intensive exposure to
competing value systems from di-
verse subcultures, has also dimin-
ished the continuing impact of the
family's value offerings to its
members. Finally, the adolescent
is neither a major economic bur-
den or a significant economic
contributor to the affluent family
unit, and the economic inter-
dependence of the family mem-
bers is thus reduced. All of these
factors (plus others) contribute to
a general decline in family in-
fluence on the young person, and
to a consequent disturbance in his
relationship to it as a social in-
WHETHER ONE conceives of
the church as a formal institution
with an explicit dogma, or as an
expression of an ethical system
sketched along Judeo-Christian
lines, the church has traditionally
played a major role as a social
institution. It has provided rules,
a value system, an anchor point
for self-definition and purpose.
The person who is certain about
his religion, whether via rational
examination or revelation, is, in an
important sense, certain about
himself. To say "I am a Jew," or
a "Christian" or a "Buddhist" in
the full meaning of such state-
ments, is to say "I have an iden-
tity." Yet, like the family, the
church has waned in importance
as an element in the process of
self-definition. Preoccupation with
issues in the here and now have
weakened our concerns with the
hereafter. Religious dogmatism
and dependence upon revelation
as a path to truth have suffered
under scientific advance. Certain
glaring contradictions between the
ethical requests of the Judeo-
Christian heritage and the paths
to romance and success available
to and travelled by large numbers
of Americans have forced many of
ouranominally religious fellows in-
to a position of alienation from
the church or into flagrant
(though often unconscious) hypo-
to some degree, on the established
value system of the older. At the
same time, changing conditions
and demands require that certain
of the offerings of the older gen-
eration be rejected by the younger.

ance on the relationship between
the developing human being and
the major institutions of his so-
ciety is a substantialrincrease in
the incidence of personal uncer-
tainty, and restive searching for
purpose and meaning. The college
years are traditionally years of
some bewilderment about who one
is, where one is goingeand what
one's relationships are to the
ultimates and infinites of our
existence. But it is my contention
that identity problems begin ear-
lier, last longer, and are more
fraught with difficulty than was
the case a generation or two ago.
The generation of the 1910's had
a purpose in the ending of World
War I, "the war to end wars";
that of the 20's defined itself in
excess and excitement; that of
the 30's nerely wanted to survive
the depression and find a job
and a home; in the 40's; our pur-
pose was to live through the war,
sample the good life, and build a
secure world. By the 50's, the be-
ginning of identity diffusion and
uncertainty began to be apparent,
and in the 60's, search and con-
fusion are the keynotes. I am
aware that these characterizations
are over-simplifed, that history
will perhaps see more clearly than
I the fundamental purpose and
identity of today's young adults,
and that, worst of all, I run the
risk of appearing "un-cool" in
making this assessment public.
AND PERHAPS the definition
of one's self as "cool" is the es-
sence of identity development in
today's college student. Certainly
the Beatles, today's heroic version
of the Flapper, the unemployed
college graduate, or the G.I., are
cool. By that I mean they are
ultimately individualistic, unpre-
tentious, unperturbed and re-
sponsive to any presented oppor-
tunity for the full experience of
joy. But I seldom see a genuinely
cool college student. Too often,
the effort to be cool falls pathe-
tically short, and becomes a bur-
lesque containing large portions
of affectation, pseudo-sophistica-
tion and artificial distancing from
people and events. The essence of
the Beatles "cool" is contact-I
suspect that the avoidance of con-
tact is essential to the aspiring
cool young American. But I am
open to more evidence, and do not
wish to make a premature judg-
The difficulty posed for the
development of identity in today's
young adult, which I postulate
here, may be useful in accounting
for certain phenomena which ap-
pear to be general across college
campuses. For example, the popu-

larity of Hugh Hefner's "Playboy
Philosophy" (which is not a phi-
losophy at all, but rather a state-
ment about social and interper-
sonal values) may be traced to a
need to find a comprehensive, co-
herent, and persuasive statement
about what a young adult in 1964
America ought to be.
AN * -
ANOTHER phenomenon, which
has only begun to be apparent, has
to do with a growing susceptibility
among young adults to various
dogmatic and extreme political ex-
pressions. I hope that the masses
of university students are not
ripe for a demagogue, but in their
wish to find certainty and self-
definition, I suspect that the ap-
peal of a polemic, a simple an-
swer, a promise of solutions now,
a 1984 slogan, or a plea for mass
action, may be great. Depending
on the strength of the need for
a resolution of the uncertainty,
it could matter little that such
appeals would not survive exposure
to fact, history or logical analysis.
There is, of course, much more
to the behavior of University stu-
dents than their reactions to Hef-
ner and extremism. Obviously, not
all of this behavior can be related
to today's special difficulties in
the process of identity formation.
Reactions to the excitement of in-
tellectual discovery seem to change
little through the years. Equally
predictable are the - enthusiasm
for a winning team, a key birth-
day, or a Friday, andkthe dim
view of "Mickey Mouse," hourlies,
and hours. On the positive side,
one sees evidence that the tra-
ditional rebellion against parents,
which used to find its most in-
tense expression in the college
years, is now taking place during
mid-adolescence, and has largely
run Its course by the time the
student enters the University.h
* * *
developed in this article, is wheth-
er the University experience can
serve a major role in the process
of identity formation for its stu-
dents; whether the University can
offer feasible and useful alterna-
tives to Mr. Hefner, extremism,
and the like. I believe so-and the
key lies in the phrase, "the Uni-
versity student." For, like the
family, the church and the "older
generation," the University is a
social institution, within which in-
dividuals can develop a meaning-
ful relationship.
In its efforts to play a part in
the student's attempt to define
himself, ,the University begins
with some major advantages. First,
its educational offerings, wen ac-
cepted and mastered by the stu-
dent, will make a concrete, posi-
tive and practical difference in his
life. Second, the University en-
joys, with reason, a position of
prestige which causes the enter-
ing student to come with a sense
of pride and gratification. Third,
our students are a fantastically
select group, who oring great in-
tellectual power and potential per-
ceptiveness to bear on any prob-
lem, incluing their own. Fourth,
the atmosphere of free search and
inquiry which characterizes the
University provides a natural sup-
port for the personal search which
is a major aspect of identity de-
velopment. And fifth, the geo-
graphical break from home us-
ually implies a psychological break

which makes students particularly
susceptible to the value offerings
of the University.
" w K
IN AN IMPORTANT sense, be-
cause of its relative isolazion from
the immediate attitades and in-
fluences of the society at large,
the institutional relationshp be-
tween the University and its siu-
dents has suffered somewhat less
than the family, thy; church and
the older generation. Thougn the
University sometimes leads and
sometimes follows movements
within the society, the permanence
of its value system serves to damp
the extreme swings which occur in
the society or, for that matter, the
sub-society which is its students.
This is not to say that the rela-
tionship between the values of the
University and the needs of its
students are in harmony-to the
contrary, they are, and will ever
be, somewhat at odds. Whatver
major disruption has occurred is,
I believe, not due to the absence
of a valid system of values within
the University, upon which stu-
dents may construct an important
part of their identity, but rather
to a failure properly and explicitly
to articulate it.
One aspect of this value system
is clear, and is well expressed in
the classroom, laboratory and re-
search activities of the faculty.
This is the pursuit of knowledge.
And, unfortunately, students, lack-
ing a clear statement of the other
aspects of the University's ethic,
seek to find identit.v and defini-
tion in knowledge alone. The em-
phasis upon academic success,
while a part of the general qual-
ity of excellence for which the
University stands, is not all there
is to it, nor will it suffice as a
comprehensive basis for knowing
who one is and where one is going.
THE ENDURING value system
of this University includes, for all
of its members, the following
goals: 1) integrity in the pursuit
of truth; 3) progress toward ma-
turity in judgment; 3) compas-
sion for one's fellows; 4) an at-
titude of objective rationality; 5)
an attempt to understand the
basis for differing points of view;
6) freedom from emotional die-
tates and ignorance; and, 7) capa-
city for the full and creative ex-
perience of life's pleasures. Cer-
tainly few people in the University,
or anywhere else, fully attain these
goals. But the purpose and the
essence of the University's exist-
ence is to strive to gain them, and
the responsibility of the Univer-
sity's faculty and administration
is to hold these goals out to its
students in a fashion which sug-
gests no compromise or equivo-
cation. It is not sufficient merely
to state them; they must be epit-
omized in the lives and modes of
operation of all of those persons
who represent the University to
its students.
As to the validity and utility of
this set of institutional values for
today's college student, I can only
make the following observations.
They have endured, as the Univer-
sity will endure. They serve well
the several "older generations"
who make up the University fac-
ulty and administration. And,
everything considered, we might
do worse than to attempt to build
tomorrow's world upon these







Young Quartet Gives
Exciting Performance

ciety's Chamber Dance Festival
closed Sunday afternoon with an
exciting performance by the
Chamber Dance Quartet presented
to a small but responsive audience
of dance enthusiasts.
Although it is difficult to single
out the performances of the four

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::.4"::.::..... "........ .. ..... " .................



ed by Prof. Maynar
have in past years mad
the musical life of <
Symphonic Choir, one
a concert in Hill Aud.
The Symphonic Cl
ensemble singers from
Music. In recent years
gan, southern and east
formed in Carnegie I
nearby cities as Detrc
yearly agenda.
of various styles from 1
ent .. S. Bach's "No'

Vocal Styles of- the Centuries
1 groups organized and direct- is characterized by a great degree of imitation,
'd Klein of the music school -w 4 voices singing the same parts but entering in a
le significant contributions to staggered fashion. This means, then, that madrigals
a musical Ann Arbor. The do not sound predominantly vertical, like a present-
day " church hymn, but are listened to horizontally,
of these groups, will present
this evening at 8:30 p.m. or linearly,
hoir is a collection of select THE MADRIGALS were dramatic and expres-
i the University's School of sine, with tone painting used wherever possible.
this choir has toured Michi t> t For example, if the text spoke of something on the
tern United States, and per' ~ :f
ascent, the melodic line would rise. If the text
Hall. Performances in such x contained names of birds, and it frequently did,
pit, and Lansing are on its the bird name would be set to the birds characteristic
call. In other words, the goal of the composer was
to make his music parallel as closely as possible the
CONCERT includes music contents of the text.
the Renaissance to the Ares- f
Juxtaposed to the madrigal portion, will be a
w Let Every Tongue Adore hupnHoth rontimrv Pymmn1P of miiltivninatl writinL -

fine dancers, two men and two
women, the contrast in dance
styles between the two women is
interesting to note. Miss Lois
Bewley is a very beautiful; open
and free moving dancer, whereas
Miss Janice Groman dances more
in the old Sadler's wells style.
The concert opened with a very
pleasant romantic ballet, "Recol-
lections of an Age," in three move-
ments. The composition exhibited
the group's fine technique in their
execution of lifts and pas de deux
dance. However, in a touring show
it is always difficult to adjust to
the spacial problems of a new
stage, which could account for
the inaccuracies and lack of pre-
cision in the final movement of
the work.
sion intimas," consisted of four
short dance sketches, each epit-
omizing the choreographer's im-
pression of a poetic phrase print-
ed in the program. Miss Bewley's
dance, a caricature of a young
girl with her rag doll, was de-
lightful. She captures all the love
the child has for this doll and
then, by a switch of emotion
prevalent in all children, she re-
flects all the viciousness and hate
she has for this same doll.
A weak spot in the concert was
"Inner Obstacle," a modern ballet
which was primarily pantomime,

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