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October 18, 1964 - Image 3

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-10-18

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SUNDAY,' OCTOBER 18, 1964

TAE MICHIGAN UA iT.V

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PAGE THREJ.

Ill E ffects of Segregation

Told

-Associated Press
SOVIET PRESIDENT ANASTAS MIKOYAN, left, and newly-named Premier Alexi Kosygin discuss
the shift in Moscow politics at a Kremlin reception yesterday. Former ruler Nikita Khrushchev has
been toppled from power and his present location is not known. His two successors are ruling in
'tandem.'

Kremlin Shuffle Evaluated
Single Leader Seen 'Painless' Power Play Remove
Evolving There Khrushchev from Soviet Of fic
(Continued from Page 1) (Continued from Page 1) them forward at every ch
diplomatic problems Khrushchev ernment in Moscow. Chief Charges
has left behind, as well as with The now ousted premier must That was one of thi
the swelling voice of the Russian have contributed to this situation charges made by the cent
0 people wanting to be heard. himself, and he must have known mittee against Khrushch
Not until a good start on these that one of the unpleasant results ing his relatives too man
tasks has been made is a serious would be denunciation in his old Khrushchev was a toug
power struggle expected. mouthpiece Pravda. liant Communist leader wi
ertheless made his biggest
Both men reached the top via It is true that Nina Petrovna impact as the Kremlin cap
0 the new road-mastery of Soviet Khrushchev, whom he married in playboy of the presidium.
technical problems-and are also 1924, has been urging him to re- Varied Strategy
the first Kremlin chiefs to whom tire. Nina Petrovna, a Red sharp- While plotting his power
w the 1917 Bolshevik revolution is shooter during the Bolshevik revo- Wis partyngpne
only a childhood memory. lution who later, almost single- against party opponents
Varied Background handed, drove Nikita to the top, n g against nf cPi i
kett l f d

By The Associated Press
EAST LANSING - A school
desegration fight in Prince Ed-
ward County, Va., in 1959 has
left some Negro students unable
to read or even tell time.
Professors Robert E. Green and
Louis Hoffman of Michigan State
University said yesterday, in a re-
port issued to the United States
Office of Education, that one
group of more than 1000 young-
sters had an average IQ of only
69.4-"borderline defective"-after
the four years without classes.
The 290-page report was a re-
sult of a study among the county's
1700 school-age Negroes.
Steps Now
The closing of the schools in
1959 came after a federal gourt
ruling reversed a lower court rul-
ing in demanding that the county
take "immediate steps" to inte-
grate the public schools and to
admit all qualified Negroes to its
high schools.
County officials had closed the
public schools, rather than inte-
grate them, and white children
attended private schools.
While other countries in Vir-
ginia had desegregated, Prince
Edward County did not have token
integration in its school system.
The board of supervisors aban-
doned the public school system
June 26, 1959, rather than obey
the federal court order.
The school supervisors voted at
that time to levy no taxes for
educational purposes.
Immediately following this, the
privately financed Prince Edward
Educational Foundation opened
six elementary schools and two
high schools. But only 1,090 of the
county's 1,450 children enrolled.
A non-profit Southside Schools,
Inc. was formed to provide schools
for the county's Negroes.
Negroes now are back in public
schools, though, following an order

When nationwide attention fo-
cused on the county, he said, the
children became more concerned
than ever about getting an edu-
cation.
Ask Many Questions
Green and Hoffman administer-
ed questionnaires and interviewed
Negro parents and children in the
fall of 1963, just before privately
supported free schools provided

Depressed IQ
Lack of schooling apparently de-
pressed intelligence levels as age
increased, the educators reported.
They said 7-year-olds with no
edication measured 17 points low-
er in IQ than those with some
schooling,'and, at age 9 the dif-
ference was 32 points.
Those 9-year-olds with some
schooling, Green and Hoffman
said, had a mean IQ of more than

by the United States Supreme classes for the youngsters for the 100, well within the normal range
Court reopening the schools. first-time since 1959. 1 of intelligence.
Out of County Because of difficulty in securing Parents Not Adequate
Green and Hoffman said during teachers and supplies, attendance While many parents attempted
the four years when schools were in schools outside the county and to teach their children at home,
closed, 575 Negroes attended class- declining motivation caused by the the educators said, most of this
es outside the county, but only 35 long school closing, less than 40 instruction was confined to basics
of them on a full-time basis, per cent of the children attended such as reading and writing. They
Tsummer crash programs," thesaid the parents felt "too inade-
The two men are now studying two MSU' men reported. qae ohnl h oefra
whether the youngsters can re-U n quate" to handle the more formal
cover; Green expresses hope that Only six per cent attended all aspects of the school's role.
they can. three programs, they said. Students with at least some

schooling set higher educational
and occupational goals, Green
and Hoffman reported.
They said during the closed
schools period, communication be-
tween Negroes and whites decreas-
ed sharply.
Each race, they said, "tended to,
become psychologically deaf and
blind to the, actual feelings, opin-
ions, needs and desires of the

other' group."

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Brezhnev, born in December,
1906, of Russian parents in the
Ukrainian town of Kamenskoye,
was successively a steelworker,
metalurgist and agricultural spe-
cialist.
A member of the Communist
Party since 1931, he hitched his
wagon to Khrushchev's star in
1938 in the Ukraine and stuck with
him.
After World War II he was chief
political commissar of the army-
the big brother who kept an eye
on the reliability of officers-and
then boss of Khrushchev's virgin
land development project in Kaz-
akhstan.
In 1956, Brezhnev was appointed
a secretary of the Communist
Party based on Moscow. This es-
pecially pleased his chic wife and
daughter, Galina, who is noted for
her taste in high-styled western
clothes..
In 1960 he became president
of the Soviet Union. He relinquish-
ed that figurehead post last July
15 for full-time work as a secre-
tary of the Communist Party's
Central Committee. The change
was a definite indication that he
had been picked to succeed Khru-
shchev some day.
Last Stalinite
Kosygin was Stalin's last addi-
tion to the old politburo and was'
pretty much in the shade during
the first years of Khrushchev's
rule. The new leadership soon
learned to value his talent as a
businessman with a flair for or-E
ganization, however, and he moved
into the front ranks.
Born Feb. 20, 1904, in St. Peters-
burg (now Leningrad), he joined
the Communist Party in 1927 and
was a chief party official in Len-
ingrad textile plants. In 1959 he
presented a new plan for the tex-
tile industry and was made com-
missar of it almost immediately.
His subsequent rise has been
steady but not spectacular.

never liked the Kremlin spot once
she got it. She thought her hus-
band worked too hard.
Her aim changed from rifle tar-
gets to top spots for her children
and grandchildren. She pushed

Pc uew al oi guara wt~ par-
ties, picnics and pithy peasant
sayings.
If for nothing else, Khrushchev
will go down in history as the man
who stripped at least the surface
mystery from the Kremlin.

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TILLICH-OCT. 21:
4:10 P.M.
RACKHAM LECTURE
HALL
"Grounds for Moral Choice
in a Pluralistic Society"
8:00 P.M.
MICHIGAN UNION
BALLROOM
"Contemporary Man in
Search of Identity"
(Open Forum with students:
James Helm, Marion Fin-
ley, Barbara Nadal, and
Suzanne Naiburg; N. Pat-
rick Murray, Ph.D., modera-
tor.)

COMING WEDNESDAY
E OCTOBER 21
PA.UL TILLICH
Professor of Theology,
formerly of Harvard University,
now at The University of Chicago
"PERHAPS THE GREATEST MIND
OF THE 20TH CENTURY"
Tillich on the meaning of "God"
The name of this infinite and inexhaustible ground of
history is God. That is what the word means, and it is
that to which the words "Kingdom of God" and
"Divine Providence" point. And if these words do not
have much meaning for you, translate them, and speak
of the depth of history, of the ground and aim of our
social life and of what you take seriously without
reservation in your moral and political activities. Per-
haps you should call this depth "hope," simply hope,
for if you find hope in the ground of history, you are
united with the great prophets who were able to look
into the depth of their times, who tried to escape it,
because they could not stand the horror of their visions,
and who yet had the strength to look to an even
deeper level and there to discover hope.-
-Shaking of the Foundations
COMING OCT. 27-29:
PAUL VAN BUREN
Theologian, Temple University
van Buren on the
"Problen of 'God' "
The theological "left" has urged us to think through
Christian faith in the light of the critique of modern
thought . . . we would take this demand seriously. It
will not do simply to translate the different word "God"
into some highly or subtly qualified phrase such as "our
ultimate concern, or worse, "transcendent reality," or
even, "the ground and end of all things." These
expressions are masquerading as empirical name tags,
and they are used as though they referred to something
. . they put us in the worse situation of speakina a

! The
Michigan
Memorial-
Phoenix
Project
announces
The Fourth
Annual
Dewey F.
Fagerburg
Lecture
-DR. HANS,
BETHE
--physicist
-recipient of the
AEC's Enrico
Fermi Award
-U.S. delegate to
the Geneva
negotiations on
a nuclear test
ban
will speak
on
DISARMA-
MENT
and
STRATEGIC.
STABILITY

Wednesday
October 21
8 P.M.
Rackham.
Lecture Hal

t

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VAN BUREN-OCT.27-29:
"The Challenge of
Contemporary to
Traditional Theology"
3 lectures: "Honesty"
"Clarity," and "Secularity"
Watch for ruture. deins

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